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Gallaudet College 

Kendall Green 
Washington, D. C. 








JUNE 26TH, 27TH AND 28TH, 1889. 

Printed at the Office of " The Deaf-Mutes' Journal." 





Wednesday, June 26. — Morning Session. 

The members of the third convention of the National 
Association of the Deaf assembled in the chapel of the National 
Deaf-Mute College, at Kendall Green, near Washington, D. C, 
at ten o'clock a.m., with the President, Mr. E. A. Hodgson, of 
New York, in the chair, and the Secretary, Mr. Thomas F. Fox, 
of New York, recording. 

The meeting haying been called to order, prayer was offered 
by Rev. A. W. Mann, of Ohio, which was followed by the read- 
ing of the official call, as follows : 


On the 25th of August, 1880, in Cinncinati, O., a large 
number of prominent deaf-mutes, from different States of the 
United States of America, assembled together and effected a 
national organization to be known as " The National Association 
of Deaf -Mutes," and on the three following days held the First 
National Convention of Deaf -Mutes, during the sessions of 
which it was agreed to meet in convention every third year 

In August, 1883, the second convention under the auspices of 
the National Association was held in the City of New York, 
and, before adjournment, it was decided to meet in Washing- 
ton, D. C, to hold the Third National Convention, in August, 
1888, the day of the month to be decided, by the Executive 
Committee of the Association. 

The purpose and intent of this postponement of the third con- 
vention beyond the time originally decided upon, was to enable 
the' Association, through its Executive Committee, to provide a 
memorial, to be erected in honor of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, 
the founder of American Institutions for instructing the deaf 
and dumb, so that the memorial could be unveiled at the Thicd 


The inability of the sculptor to finish the memorial statue in 
1888, made it necessary to again postpone the date of the con- 
vention. In accordance with the expressed wishes of prominent 
members of the National Association, I assumed the responsi- 
bility which the circumstances demanded and appointed the 
month of June of the present year, and instructed the Executive 
Committee, through its chairman, to take the necessary steps to 
select a date for the assembling of the members of the Associa- 
tion. The reply I deem it proper to insert in this official an- 
nouncement. It is as follows : 

161 East 75th St., N. Y., Feb. 4, 1889. 
Mb. E. A. Hodgson, President National Association of Deaf -Mutes: 

Dear Sib : — Pursuant to your official announcement of June 14th last, 
that the Third Convention of the National Association of Deaf-Mutes will 
assemble in the City of Washington in June, 1889, the days and place of 
meeting to be decided by the Executive Committee. Upon consultation 
with the Executive Committee and the authorities of the National Col- 
lege of Deaf-Mutes, through President E. M. Gallaudet, we have decided 
to avail ourselves of the permission, so cordially given, to have the con- 
vention meet in the chapel of the National Deaf-Mute College, Washing- 
ton, D.C., June 26th, 27th and 28th, 1889. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Theo. A. Froelich, Chairman Executive Committee, 

Nationa.1 Association of Deaf-Mutes. 

The ceremonies attendant upon the unveiling of the statue re- 
quire much preparation, and in order that the solemnity and 
importance of the occasion shall not be marred by lack of official 
action, I have the honor to make public declaration that the 
Orator chosen is Mr. Robert P. McGregor, of Ohio, and the 
Alternate Orator, Mr. George W. Veditz, of Colorado. 

All deaf-mutes are cordially invited to be present at the un- 
veiling of the Gallaudet Centennial Memorial, and to become 
affiliated with the National Association and participate in the 
proceedings of the convention. It is requested that papers upon 
topics relating to the welfare of deaf-mutes, or that will tend to 
instruct the public concerning deaf-mutes, will be prepared and 
presented. Those who intend to prepare papers, will add to the 
interest of the convention by notifying the President, and if 
possible giving the titles of the papers, so that they can be in- 
cluded in the programme which it is desired to publish. 

Finally, in pursuance of the duty incumbent upon me as Presi- 
dent of the National Association of Deaf-Mutes, I hereby an- 
nounce that the Third National Convention of Deaf-Mutes will 
meet at the National Deaf-Mute College, in the City of Wash- 
ington, D. C, at nine o'clock on the morning of Wednesday, 
June 26th, 1889, and will continue its sessions until a final 
adjournment has been reached, which will probably be during 
Friday, June 29th. 

E. A. Hodgson, President of the National Association 

of Deaf-Mutes. 

New York, Feb. 19, 1889. 


Upon motion, the chair appointed Messrs. W. G. Jones, 'N. Y., 
A. H. Schory, O., and S. G. Davidson, Penn., a Committee on 
enrollment, a recess of ten minutes being taken to facilitate this 

At the close of the recess, the Committee reported 114 dele- 
gates entitled to vote, with more to be heard from. The Presi- 
dent then delivered his address, which was read orally by Dr. 
E. A. Fay of Washington, D. C. 


We are assembled to-day in a convention that will go down 
to posterity as the most memorable, if not the most important 
in the annals of the deaf. Conventions in general deal with the 
affairs of the living, but a prominent part of the proceedings 
of our present gathering will be to do honor to the dead. To- 
day it will be our privilege to listen to eulogies on the one who 
by his life work has made conventions of deaf-mutes possible, and 
to whom, above all others, deaf-mutes owe that education which 
enables them to perform their part in the great world of 
thought and action. 

Aside from the solemn ceremonials attendant upon the un- 
veiling of the Gallaudet Statue, there are other matters that will 
claim the attention of the convention. 

Probably the most important of these is the question of ac- 
curate statistics concerning the deaf. So much has been pub- 
lished upon the heredity of deafness, that it rests with us to lend 
our aid in the collection of verified facts and figures about deaf- 
mutes. Incidentally, this information may be used to either 
disprove or verify what, to most of us, seems an asburd theory 
on the danger of deaf-mute intermarriages. We must settle 
forever the sensational alarm concerning "the formation of a 
deaf variety of the human race, " not with assertions only, but 
by an array of evidence that will cause Prof. Bell to haul down 
the danger-signal he has hoisted, aud free us from the incubus 
of what is becoming a widespread public prejudice. These 
statistics could be so collated as to reveal the relative effect of 
different methods of instruction upon the social condition of 
the deaf in their intercourse with those who can hear. 

The influence of the manual and industrial training received 
while at school should also be ascertained, and the range of 
trades and vocations tabulated, with the difficulties encounter- 
ed and successes attained in pursuing them. There is no ques- 
tion of more vital importance to the mass of deaf-mutes than 
that of proper industrial training. This does not imply that 
the deaf should be taught with the ultimate aim of becoming 
successful mechanics only. It merely recognizes the well- 


known fact that by far the greater number of deaf-mutes at 
present do, and in the future will, rely upon manual labor — 
skilled or otherwise — for obtaining a livelihood; and even the 
few whose tastes and talents incline and enable them to engage 
in professions or callings that demand the exercise of superior 
mental ability, will find that manual dexterity will not retard 

The proposition that an effort be made to have the manual 
alphabet taught in the public schools, which has lately been 
given prominence, deserves the serious attention of the conven- 
tion. To say that such a course would be beneficial to deaf- 
mutes in every State where it is adopted, is not saying enough 
in its favor. That it would be helpful to the hearing, the deaf- 
mute who puzzles his head over the phonetic spelling that every 
day meets his gaze will fully avouch. 

Four years ago, at its convention in Albany, N. Y., the 
Empire State Association of Deaf -Mutes passed' resolutions re- 
lative to the obstacles in the way of deaf-mutes desirous of be- 
ing examined for positions under the Civil Service. Certain 
clauses are so worded as to exclude the deaf from the com- 
petitive examinations. As there are very many posts which 
they could fill as acceptably and as efficiently as those in pos- 
session of all of the five senses, the clauses that debar them 
constitute an infringement upon their liberties as citizens that 
demands our united protest. 

Looking backward upon the conventions of the National 
Association, we have every, reason to congratulate the deaf of 
the country upon the progress made and the increasing import- 
ance of each succeeding convention. But there is still room for 
improvement, and as a measure of vital value, I would suggest 
a more perfectly and truly national organization. It is true 
there are present to-day representatives from all sections of the 
country. Deaf-mutes who live nearest to the place of meeting, 
naturally are most numerous, and therefore have the balance of 
voting power. This should not be. The votes of members 
from a single State might possibly control the sentiments and 
opinions of the convention, and instead of the national character 
they are supposed to possess, would in reality be only the ex- 
pressions of a section of the country, and would go before the 
public clothed with a false importance. I would suggest, 1st, 
that each State representative be accorded one vote ; 2d, that 
each delegate from a society or association of deaf-mutes, on 
presentation of credentials, be accorded the right to vote ; and, 
3d, that each State be allowed one additional vote for every ten 
persons present from such State. The right to debate is, of 
course, conceded to every member. My object in suggesting 
the foregoing method, is simply to give those who come from a 
great distance a fair chance, and to remove the handicap of 


numerical strength that might render their efforts nil. It 
would also prevent designing individuals from *' packing " the 
convention in order to forward their personal schemes. 

Several of those present at this meeting are about to attend 
the International Congress of Deaf -Mutes, which takes place in 
Paris on July 10th and continues for eight days. It would be a 
graceful act on the part of the National Association to select 
and instruct one or more of these to represent us at the Congress. 
Certainly, the Association which assumes to represent the deaf 
of the United States, should have an important place in the 
world's congress of deaf-mutes. No other country on the globe 
has made such great progress in the line of deaf-mute educa- 
tion, and in no country is the general prosperity of deaf-mutes 
more universal than in the United States of America. 

I need not tell you that the eyes of the public are upon the 
doings of this convention. What we do that is wise and good, 
will be applauded ; what we may do that seems unusual or mis- 
directed, will be keenly noted and set down as a peculiarity. 
Loss of hearing is a great drawback in the battle of life ; the 
want of a proper understanding of our true condition by the 
great mass of the public, begets a prejudice that handicaps us 
still more. But let us keep on in the path of progress, undis- 
mayed by obstacles and undeterred by prejudice, keeping pace 
with our hearing brethren and helping swell the never-ceasing 
flow of the tide of human endeavor. Let us impress the 
world that we are men with willing hands and alert eyes and 
educated minds. In the eloquent words of "Helen G. 
Hawthorne," a deaf young lady of Massachusetts : 

" Granted the odds are against us, Granted we enter the field 
When the Fate has fought and conquered, broken our sword and shield ; 
What then ! Shall we ask for quarter and say that our work is done ? 
Say rather the greater glory is ours if the field be won." 

Mr John Carlin, of New York, was accorded the floor and 
began an address which, becoming protracted, Mr. H. White, 
Utah, raised the point that the speaker was out of order, and 
this objection was sustained by the chair. 

Reports of officers being in order, Mr. T. F. Fox, read his 


Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: — My work as 
Recording Secretary of the National Association of Deaf -Mutes, 
in the interval embracing the Second Convention in New York 
City, in August, 1883, and the present time, has been confined 
principally to the compilation of the Proceedings of the Second 
Convention of the Association. The printed proceedings were 
completed and turned over to the Corresponding Secretary in 


the Fall of 1883, and by him distributed to the members of the 

At the last meeting, I received from the Treasurer of the 
Association, Mr. D. W. George, the sum of two dollars to be ex- 
pended for Record books. Of this amount, fifty cents was paid for 
a record book, and the balance, in addition to sixty cents ad- 
vanced by myself, was used in defraying the expenses of corre- 
spondence with speakers at the convention, and in forwarding 
proof-sheets of their remarks for correction. 

In December, 1886, I received from the late Mr. W. A. Bond, 
a member of the Association from Brooklyn, N. Y., a motion to 
change the time for the meeting of the third convention from 
the last week in August, 1887, to June, 1888. The motion being 
seconded by Mr. Thomas Godfrey, also of Brooklyn, was pre- 
sented by me to the President. By his orders printed circulars, 
explaining the motion and enclosing ballots, were sent to mem- 
bers, who, by a majority vote agreed to the proposed change. 

Li February, 1888, a second motion was received from Mr. 
Bond, proposing a change in the place of meeting from Wash- 
ington, D. C, to Hartford, Conn., the date, June, 1888, being 
retained. As the Gallaudet Memorial could not possibly be 
completed before June, 1889, and as the previous motion had 
not been reconsidered, and morever, as the condition of the 
funds of the Association would not admit of any further ex- 
penditures of this character, the President decided that it 
would be impossible to obtain an individual vote of the mem- 
bers on the second motion. Mr. Bond subsequently issued bal- 
lots at his own expense and the motion failed. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Thomas F. Fox, 

Recording Secretary. 

Washington, D. C, June 26, 1889. 

Mr. H. White followed with the 


Me. Peesident, Ladies and Gentlemen: — As Corresponding 
Secretary, I did not have much to do, and have only to report 
that after the National Convention in New York City, I 
received about one hundred and fifty copies of the Proceedings 
of the Convention for general distribution. Of these, about 
seventy-five copies were in a damaged condition owing to the 
package having got torn open on the way, and I reported 
the fact to President Hodgson. There was not so great a 
demand for copies as I expected, because the proceedings 
bad been printed in full in the Deaf-Mute^ Journal, and none 
wanted a copy of the pamphlet except for reference. I sent a 
copy to all members who enclosed a stamp for it, but sold only 


six or seven copies to non-members upon receipt of the selling 
price, fifteen cents. After coming to Utah, I sent the rest of 
the p amphlets and the money received from their sale to 
D. W. George, the treasurer. This is all I have to report. 

Respectfully submitted. 

H. C. White, Cor. Serfy. 





Aug. 30. Received from members of 2d convention. . 


Jan. 14. Received from R. B. Lawrence, retiring 


Dec. 21. Received from Henry White from sale of 



Sept. 28. Received membership fee from A. G. 



June 27. Received from members of 3d convention. . . 
" " Refunded by W. H. Weeks 

$159 00 

16 00 

1 00 

126 00 

$303 15 



May 24. 

Dec. 21. 

June 29. 

June 27. 

Paid for 3 days' rent of Lyric Hall 

Paid W. A. Bond for services on Local Com- 

Paid John Wilkinson for services on Local 

Paid E. A. Hodgson for advertising in 
Journal '. 

Paid W. A. Bond for advertising in Leader, 

Paid Jacques Loew for silk badges 

Paid E. A. Hodgson f orprinting badges. . . 

Paid W. H. Weeks for Treasurer's book. . . 

Paid D. W. George for Treasurer's book. . 

Paid T. F. Fox for Secretary's books 

Paid New York Institution for printing 400 
pamphlets ' 

Paid for expressing pamphlets from Salt 
Lake City.. 

Paid T. F. Fox for printing and postal ex- 

Paid E. A. Hodgson for advertising in 


Balance On hand .. 

$75 00 

10 00 


10 00 
4 25 
1 00 
3 00 
3 00 

50 00 
1 00 


15 00 
113 90 

$303 15 


















All these reports were adopted and ordered to be placed on 

Mr. S. G. Davidson, Pennsylvania, moved that the President 
appoint an interpreter for the benefit of hearing visitors ; 
seconded. Prof. J. C. Gordon, Washington, suggested the 
selection of Rev. Dr. Gallaudet, New York, for the position, 
and the hint was followed by Mr. White's amendment to Mr. 
Davidson's motion that Rev. Dr. Gallaudet be selected. Mr. 
Davidson accepted the amendment, which was passed unanim- 
ously, and Dr. Gallaudet was conducted to the platform amid 
applause. Communications were read by the Secretary as 
follows : 

Fbom Douglas Tilden. 

Paris, France, June 5, 1889. 
E. A. Hodgson, President National Deaf -Mute Convention : 

Sir :— Some three years ago, the Gallaudet Committee instituted a com- 
petition for the building of the Gallaudet Memorial Monument. A notice 
was inserted in the New York Deaf-Mutes' Journal inviting artists to for- 
ward designs to that end. Among them was myself. I then had a design 
which I would like to have had submitted. But I could not, and it would 
have been useless for me to have had forwarded it, for : — 

First Reason: The time (two weeks) allowed the competitors for the 
completion and forwarding of the designs, was not only in itself ridiculous- 
ly short, but also unjust to those living at a distance from Washington, D. 
C. When I first read the Journal, six days had already elapsed, during 
which the mail had been on the way across the continent, two days there- 
fore remained in which to finish the modelling, get the grouping in plaster, 
complete the pedestal, box them and forward them to the Committee, and 
six days more to get them to Washington. As a matter of course, I did not 
send the design, though I would have done so under proper circumstances. 

Second Reason: When the Committee met, it ignored the competition 
it had sanctioned and called for. With it, the Journal notice was simply 
a blind. No competition was meant to have been instituted. The Com- 
mittee refused to consider the merits of such other designs than French's 
as might have been submitted, of which there were several by deaf artists, 
who had taken the whole thing in good faith. The whole sittings were con- 
sumed in considering whether deaf artists should take part in the compe- 
tition, during which time their designs' were excluded from the room, a 
proceeding at once dishonest, dishonorable and illegal. 

For which reasons I respectfully ask the Convention to reimburse me for 
my work, loss of time and expense, to the extent of one hundred dollars, 
which like sum was paid to Albert Ballin, of New York. 

1 do not ask justice at your hands, because I am, or was, hostile to the 
selection of the sculptor who has since completed the monument. That is 
not, and has never been, true ; but that is not the question. I objected, and 
still object, to have received at the hands of the committee such treatment 


as is an insult to the intelligence of the deaf of America, and to that " sen- 
timent of patriotism as well as friendship and admiration" they bear to- 
wards each other. Yours truly, 

Douglas Tilden. 

From D. S. Rogers. 

OlATHE, KAK., June 23, '89. 
President National Deaf -Mute Convention: 

DeaRSir:— I regret very much my inability to be present at the con- 
vention and the unveiling of the Gallaudet statue. Though far from you 
in body, I am with you in spirit. 

Wishing the convention success and the participants an enjoyable time, 
I am, Very truly yours, 

D. S. Rogers, 

Ex. Com. 0. C. M. F. 
P. S.— I wish to express, through you, our gratitude to Dr. E. M. Gal- 
laudet for his kind invitation to be the guests of the College while attend- 
ing the convention. 

D. S. R. 

From P. S. Englehardt. 

Milwaukee, June 24, '89. 
Mr. Thomas Fox, Secretary of the National Deaf -Mute Association : 

Dear Sir :— I regret my inability of being present at the Convention, 
for work is rushing and the foreman refused to give me a week's furlong. 
It is a great disappointment to me. I hope the convention will be a great 
success, and I wish those who are present to have a grand and enjoyable 
time. Yours respectfully, 

P. S. Englehardt. 

From Washington Houston. 

Philadelphia, June 19, 1889. 
Mr. Thomas F. Fox, 

Recording Secretary N. D. M. A.: 
Dear Sir :— Though I am one of the vice-presidents of the Association, 
yet I regret my inability to be present at the coming convention in Wash- 
ington, D. C, on account of being compelled to be at work, which is too 
pressing for me to be off at that time. Please enclosed you will find one 
dollar, for which I will continue my membership in the association. 

I would suggest that the next convention should be held in this city 
(Phila.), because Rev. Dr. Thomas H. Gallaudet, the founder of the 
American education of the deaf, was born in this city. 

Please inform me the result of the above suggestion, before you go over 
the sea. 
I extend my best wishes for the success of the coming convention. 

Yours very respectfully, 

Washington Houston. 


From Thomas L. Brown. 

Flint, Mich., June 24, 1889. 
E. A. Hodgson, Esq., 

President National Deaf-Mute Association: 
Dear Sir :— I should be happy to be with you all at the third National 
Convention, but such a pleasure is not mine. Though not in person, I 
shall be present in spirit. 

You have my best wishes for the success of said convention, and also for 
a pleasant voyage and a safe return to you personally, and all that go to 
Paris as delegates from our beloved country. 

Very truly yours, 

Thomas L. Brown. 

Mr. A. B. Greener moved that the President wire to ex-Presi- 
dent Hayes the condolence and sympathy of the association in his 
hour of sore affliction caused by the death of his beloved wife. 
The motion was seconded and adopted, and the following 
telegram was dispatched : 

Hon. R. B. Hates, Fremont, O., 

The National Association of Deaf -Mutes, in convention as- 
sembled at Washington, D. C, tenders its sincerest sympathy in your 
irreparable loss. 

E. A. Hodgson, President. 

The following response was received : 

Edwin A. Hodgson, Esq., President: 

My Dear Sir :— Mrs. Hayes had a warm and peculiar interest in the 
deaf-mutes at Columbus and Washington. Your kind expressions in be- 
half of the National Association are very welcome. All thanks. 



Rev. J. M. Koehler, Penn., moved for a committee of three 
on Resolutions. The motion was seconded by Mr. R. P. Mc- 
Gregor, O., and adopted, and the following gentlemen were 
appointed by the President : Messrs. R. P. McGregor, O., 
Chairman, Henry C. White, Utah, George T. Dougherty, 

The Executive Committee were called upon for their report 
on Constitution and By-Laws, but asked to be allowed further 
time for consultation, which was granted. 

The President announced the reading of papers in order, and 
introduced Mr. Thomas F. Fox, N. Y., who presented a paper 
on " The Federation of the Deaf," which was read orally by 
Dr. Fay. 




A retrospective glance over the field of events in the history 
of the deaf during the past decade, will convince the most skep- 
tical that there has been an advance forward, both as regards 
their education and their social status — an advance decidedly for 
the better. And if we will take the trouble to enquire by what 
means this advance has been made, while allowing due credit to 
the efforts of our college, our schools, and their thousands of 
devoted instructors, we shall still discover that no little part of 
this progress has resulted from the agitation, by the deaf them- 
selves, of several important questions closely affecting them. It 
is evident that on such subjects as "statistics," "intermarriage," 
" clannishness," and " system" or "method," the deaf are fully 
aware of their importance as controlling elements in their lives 
and happiness, and they feel that it is about time that they put 
a curb to the practice of a few interested parties, who promul- 
gate false views of those subjects under the cloak of scientific 

This work of agitation has, heretofore, been almost wholly 
pushed forward by a few independent individuals, and without 
that systematic union which alone can accomplish the greatest 
good. "Union gives strength and firmness to the humblest 
aid." Everything is conquered by its all prevading influence, 
and where any great purpose is to be attained, concerted action 
by all interested is productive of more lasting results than un- 
aided individual efforts. 

This naturally suggests the wisdom of united action on the 
part of associations of the deaf throughout the country, with a 
view to a more effectual education of the public respecting the 
deaf, their original condition, their schools, their abilities after 
education, and some of the impositions they are obliged to suf- 
fer. We do not come here to complain, nor to. seek pity, but to 
put our case in a logical form, so that all fair-minded men can 
view it, and make their own deductions. 

" Nothing is here for tears, nothing to wail 
Or knock the breast, no weakness, no contempt, 
Dispraise or blame, nothing but well and fair." 

It is an undeniable fact that that great part of the public, to 
whom the term deaf-mute is synonymous with charity and 
asylum, cannot be too soon enlightened on the subject ; and it 
remains for us to accomplish this purpose. The sooner the task 
is accomplished, the better it will be for our schools, our teach- 
ers, and ourselves. 

A very little reflection will show us where unity of effort will 
aid us. We all agree that it is poor policy for us to seek the 
society of each other to the exclusion of all communication 


with those who hear. This is not the object of our education, 
hut rather the contrary, for we find no difficulty whatever in the 
way of social intercourse among ourselves. What we desire 
and continually strive for, is an opportunity for freely enjoying 
the society of our hearing acquaintances. We are aware of the 
advantages to be derived from a full and free intercourse with 
cultivated people with all their senses, but just here we are re- 
minded that, however beautiful and plausible may be the argu- 
ments of our hearing friends, who discuss the subject from their 
standpoint, fortified with the conditional " if," we who are deaf 
and have learned from that hard master " experience," know 
how futile our efforts must often prove in our endeavors to enjoy 
forced intercourse with the hearing. However, this is not the 
point I desire to arrive at, but rather, what is equally as im- 
portant, to consider that we are debarred from the practical 
benefits of many organizations which the hearing community 
enjoys. Prejudices, based in a great measure on the ill-founded 
representation of our inferior physical and mental power, have 
produced this result. The Masonic Order excludes the deaf for- 
ever and beyond appeal, and we find ourselves, in many in- 
stances, refused the beneficial aid of life insurance, purely on 
account of absurd impressions regarding deafness. Again, 
even in our glorious country, which regards all its citizens as 
equal before the law, we are discriminated against in the Civil 
Service, not from inferior mental powers, hut because we can- 
not hear or, in some instances, cannot carry on conversation by 

Now it is but common sense to suppose that did people fully 
understand that deafness, while in some respects an impediment, 
does not necessarily prevent an educated man from performing 
most of the duties of life, this restriction would not prevail. 
Well, what are we going to do about it ? Clearly we are left 
the only alternative of benefiting and protecting ourselves 
through the agency of our own associations, and it is to this 
united action we must trust, at least till some other channel 
presents itself. 

With the present advanced state of education among the 
deaf, what is to hinder us from remodelling this organization 
after the form of the Order of Elect Surds, which flourished so 
prosperously several years ago ? In its time it extended all over 
the country and performed, quietly and imperceptibly, untold 
good. Its beneficial influence was not limited to its members, 
and, as its field enlarged, its capacity for usefulness developed 
beyond all expectation. If such re-organization is not possible, 
there could still be formed some bond of union among the 
associations of the deaf in the United States, if not in the world. 
The objects of all are similar in a greater or less degree. As 
they all strive for the best interests of the deaf, would they not 


profit by making this National Association a body wherein dele- 
gates from every State association could meet the foremost deaf- 
mutes of all sections, and, in the language of the day, pool their 
issues on a common basis of work and interest. Some such 
re-organization is absolutely necessary, for the association as at 
present constituted has no reliable standing. By the terms of 
membership the deaf-mutes in whatever city the convention 
may happen to assemble, have, by their numerical strength, a 
preponderating influence on all the questions considered. They 
control all decisions, and consequently often fail to voice the 
sentiments of the entire community. What is demanded is an 
apportionment of membership among the different states, so 
that each section shall be entitled to a representation in propor- 
tion to its importance, or to the number of deaf-mutes within its 
borders. What might be better still, would be to allow a 
certain number of votes to each society or association, which 
could, when necessary, be cast by proxy. In this way the 
stability of the association, as a whole, would be maintained and 
its influence be much more far reaching than it is at present. 
Its declarations would then have some weight, and not be mere 
empty words and phrases. Now is the time, and here, in the 
Capital of our country, in the hall of the college which is our 
hope and pride, is the place, to put this new order of affairs into 
practical operation. 

But what can such an association do, you ask. Many things. 
Besides a determined attempt to remedy the evils already 
referred to, there is plenty of work for us to accomplish. There 
is but one home for aged and infirm deaf-mutes in the whole 
forty-two States of the Union; statistics on the intermarriage of 
the deaf, and their results, are so mixed that the subject has 
become one of controversy; our schools and their work, and 
our mental and social status are so misunderstood by the general 
public as to fill us alternately with amusement and contempt. 
Almost every one of our schools comes under the supervision of 
a State Board of Charities, though what relation charity can 
rightfully hold to a right guaranteed to every child — a free 
education — is beyond our comphrension. It will be seen that 
public opinion, that mighty power, still requires careful culture 
on many questions relating to the deaf. How is this to be 
accomplished ? by our deaf-mute papers ? by our school re- 
ports? These are very good agents in their way, but they do 
not receive the attention they deserve. What is particularly, 
required is a literary or information bureau attached to our 
association and controlled by a wide-awake director, which will 
collect statistics and information, aid such channels of dis- 
semination as the Annals, and supply the press and legislatures, 
as occasions demand. Properly directed, such a bureau would 
do much to prevent the careless legislation, which is the bane of 


so many of our schools. These are frequently placed at the 
mercy of political schemers, and when attacked, their good 
management and real merit does not always shield them from 
harm. It is at such times that their alumni, organized into as- 
sociations, should endeavor to render assistance. Take, for ex- 
ample, the work of the Empire State Association of Deaf- 
Mutes during the last session of the New York Legislature. 
At the convention of the association held in August, 1888, a 
resolution was adopted, favoring the restoration of the per 
capita allowance for pupils in the New York schools to its 
original rate. The association did not stop at mere resolving, 
hut took steps to have the resolution considered. In the name 
of the five thousand deaf-mutes in the State, it argued the 
justice of the request, and the prospects are that the next 
session will find the original rate restored. What is being 
done by one association can be done by others, and an answer 
be returned to the mooted question : Of what benefit are deaf- 
mute associations ? 

I am perfectly aware that in presenting these suggestions for 
a closer union of associations of the deaf, I run counter to the 
old saw, which holds these very associations responsible as 
being the principal means of fostering exclusiveness among the 
deaf. I do not believe this is so. Personally, I go into and 
enjoy the society of a large circle of hearing friends, but this 
does not lessen my enjoyment of the society of my deaf friends, 
nor prevent me from showing an interest in their welfare and 
striving to advocate those interests with all the means at my 
disposal. What is more, I believe that every educated deaf- 
mute should aid those who are not so fortunate in mental at- 
tainments. Opposed to the arguments against associations of 
the deaf, a stronger one can be adduced in their favor — to wit, 
but for the publicity given to many questions at our conven- 
tions, the deaf would still continue to be misrepresented on 
several points to a greater degree than at present. 

And at this very moment we stand in need of the urgent 
action of this association in connection with the enumeration of 
the^next census. If we do not wish to be classed, as formerly, 
with the insane, idiotic and criminals, we should take a strong 
stand in requesting the Superintendent of the Census to place 
the deaf in a separate class. And in furtherance of this 
purpose, I respectfully present the" following resolution for your 
action : 

Resolved, That the President of the National Association of 
Deaf-Mutes, in convention assembled, appoint a committee 
of three members to consider a method of enumeration of the 
deaf in the Eleventh Census, and that the same be reported at 
their earliest convenience, and that the views of the association, 


when adopted, be presented to the Hon. Robert Porter, Super- 
intendent of the Census, for his action thereon. 

The resolution, which closed the paper, was seconded by Mr. 
A. B. Greener, O., and was passed by a rising vote. Subse- 
quently, the President appointed, as Committee on Census, 
Messrs. Thomas F. Fox, N. Y., Chairman, Melville Ballard, 
Washington, D. C, Dudley W. George, 111. 

As it was now near the lunch hour, it was agreed to postpone 
discussion of Mr. Fox's paper till the next day. 

Mr. P. J. Hasenstab, 111., presented a motion for a committee 
of three on Order of Business, which was seconded by Mr. 
Greener, O., and passed, the following gentlemen being ap- 
pointed on the committee : — Messrs. P. J. Hasenstab, 111., 
Chairman, James C. Balis, Penn., George W. Veditz, Col. 

Mr. Dougherty, Mo., offered a motion that the chair appoint 
a committee of five on nominations, which was seconded and 

A recess was taken till three o'clock p.m. 

Afternoon Session. 
The programme attending the Presentation and Unveiling of 
the Gallaudet Memorial Statue occupied the afternoon session, 
and was as follows : 


(In, the Hall, at 3 o'clock P.M.) 
Overture—" Night Songs of Ossian," ... Oade. 

INVOCATION, by Rev. Job Turner, of Virginia ; 

[In signs, by the author ; read orally by Rev. Thomas Gallaudet.] 


[In signs, by the Chairman of the Committee, Theodore A. Froeh- 
lich, of New York ; read by Edward M. Gallaudet.] 

Mb. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : — It is now nearly 
six years since you appointed a committee of which I have the 
honor to be Chairman, and to which you entrusted the duty of 
erecting a statue on the grounds of the National Deaf-Mute 
College, to commemorate the Centennial of the birth of Thomas 


Hopkins Gallaudet, the first friend, teacher and benefactor, of 
the deaf of America. 

Your Committee has finished its labors, and believe that the 
wisdom of its choice of Mr. D. C. French, as the artist, is fully 
justified by the excellence of his work. 

The memorial was erected with means furnished by voluntary 
contributions by the deaf and their friends of every State, 
Territory and District of the United States. 

The Treasurer reports that the condition of the fund up to the 
22d inst., was as follows : 

Total receipts from all source $12,344 75 

Total disbursements to date named 5,531 28 

Balance on hand 6,813 47 

Most of the expenses are yet to be paid. As soon as possible 
after they have been settled, an itemized report of receipts and 
disbursements will be published. From present appearances a 
balance will be left after all expenses shall have been met. 

Our duty done, we tender you this fitting memorial to a man 
whose labor was so beneficent, whose character so fine and true 
and unselfish, and we hope it will be as acceptable to you as it 
is satisfactory to the Committee. 

THE POWER OF LOVE— from " The Redemption,"— Gounod. 

REMARKS by Edmund Booth, of Iowa, a pupil (1828) of Thomas 
Hopkins Gallaudet ; 
[In signs by John B. Hotchkiss ; read by the son of the author, 
Frank W. Booth.] 

The hundredth anniversary of the birth of Thomas H. 
Gallaudet is a very proper occasion to recall and put in durable 
form the man and his life labors. I entered school at Hart- 
ford two years before he retired, and knew and met him 
frequently for years afterwards. 

When the occasion or emergency arises, the man to lead or 
conduct appears. This has often been noticed in the course of 
the world's progress. Schools for the Deaf had been establish- 
ed in Europe, but none in America. The child, Alice Cogs- 
well, had been seen by hundreds, and no one could devise a 
way whereby she might be relieved. Many thousands of 
others under similar infliction were scattered over the country, 
and no one offered aid in the way of opening their understand- 
ings. Like the Priest and Levite, they went by on the other 
side, not from indifference, but in sheer despair of being able 
to do anything. 

As with the Abbe de l'Epee, and with Mr. Seixas, of Phila- 


delphia, so it was with Mr. Gallaudet. His meeting with Alice 
opened and brought to view the leading traits of the man. 
These traits were sympathy with the sorrowing and an abiding 
and active desire to do good. For the usual pursuits of his 
fellow men, wealth and mere selfishness, he seemed to have no 

fassion at all. Of course, he knew the duty of providing for 
amily, and was as economical as circumstances would allow. 
Beyond that he seemed to give no thought as regards worldly 

As a teacher he performed his full duty, having always a 
class under his daily care for fourteen years, and notwithstand- 
ing his frail physical strength, he was always at his post and 
always earnest. He taught the first or highest class in the 
school, Laurent Clerc the second, (retired in 1830,) and the mem- 
bers of that highest class are all dead, the last to pass away 
being William Willard, who died about a year ago. Mr Gal- 
laudet asked to be released from the labor of teaching and to 
be allowed to attend exclusively to the general superintendence 
alone, but certain teachers were opposed. It is hard for most 
men to leave their long-traveled ruts. Often they have to be 
wrenched out, or await the slow growth of a new generation. 
But for the opposition of teachers, his request would have been 
granted and he might have held his position to the end of life. 

His successor, Louis Weld, recalled from the Philadelphia 
school, was, by vote of the Board, allowed the boon desired by 
Mr. Gallaudet, and doubtless at the instance of the latter, for 
he well knew the many duties required of a head of the institu- 
tion, and the Directors, never visiting the school, knew next to 

A striking instance of Mr. Gallaudet's devotion to the good 
of others was shown when the Philadelphia school applied to 
him for a superintendent or principal, and, years later, the New 
York school made a similar application. On his recommenda- 
tion these two schools took the two best, ablest and most suc- 
cessful hearing teachers the Hartford school had produced in 
its first thirty years. The result justified the choice. 

In the years that followed, he devoted himself to other duties 
connected with Insane Hospitals, State and county prisons, and 
with preparing books for the young people. What he received 
for all these labors I never knew. As already stated, his pas- 
sion was not for money-making, but for benefitting mankind. 
He was of the type of Melancthon, Socrates, Howard, Florence 
Nightingale, Clara Barton, and Father Oberlin. The world 
needs storms often, hurricanes now and then, and perhaps tor- 
nadoes. Mahomet, the first Napoleon, Cromwell, were of that 
class in the moral and mental world. Mahomet destroyed idol- 
atry and substituted Allah il Allah. Napoleon and Cromwell 
shattered serfdom and the idea of the divine right of kings. 


Gallaudet and the others named above were the sunshine, the 
gentle rain and the dew, that brought forth and promoted 
growth of the intelligence and the better nature of man. He was of 
earnest nature, but he was not an ascetic. Genuine kindliness, 
an ever active intelligence and love of humor, were his leading 
traits. This last quality displayed itself even on his death-bed. 
Holding in his hands the certificate of an honorary degree just 
received from Oberlin College, he remarked that " it came just 
in time not to be too late." He was so like Father Oberlin that 
it was proper this honor should come from a college bearing the 

In short, of all the twenty-five or thirty teachers in the first 
thirty years of the Hartford school, T. H. Gallaudet most 
nearly approached the stamp of Jesus Christ. The Hartford 
school directly, and the college indirectly, are his best monu- 
ments. We may well cherish his memory. 

ORATION, by Robert P. McGregor, of Ohio; 

[In signs, by the author ; read by Charles N. Haskins.] 

With great pomp and ceremony, and amid general rejoicing, 
we recently celebrated the centenary of our nationality. We 
then congratulated ourselves upon our national progress during 
the last century, which is patent to the whole world. Our bo- 
soms swelled aDd our hearts beat high in contemplating the 
wonderful strides that our country has made in population, in 
material prosperity, in the arts and sciences, in literature and in 
education. To all these we can justly " point with pride," but 
to none of them more so than to that department of education 
relating especially to the deaf. For nowhere else in the world 
are there to-day such good schools for the deaf and so many of 
them ; nowhere else is such adequate provision made for every 
deaf person in the land ; nowhere else is education for them 
free as the air of heaven for all ; and nowhere else can you 
find the match of this noble, this grand institution of learning 
within whose walls we are assembled to-day. 

To whom, more than to any single man, are we indebted for 
all this ? I unhesitatingly reply, to Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, 
in commemoration of the centenary of whose birth, and in honor 
of whose character and services, we are here gathered from far 
and near. 

The history of the Greeks begins with the advent of Cadmus 
among them. Before that, Grecian history is a blank. He 
taught them the use of the alphabet, and then their history 
began, and what a glorious history it is ! With the appearance 
of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet upon the scene, the history of 
the deaf of this country begins. Up to that time, that the deaf 
existed in America was as unknown as the existence of the 


Greeks before they began to emerge from barbarism into the 
the light of civilization, or if one was met with here and there, 
he was looked upon as a nonentity, or as a barbarian to be feared, 
whose existence was simply tolerated because the civilization, 
by which he was surrounded, but of which he was no part, for- 
bade the killing of any creature in human form, no matter how 
deformed or loathsome he might be. With the advent of Gal- 
laudet, our Cadmus, among us, what a change was speedily 
wrought ! He brought with him the manual alphabet, he un- 
folded to our astonished gaze the civilization by which we were 
€ncompassed, nay, he did more for us than the Cadmus of old 
«ould do for his pupils, he bade us look up and behold a Saviour 
■crucified holding out the blessed hope of immortality beyond 
the grave. Under his guidance we quickly emerged from dark- 
ness and took our place in the ranks of civilization — and we 
have kept it ever sinoe. 

Born on the 10th of December, 1788, Gallaudet had attained 
his manhood when called to the work of educating the deaf. 
With no training for this peculiar work, with thoughts and as- 
pirations hitherto directed toward the pulpit, and, being na- 
turally of a diffident disposition, he hesitated long before under- 
taking this enterprise. Not that he, for a moment, doubted the 
successful issue of it, but because he modestly distrusted his 
own qualifications and ability to forward it. The only question 
with him, however, was, " Lord, what wilt thou have me to do ? " 
but he was divinely appointed to the mission, and when he did, 
after long self-communion, undertake it, he gave himself with 
entire devotion to to the cause, and he brought to that cause the 
ripest learning, the most fervid eloquence and the most varied 
attainments. He labored with zeal, modestly seeking not the 
applause of man, but said : " To God be all the glory," his only 
ambition being to tread in the footsteps of Him who, while on 
the earth, went about doing good. 

Not in haste, however, are life's achievements wrought, but 
slowly and by sure degrees. He must first become a learner 
that he might fitly teach. Joyfully he set forth for England 
on his mission of love, hoping to be able to speedily bring back 
the means of enlightening the darkened minds of those whose 
cause he had made his own. There he was permitted to enter the 
promised land and view its. possibilities, but he was forbidden 
to carry away any of its fruit to refresh the famished souls in 
his own country. Leaving them, as he sorrowfully expressed it, 
to retain " a sad monopoly of the resources of charity," he turn- 
ed his face toward Paris, where he received a most cordial wel- 
come from Abbe Sicard, upon whom had fallen the mantle of 
the sainted L'Epee. Patiently, step by step, from the lowest 
to the highest class, he followed the intricate windings of that 
system which, through the eye, penetrates the, dark veil en- 


shrouding the minds of the deaf, and finally casts it triumph- 
antly aside, allowing them to bask in the rays of the full-orbed 
sun of knowledge, as it rises in all splendor before them, illumi- 
nating their path to happiness and usefulness. In three months, 
he was in full possession of the theory and practice of the 
system, and was impatient to return to America, that not a 
moment might be lost in imparting to the deaf the glad tidings 
of their emancipation from the thraldom of ignorance. But 
there was one thing lacking. He had not mastered the language 
by which all was to be accomplished. He discovered that the 
language, beautiful in its sinuosity, scope and expressiveness, 
was without a literature, and that it possessed neither dictionary 
nor grammar. It was a language to be learned only from the 
living model. How then was he to acquire it without remain- 
ing two or three years, at least ? Meanwhile, his " dear chil- 
dren," as he affectionately called them, would be growing up 
and perhaps dying in ignorance of their Creator and Redeem- 
er. He solved the problem by bringing with him a living, 
walking dictionary, in the person of Abbe Sicard's most ac- 
complished deaf assistant, Laurent Clerc. 

Arriving in this country with his assistant on the 9th of 
August, 1816, after nine months of preliminary labors in vari- 
ous parts of New England, he was ready to begin his work, and 
it is very evident, from his writings, that he never regretted 
his failure to acquire the English system. On the contrary, he 
came to look upon what he then considered a misfortune, as a 
Providential interposition in favor of the deaf of America, and 
as such we look upon it to-day. 

On the 20th of April, 1817, at Hartford, surrounded by seven 
pupils, which number increased to thirty-three before the end 
of the year, Gallaudet began the work which has reached such 
vast proportions, and which has had far-reaching effects that he 
little dreamed of, and he remained at his post until 1830, when 
he retired. 

In perusing the history of this brief period from 1815 to 1830, 
so fraught with momentous interest to us, we are not so much 
surprised that Gallaudet retired at all, but that he did not retire 
sooner from a task that promised no fame and few emoluments. 
For, besides the difficulties inevitably connected with the incep- 
tion and prosecution of a new enterprise, which called down op- 
position from unexpected quarters, and which the public requir- 
ed to be " educated up to," he was harassed by ill health and in- 
ternal dissensions. He, however, remained at his post with 
heroic devotion to the cause, notwithstanding that lucrative po- 
sitions in more congenial fields were awaiting him, until the 
question of the possibility of educating the deaf was no longer 
an experiment, but an established success ; established upon 
such a secure foundation that no change in administration could 


shake or destroy it, and for that he deserves our most unstinted 

How much, after all, often depends upon a single human being, 
and how thankful the deaf are to-day throughout America, that, 
for them, was raised up a pioneer so magnificently endowed by 
talents and virtue ! 

In those early days, every thing depended upon the projector. 
Had he begun wrong there would have been endless stumbling 
about in the dark for the right way, and, although it might 
eventually have been found, we would, even at this late day, be 
the sufferers. 

That Gallaudet began aright, was due to his extreme caution 
or conservatism ; his native sagacity, the philosophical bent of 
his mind, and, last but not least, his Christian character. The 
first led him to advance slowly, to be sure of his ground before 
taking a step ; the second showed him the nature of the mate- 
rial he had to work upon, and the most advantageous manner of 
utilizing it ; the third led him into a profound study of the hu- 
man mind, as exemplified in the mental condition of the un- 
educated deaf, which was of vast advantage to us in its results ; 
and the last caused him to lay the foundation of their education 
firmly upon moral and religious grounds. 

The result was he made few, if any, mistakes to begin with, 
never had to retrace his steps, and was continually advancing. 

The deaf had no voice in these preparations. They were 
simply receptive, glad to get anything in the shape of an 
education, no matter how crude or indigestible. " We came to 
a prepared banquet, and had seats assigned to us." That we 
received bread instead of a stone, we are thankful, and now that 
we have eaten our fill, now that we are capable of judging and 
criticising, we have pronounced it good. Aye, the best that the 
world affords, assertions to the contrary notwithstanding by 
those iconoclasts who would ruthlessly tear down the temple 
that he builded, and wherein we have been fed, sanctified and 
blessed. What ! shall we stand idly by, and see the wise and 
philosophical system instituted by him destroyed by secret or 
outspoken enemies ? Heaven forbid ! Let us rather say, 
" Ours to enjoy, ours to protect, and ours to transmit to future 

Gallaudet was no servile imitator. He was not content with 
repeating the experiments or diffusing the discoveries of the 
Old World without attempting to add a single fact or 
principle to the old stock. When offered the services of an 
assistant of the London Institution to introduce the English 
system in America, his reply was : " I came to qualify 
myself." That was the key to his success. He introduced 
modifications and improvements, as his own judgment and 
experience suggested. He did not attempt to build up a cast- 


iron system, but one that embodied the elements of growth and 
improvement. He, at the outset, sought to identify the New 
England States, and the general Government, with the edu- 
cation of the deaf, add he succeeded ; so it is to him, in a 
large, measure, that we owe the fact that every American school 
for the deaf to-day rests securely upon the basis of our common 
school system, instead of being private beneficiaries depending 
upon the charity of the benevolent, as in England. His inborn 
Americanism accounts for the circumstance of there being no 
privileged classes in the first school for the deaf, which has 
served as a model for all others, the rich and the poor being 
placed upon the same footing, a thing unknown in English and 
Continental schools ; and to him, also, is due the regular wor- 
ship of God, and systematic moral and religious instruction that 
forms so important a part of the curriculum of our schools. 

His clearness of comprehension and logical reasoning, his en- 
thusiasm in the pursuit of knowledge and philosophical insight 
into the workings of the mind, his great common sense and 
supreme patience, together with his consummate mastery of the 
sign language and wonderful descriptive powers, assured his 
success as a teacher. 

But that for which, above all else, we are indebted to Gallau- 
det, is his adoption of the sign-language as the chief means of 
reaching the understanding of the deaf and communicating 
instruction to them. 

He was thoroughly conversant with the English, German and 
French methods and their results, before he left France on his 
return voyage. He had explored the whole field, looking only 
for whatever it contained of worth and value to the deaf. 
Adopting the French system, he was satisfied that he was bring- 
ing with him the best the world afforded, and he never had 
occasion to change his opinion or regret his action. 

Like a wise engineer, he made a careful, philosophical and 
scientific survey of the ground, and he adopted the sign-lan- 
guage as the best, the shortest and the deepest channel by which to 
convey the stream of knowledge to the dreary desert, overrun 
by the thorns and briars of ignorance, which he wished to ir- 
rigate ; not a mere shallow rivulet — just sufficient to nourish a 
few favored spots, and cause to grow thereon a few flowers of 
speech to the wonder and admiration of an unthinking public, 
that would win applause for himself, though of no permanent 
benefit, while the rest of the desert thirsted in vain — but a deep, 
steady stream, ample to supply all to the exclusion of no spot 
whatever. The object of his solicitude was the whole body of 
the deaf. No part of it was large enough to fill his enlarged 

The sign-language in its development has followed the same 
lines that govern all languages. From the primitive form in which 


L'Epee found it in his first pupils, it has gone on steadily de- 
veloping in terseness, significance, accuracy, copiousness and 
beauty, until now it is capable of rendering every phase' of hu- 
man thought. Like other languages, it has its dialects, its slang 
terms, and its value as a repository of forgotten usages. 
Having no lexicon, its vocabulary, though rich and expressive, 
and capable of infinite combinations, is necessarily short ; for 
nowhere is the law of " the survival of the fittest" more rigorous- 
ly enforced. In this language, all useless verbiage is ruthlessly 
doomed to extinction by the very necessities of its existence. 
The tendency is always to condensation and force of expression. 
It is a "most picturesque and pliable instrument of human 
thought, the birthright of the deaf, Qod's compensating gift to 
those from whom he has withheld the greater blessing of speech ;"* 
It is " a highly practical and singularly descriptive language, 
adapted as well to spiritual as material objects, and brings 
kindred souls into much more close and conscious communion 
than that of speech, enlarged by culture into greater copious- 
ness, more precision and greater accuracy,"f until " it has reach- 
ed a clearness, an eloquence, a power as impressive to us as any 
spoken language ever is to any hearing audience, and which exer- 
cises over us through the whole range of human thought a 
supreme influence, which no words, spoken, written or finger- 
spelled, can hope to equal." J 

This is the channel through which Gallaudet conveyed the 
golden Argosy laden with the choicest literature of all ages, 
scientific facts gleaned from all parts of the world, and the 
truths of Revelation to a benighted people in the dark valley of 

And what has been the result ? 

If there is nothing of value in the result of his labors, in the 
principles which he laid down for his own guidance, and those 
that have come, and are to come, after him, then this monument 
is rais%d without cause, and all our labor, time and money, has 
been thrown away. 

There is a Latin inscription in the Church of St. Paul's, in 
London, referring to Sir Christopher Wren, which reads: "If 
you would behold his monument, look around you," which may 
be applied in a far more comprehensive sense to Gallauders 
work. If you would behold the results of his labors, of his 
system of education, look around you. Not upon the magnificent 
buildings for the accommodation of the deaf which adorn al- 
most every State and Territory. These are but so many screens 
erected to reflect his light, the means of applying his principles, 
and the results are not to be judged by the attainments made 
while the pupils are at school, but by the manner in which they 
are able to utilize their attainments after they leave school. 
No, you need not go so far. Look around you on your immediate 

* B. S. Stores, t T. H. Gallaudet. X G. O. Fay. 


surroundings. You will see the results on all sides, in your 
shops and manufactories, in the schoolroom and pulpit, in the 
studio of the artist and laboratory of the chemist, in govern- 
ment and mercantile offices, on the farm and in the bowels of 
the earth, in the printing office and in the editor's sanctum, in 
society's giddy whirl and in the quiet home circle. Go where 
you will, in the city, village, or country, you will see the results 
of his labors, of the system he inaugurated, in useful, exemplary 
citizens, who contribute their share to the general prosperity; 
in good neighbors, who do as they would be done by; and in good 
Christians whose scope of vision is not terminated by the nar- 
row horizon of this life, but stretches away into the endless 
vistas of eternity. 

And yet there are those who have risen up, in these latter days, 
to attack his memory and annul his work, who boldly assert that 
the system which he instituted, and which to-day combines the 
best parts of all other systems, " consists only in equipping 
deaf-mutes with a more systematic language of signs than they 
already possessed, and in enabling them to understand each 
other ;" and that those taught by this system are " human in 
shape, but only half human in attributes." 

My friends, as Daniel Webster once said in one of his most 
eloquent addressess, "We must sometimes be tolerant to folly 
and patient at the sight of the extreme waywardness of men ;" 
but I confess that when I reflect on the past history of the deaf 
of this country, on the results attained, on our present prosperi- 
ty, and on what the future has in store for us depending on this 
beneficent system, and when I see that there are men who can 
find in all this nothing good, nothing valuable, nothing truly 
beneficial but everything to condemn, I must acknowledge the 
utter weakness of words to express my feelings. I am com- 
pelled to fall back on the sign language to do justice to the 

O that those who, in their misdirected zeal, would sweep 
away not only what we already possess but all power to acquire 
new possessions, were imbued with a little of the spirit of chari- 
ty and more of the wisdom that characterized Gallaudet, and to 
which he gave expression when he said : " Palsied be the hand 
that attempts to build up one part of the walls of the spiritual 
Jerusalem by prostrating another in ruins ;.I would not draw 
forth your sympathy for one project of benevolence by decry- 
ing others,"- then they would not consider it necessary to tear 
down the temple that he built in order to erect their own, nor 
would they while glorifying in their ignorance of a language 
presume to attack it as " illogical, disjointed," and " barbarous." 

It has fallen to us, the chief beneficiaries of his labors, to rear 
a lasting, a fitting memorial to Gallaudet, but we are not the 
only ones from whom the debt of gratitude is due. Other 


thousands have been blessed by his philanthropic labors, his 
wise counsels and the ripe fruits of his talents and attainments. 
The stream of his benevolence, ever steady, ever calm and pure, 
was perennial. For thirteen years it continued to flow into the 
school at Hartford, and when it was prematurely cut off from 
that outlet, instead of drying up, it arose and spread out in all 
directions, fructifying wherever it touched. Some of it ran, un- 
seen and unnoticed of man, into the county jail, reviving and 
refreshing the drooping spirits there, nourishing into nobler pur- 
pose the languishing virtues hitherto neglected, and, continuing 
on beyond, prepared the soil for homes for discharged convicts. 
Another stream from this inexhaustible source made its way 
into the Hartford Retreat for the Insane, and by its virtues de- 
monstrated to a skeptical public, that such places are not arid 
deserts ; that insanity, instead of being a curse from on High, 
is but a misfortune, the same as any other ill that flesh is heir 
to, amenable to the soothing influence of kindness, and that, as 
ho himself said, " the blessed truths of the Gospel are peculiar- 
ly adapted to the singular and affecting condition of the insane, 
furnishing one of the most efficacious means of cure, and one of 
the greatest securities, after restoration, to soundness of mind 
against a relapse. A new triumph for the Cross of Christ." 

It has been truly said that " philanthropy without good judg- 
ment is dangerous," and the man " who induces a voluptuous 
thrill of self-satisfaction" by throwing money to the sturdy 
beggar, is injuring the whole community. The true philosophy 
of benevolence, as Gallaudet understood and practised it, con- 
sisted in helping others to help themselves. We, therefore, find 
him, after he had done all he could to help the deaf to help 
themselves, turning his attention to the establishment of Nor- 
mal Scht>ols, to the end that the young might have the advan- 
tage of better teachers ; to encouraging infant instruction and 
home training ; to maintaining lyceums for young men and 
seminaries for females ; to encouraging African Colonization 
and Peace Societies ; to urging the necessity of manual training 
schools ; and to writing books especially adapted to the limited 
comprehension of the young. 

The latter was a work of love especially congenial to him. 
His works, mostly on religious subjects, were among the pio- 
neers in that field which is now so industriously occupied by the 
best literary talent of the age. Reprinted in England and trans- 
lated into many foreign languages, they reached a" circulation 
of more than a million copies, and exerted an incalculable in- 
fluence for good. His intimate. acquaintance with the mind in 
its simplest form, acquired in his efforts to teach the deaf, "en- 
abled him to bring the most abstract subjects within the grasp 
of the feeblest mind," and these works, as one of his biograph- 
ers remarks,. " enroll the name of Gallaudet among the most 


sifted and attractive writers in the department which he occu- 

Thus others may claim him as their friend by reason of his 
philanthropic efforts, but he is in one sense particularly our own, 
which accounts for the enthusiastic affection and veneration 
which he inspires among us, and which to some seems inexpli- 
cable. Other men, wise and good, have given us the best pro- 
ducts of their minds and the best efforts of their lives, but he 
gave us more — his heart. No other man has ever stood so close 
to us in all the relations of life. He was not merely a friend, 
but a father. He did not stand afar off dispensing his benefac- 
tions with the cold, perfunctory formality of the professional 
almsgiver, seeking only the praise of man. No. Inspired by a 
warm and enthusiastic desire for our improvement, with faith in 
our capabilities and setting no limit to our possible attainments, 
he took us to his bosom as a father does his children, and he 
kept in touch with us to the end of his life. No other name is so 
linked to us by the indissoluble bond of affection — there is sweet 
little Alice Cogswell, she who " first kindled his sympathies for 
the deaf." It seems that — 

" To woo us unto heaven her life was lent." 

His letters to her breathe a tender solicitude, a paternal affec- 
tion, that could hardly be surpassed by her own father, and 
when she lay tossing in the grasp of delirium, her troubled 
spirit would obey none but his. We here behold her in all her 
childlike innocence. The sculptor has caught her in one of her 
most artless attitudes, and has most appropriately embalmed her 
in imperishable bronze, side by side with him whom she loved. 
There was Laurent Clerc, the " Apostle of the Deaf," who held 
aloft the torch of experience to light his first steps in the then 
untrodden path in which he was highly resolved to lead us, and 
who bore with him the heat and burden of the day. His me- 
morial stands side by side with his master's in Hartford. Then 
there was " a nearer one, a dearer one yet than all other;" she 
sleeps side by side with him, awaiting the resurrection morn, 
when " the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped and the tongue 
of the dumb shall be unloosed." These were all of us. Like 
vines clinging to some monarch of the forest, inextricably in- 
terlacing its branches in every direction, their lives interlace 
his in all its ramifications, so that we cannot consider him apart 
from them if we would, and we would not if we could, for 
their memory casts a halo around him that renders him doubly 
dear to us. " We love him, because he first loved us," and we 
shall continue to love him long after this monument shall have 
returned unto its original elements. 

Thirty-eight years ago, 

" The friend of man, the friend of Truth, 
The friend of age, the guide of youth," 


was laid to rest, but this is not the first monument that we have 
erected to commemorate his deeds in life. Another stands in 
the grounds of the Hartford School, the scene of his early- 
labors. That was raised two years after his death, by those 
who knew him personally, by his contemporaries, and is, rela- 
tively, a local testmionial to his goodness and worth, but — 

" Lo ! Where with patient toil he nursed, 
And trained the new set plant at first, 
The widening branches of a stately tree 
Stretch from the sunrise to the sunset sea." 

And since then a new generation has arisen that has been shel- 
tered beneath its branches and partaken of its fruit. 

This memorial is erected by those who know him only by his 
works, and it is more costly, if not more beautiful and expres- 
sive in its simplicity, than the first. Not content with chiseling 
his name in stone, we have now cast it in bronze. Time has not 
dimmed but added new lustre to his name, for, like virgin gold, 
the attrition of time has only worn off the earthly dross and left 
it more beautiful than ever. 

Whenever the cause of the education of the deaf in America 
has wanted a champion, or Christian philanthropy among them 
has needed a promoter, a Gallaudet has always been present 
from the very beginning down to this day. That it may al- 
ways be so, that his descendants, as heretofore, shall always be 
seen in the foremost rank of our friends, animated by the noble 
impulses, the generous feelings and the philanthropic spirit of 
their illustrious sire, is our prayer. But, whatever the future 
may unfold, the past is secure. The name of Gallaudet is for- 
ever fixed in our firmament as the brightest star in the noble 
galaxy that adorns it. 

My Friends : The Gallaudet ^Memorial is finished. Com- 
manding the highest art of the sculptor, his "children of silence" 
have placed his statue here in commemoration of his grand 
work in their behalf. It springs from their hearts ; it is worthy 
of them ; it is worthy of the gifted sculptor who created it ; it 
is worthy of him whose life and character it commemorates, and 
it is also grand, nay, it is sublime in the nationality, the univer- 
sality of the sentiment which it symbolizes. 

In renewing here our expressions of gratitude and venera- 
tion to our friend and benefactor, and conscious of having dis- 
charged a sacred duty, let us here consecrate ourselves anew to 
the unfinished duties of life. Let us remember that we have 
duties and obligations to perform corresponding with the bless- 
ings which we have enjoyed. Let us strive to demonstrate that 
we are worthy of him, worthy of the benefits received. 

He knew that our path is rugged beyond the common lot of 
man, and he strove assiduously to smooth that path. He knew 
that we carry weight, are handicapped in the race, and he exert- 


ed himself beyond his strength to lessen, although he could not 
entirely remove, that weight. The rest remains with us. Shall 
we falter, shall we halt ? No. A thousand times no. 

" A crown to the one who wins I and the worst is only a grave, 
And somewhere, somewhere still, a reward awaits tneibrave, 
A broken shield without, but a hero's heart within, 
And held with a hand of steel, the broken sword may win." 

POEM, by Mrs. Laura C. R. Searing (" Howard Glyndon"), of Cali- 
[In signs, by Miss Georgia Elliott ; read by Joseph C. Gordon.] 


The mandate, — " Go where glory waits," 

Was less than naught to him ; 
He sought the souls whose day was dark, 

Whose eyes with tears were dim. 

And yet his glory rests secure 

In many a grateful mind, 
First blessed by him with knowledge sweet, 

And linked unto its kind. 

They lay in prison, speechless, poor, 

TJnhearing thralls of Fate, 
Until he came, and said " Come out ! 

It is not yet too late !" 

He came, and lifted up, and spoke, 

He set them in the sun ; 
The great good work goes on and on 

That was by him begun ; 

And in this bronze he lives again, 

But more within each heart, 
To which he said, " Be of good cheer, 

Let loneliness depart." 

We lift the veil, and see how Art 

Has fixed his likeness there ; 
And placed beside him one whose life 

He lifted from despair. 

She stands there as the type of those 

To whom he gave his all ; 
Whose sorrows touched him, till his love 

Went out beyond recall ! 


Ah, well it was, that little light 

Was fostered by the Lord ! 
Ah, well it was, he loved the child 

And felt her fate was hard ! 

Ah, well it was, he turned himself 

Unto that speechless woe, 
Which made the world a lonely road 

One hundred years ago ! 

Rest here, thou semblance of our Friend, 

The while the world goes by ? 
Rest here, upon our College green, 

Beneath the bending sky ! 

Remain, and bless the chosen work 

That found its source in thee — 
'Tis through thy love that we, thy sons, 

Are happy, strong, and free. 

Rest here, thou Father of us all ! 

And when we pass thee by, 
'Twill be with bared head -and heart, 

And mutely reverent eye. 

Thank God he gave thee unto us 

To free us from our woe, 
And put the key into thy hand 

One hundred years ago ! 

Fantasia—" A Fairy Tale," - Bach. 


(Before the Statue, at 4:30 P.M.) 
Hallelujah Chorus, ... Handel. 

PRESENTATION ADDRESS, by Edwin A. Hodgson, of New York, 
President of the National Association of the Deaf. 

[In signs, by the author ; read by John W. Chickering, Jr.] 

In the year 1883, at its second convention, held in New York 
City, the National Association of Deaf-Mutes unanimously re- 
solved to erect a memorial to Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, on 
the centenary of his birth. The co-operation of the deaf of 
the United States was asked for, and need I say was promptly 
and enthusiastically given. There were few who did not 


heartily embrace the opportunity to demonstrate their gratitude 
to the first friend and greatest benefactor of the deaf of this 

This statue does not pay a debt ; it simply acknowledges an 
obligation so great that it can never be cancelled. It forms but 
the outward expression of a widespread reverence and love. 
Before the advent of Gallaudet, how many thousands of deaf- 
mutes must have lived and died in ignorance even of the 
promise of a blessed Redeemer. In a land of liberty and en- 
lightenment, the innocent offspring of Christian parents were 
more hopelessly shackled, with chains more firm and enduring 
than ever yet restrained the lives of serfs or slaves. But Gal- 
laudet came, and their bondage ended. He 

" Opened the gate of knowledge, showed the road 
From utter darkness to the truth and God." 

Words are too feeble to express how much we owe to him who 
made us free. 

Love of glory and the hope of gain, are the two foremost 
incentives to effort with ordinary human kind. But the work 
of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet was influenced by different 
motives. It was one of self-sacrifice, generated solely by the 
great sympathies of a noble nature and carried forward in the 
face of discouragements by the wisdom of a talented mind. 
The history of humanity records no greater triumph springing 
from so trivial a circumstance. How true the words of Holy 
Writ — " and a little child shall lead them." Had Thomas 
Hopkins Gallaudet not met little Alice Cogswell, the mind 
shudders to contemplate what might have been the condition of 
the thousands of educated and enlightened deaf-mutes of to-day. 

" The massive gates of circumstance, 
Are turned upon the smallest hinge ; 
And thus this seeming pettiest chance 
Gave countless lives their after-tinge." 

There are many reasons why the Gallaudet memorial is 
placed in this city and on the grounds of this college. Gallau- 
det was a national benefactor, and that alone is sufficient reason 
why his statue rests in the Capital of the Nation. Also, the 
contributions towards it came from every State and Territory 
of the Union. This college represents the highest effect of 
Gallaudet's humble beginning, — it is the only college for the 
deaf in all the world, and by its lofty educational work will 
shed round the statue an importance and a glory that no other 
site could give. It will constantly suggest the vast difference 
between then and now. 

It is with feelings of the deepest gratitude, mingled with the 
pride of successful effort, that the National Association of 
Deaf-Mutes is enabled to present, to the National Deaf-Mute 


College, this beautiful bronze statue, symbolizing the incident 
which decided the lifework of a great and noble man and 
rescued from a fate far worse than death myriads of human 
beings. May it tell to all a story of the triumph of a life of 
earnest labor and of steadfast faith, and may it keep bright and 
imperishable the lustre which belongs to Gallaudet, the 
emancipator of the deaf and dumb. 

UNVEILING OF THE STATUE, by Master Herbert Draper 
Gallaudet and Miss Marion "Wallace Gallaudet, grand- 
children of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. 

ADDRESS OF ACCEPTANCE, by Edward M. Gallaudet ; 
[In signs, by the author ; read by A. L. E. Crouter.] 

Mr. President: — The National College offers most sincere 
thanks to the National Association for the beautiful and valua- 
ble gift now received at your hands. 

In all ages, and among all people not absolutely sunk in 
barbarism, monumBnts»and statues have played an important 
part in public education. 

Telling, as they do, more or less fully of lofty lives and 
noble achievements, they stimulate the mind of the beholder, 
and inspire him with a desire, and often with a purpose, to 
"make his life sublime." 

How much the community is the gainer for one such inspira- 
tion, can seldom be understood or estimated. It is one of the 
glories of our Capital City that we have, already, not a few 
such educators set to do their quiet work in public places. 
Here the ardor of the young soldier is made to glow at the sight 
of the commanding forms and noble faces of the nation's martial 
heroes. Here the outreaching ambition of the youthful scholar 
is fired by the suggestions of mental strength and depth in the 
calm face of our greatest scientist. Here the pious zeal of the 
preacher is renewed, as he catches somewhat of the spirit of the 
living man, even from the cold bronze which pictures the great 
leader of the Reformation ; and here stand our martyred 
Presidents — eternal exponents of self-sacrifice, speaking of a 
nobility of soul, under the stress and strain of great tribulation 
which is manhood's most precious crown. 

To these enduring inspirations of patriotism, scientific research, 
freedom of faith, lofty personal character and eminent public 
services, your association adds to-day the first memorial of pure 
philanthropy. It is welcome at the Capital of that Nation 
which leads the world in benevolence. 

And here, through future centuries, may this silent instruc- 
tor teach the noblest of the virtues, which " suffereth long and 


is kind : — beareth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all 

BENEDICTION, by Rev. James H. Cloud, of Illinois ; 

[In signs, by the author ; read by Rev. Thomas Gallaudet.] 

O Lord, our Heavenly Father, we thank thee for thy loving 
kindness and tender mercies in granting us life, health, strength 
and opportunity to assemble here this afternoon, and in a man- 
ner which we think most fitting, do honor to the memory of 
him who in this life was thy faithful servant, and to mankind 
a true friend and benefactor, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. We 
invoke thy most gracious blessing upon the good work that has 
been done. May this work of art declare that we were not unr 
mindful of the presence of a great and good man nor forgetful 
of his efforts in the cause of true education. ; that we love him 
and to us his memory is sacred. May it serve to remind pre- 
sent and future generations of the beauty of his character, large- 
ness of soul, and philanthropic spirit. May they learn that true 
greatness — all ljonor — all that is of any worth — lies in doing 
that which thou seest fit to appoint us. Most merciful Father, 
we pray thee to continue to bless us and all people, and make us 
more worthy of thy blessings. We pray that thy law of love 
may rule all mankind, and that thy saving grace may be known 
to all people through Jesus Christ, our Lord and Saviour. The 
grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the 
fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all .evermore. Amen. 

National Aie— " Hail Columbia." - - Fyles. 

{The music was furnished by the Band of the U. S. Marine Corps.) 

At eight o'clock in the evening, there was a banquet at 
Willard's Hotel to celebrate the completing and presentation 
to the Deaf-Mute College, by the National Association, of the 
Memorial Statue to Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. Upon the 
occasion, the following were the 

" To live in hearts we leave behind 

IS not tO die."— CAMPBELL. 

Response by Chakles K. W. Strong. 


" The mother of all living."— genesis. 

Response by Thomas. L. Brown. 



" They sowed seed all over the state that sprang up 
into good men and women." — beecher. 

Response by Sidney J. Vail. 


'• When she listens it seems as if all men and angels 
listened also."— hamerton. 

Response by Brewster R. Allabough. 


"Histories make men wise; poets, witty; the mathe- 
matics, subtile; natural philosophy, deep, moral, 
grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend." 


Response by Thomas F. Fox. 

" They change their skies, but not their hearts, 
Who course across the seas."— Horace. 

Response by Philip J. Hasenstab. 


" One honors himself and his house by the noble 
company that passes his threshold." — alcott. 

Response by Edward M. Gallaudet. 

Thuesday, June 27. — Moening Session. 

The convention came to order at the call of the President at 
10:45. Prayer was offered by Rev. James H. Cloud, of Illinois. 
The Committee on Business reported the following : — 


1. Prayer. 

2. Reading of Minutes. 

3. Reports of Committees. 

4. Nominations and Elections. 

5. Method of Voting. 

6. "The Federation of the Deaf," by T. F. Fox, New York, 
to be repeated. 

7. Discussion of Mr. Fox's paper. 

8. "To Gallaudet Mutes Owe their Height," a poem, 
by Charles Kerney, Ind. 

9. Miscellaneous Business. 


Mr. Albert Ballin, N. J., moved to accept the report ; second- 
ed by Mr. F. W. Bigelow, Mass., and passed. 

Mr. W. G. Jones, New York, moved to dispense with the 
reading of the minutes ; seconded by Mr. James L. Smith, 
Minn., and approved. 

Rev. Dr. Thomas Gallaudet, the official interpreter, being 
absent, Professor Joseph C. Gordon was appointed and ac- 

The Committee on Nomination of Officers was announced by 
the Chair, as follows : A. B. Greener, O., Chairman ; S. G. 
Davidson, Pa,; W. S. Johnson, Ala.; George A. Converse, 
Mass.; F. W. Nuboer, N. Y. 

Mr. P. J. Hasenstab, 111., referring to Mr. Fox's paper and 
the President's address, said that it was the intention of the 
Committee on Business to discuss some plan, whereby the deaf 
of the whole country would be properly represented in future 
conventions by regular delegates. He moved that there be a 
discussion on this point, but was not seconded. 

Mr. J. L. Smith, Minn., gave it as his opinion that as the 
convention was only discussing formal business, it could do 
nothing until a constitution had been adopted. He moved that 
every member be allowed to vote on all questions until a consti- 
tution was adopted, and his motion was seconded by Rev. Mr. 

Mr. Bigelow, Mass., opposed Mr. Smith's motion. 

Mr. Davidson, Pa., regarded all discussion as out of order, 
as the convention could only listen to suggestions. He agreed 
with Mr. Smith's motion, and in addition favored the plan of 
allowing one vote to every society of the deaf contributing 
twenty-five dollars to the treasury of the National Association, 
which was in need of funds. 

Mr. Schory, O., regarded the method of voting then in vogue 
as sufficient. 

Mr. McGregor, O., thought that the method of voting, then 
in use, should be followed at this convention, and thereafter a 
new system could be devised. 


Mr. White, Utah, offered an amendment to Mr. Smith's 
motion, to leave the whole question to the Committee on Consti- 
tution. He subsequently withdrew his amendment. 

Mr. Hodgson, New York [ Vice-Pres. "Weeks in the Chair], 
referred to the clause in his address as President, and argued 
that delegates residing at the place of meeting always held the 
greatest power in voting. 

Mr. Smith's motion was finally put and carried. The report 
of the Executive Committee was presented and read. 


Pursuant to the custom for Committees to present a report of' 
their official acts, at the convention next succeeding that at 
which they were appointed, I, as Chairman of the Executive 
Committee, present the following record for the six years 

With the exception of the Gallaudet Memorial matter, little 
was accomplished for the benefit of the Association, the afore- 
said project occupying much of the Committee's leisure time. 

Their first official act was to approve the President's sugges- 
tion to have a report of the proceedings of the Second Nation- 
al Convention of the Association printed. Four hundred copies 
were printed and distributed to the members of the Association, 
to the deaf-mute press, and to institutions for the deaf, and 
were sold to non-members at a charge of 15 cents per copy. 

In view of the sculptor's inability to complete the Gallaudet 
Statue in time for the meeting of the convention, in August, 
1888, the time fixed by the Second Convention, the Committee 
conferred with the President and secured his concurrence 
on the question of postponing the third convention to June, 

The Executive Committee, authorized by the Second Nation- 
al Convention to appoint the place and time of meeting, upon 
consultation with the authorities of the College through Dr. E. 
M. Gallaudet, decided to avail themselves of the permission, so 
cordially given, to have the convention meet in the chapel of 
the National College for Deaf -Mutes, Washington, D. C, and 
for the time chose June 26th, 27th and 28th, 1889. 

The Report of the Executive Committee on Constitution and 
By-Laws was read by Mr. D. W. George, 111. 

Articles I. and II. were passed without discussion. 


Article III. was passed after being amended so as to permit of 
four vice-presidents instead of one. 

Article IV. was amended by Mr. White to read " duly quali- 

Mr. Hasenstab moved to refer back Section 3 of Article IV. 
(providing for elections) to the Committee. Lost. 

The hour of noon having arrived, the President, Mr. Hodg- 
son, asked to be excused as presiding officer, as he h/f desired to 
return to New York on pressing business. On motion of Mr. 
Davidson, Pa., seconded by Mr. George, 111., he was per- 
mitted to retire, and Vice-President Weeks took the chair. 

Mr. Fox, the Recording Secretary, also desired to be excused, 
and the same courtesy was extended to him, Mr. James L. Smith, 
Minn., being appointed Secretary pro tern. A recess was 
here taken until two p.m. 

Thomas F. Fox, 

Recording Secretary. 

Thursday, June 27. — Afternoon Session. 

Vice-President ,W- H. Weeks called the convention to order 
at 2:15 p.m. He announced that he wished to he ahsent during 
the afternoon, and asked Mr. McGregor, of Ohio, to take the 

The proceedings of the session were opened by the recitation, 
in signs, by Mr. Kerney, of Indiana, of an original poem, " To 
Gallaudet Mutes Owe their Height," composed by Mr. A. C. 
Powell, of Ohio. 

Mr. D. W. George then took the floor, to proceed with the 
reading of the Constitution and By-Laws. 

Mr. Smith, of Minnesota, suggested that Mr. George read all 
of the Constitution and By-Laws, so as to give the members a 
general idea of the whole ; then it could be discussed, section 
by section. The suggestion was adopted, and Mr. George read 
the whole without pause. 

Mr. White, of Utah, referring to the composition of the 


National Executive Committee, said that there was always 
serious liability of a conflict of authority between the President 
of the Association and the Committee. To avoid this, he 
moved that Section 3 of Article III. be amended, so as to make 
the President a member of the National Executive Committee 

Mr. Ballin, of New Jersey, seconded the amendment. 

Mr. Capelli, of New York, moved that the Secretary should 
albO be included ; but his motion was not seconded. 

Mr. George objected that making the President a member of 
the Committee would divide his powers. Sometimes, when the 
convention was in session, the Executive Committee might also 
be holding a meeting. The President could not very well be 
in two "piaces-'at'once. 

Mr. White's amendment was then put to a vote, and carried 
by a large majority. 

Mr. Powell moved that the Constitution and By-Laws, with 
the changes made, be adopted by the convention. The motion 
was seconded by Mr. W. G. Jones, of New York, and was 
passed with only one dissenting vote. 

Below is given the Constitution and By-Laws, as finally 
adopted : 



For mutual assistance and encouragement in bettering their standing in 
society at large, and for the enjoyment of social pleasure attendant upon 
the periodical reunion of a widely scattered class of people, the undersigned 
deaf citizens of the United States agree to form themselves into a national 


This Association shall be called the " National Association of the Deaf." 


Any deaf citizen of the United States may become a member of this 
Association upon the payment of the initiation fee. 



Section 1. The officers of this Association shall consist of a President, 
four Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and a National Executive 


§ 2. The officers of the Association shall be elected by a majority vote 
of all the duly qualified members voting at the permanent organization 
of each national convention of the Association. 


% 3. The National Executive Committee shall consist of one member 
from each State and Territory represented upon the roll of membership of 
this Association, one of whom shall be Chairman, and the President of the 
Association as ex-offlcio member. 


i 4. The President elected at each national convention of the Associa- 
tion shall have power to appoint the members of the National Executive 
Committee and to designate the Chairman thereof. 


$ 5. It shall be the duty of the President of this Association to preside 
at its meetings in national convention. 


§ 6. The Vice-President shall fill the office of the President when the 
latter is unable to discharge the duties of his office. 


§ 7. The Secretary shall record the minutes of all meetings of the 
Association. He shall keep a list of members of the Association, giving 
the full name together with the post-office address. He shall have charge 
of all documents, etc., belonging to the Association, except those of the 


% 8. The Treasurer shall receive all moneys belonging to the Associa- 
tion, keep an account of all receipts and expenditures, and shall make a 
report of the state of the finances of the Association whenever called upon 
to do so by the Association. He shall preserve all vouchers. 


§ 9. The National Executive Committee shall have general conduct of 
the affairs of the Association from the final adjournment of one national 
convention to the organization of the next one. It shall aim to carry out 
the expressed will of the Association as far as circumstances may render 


it wise or allowable. It shall have power to appropriate any available 
funds of the Association lor purposes tending to promote its welfare. 


Section 1. This Association shall meet in National Convention in three 
years after the adjournment of each convention, unless unfavorable 
circumstances should call for postponement. 

§ 2. The month, day, and place of holding each succeeding National 
Convention, shall be decided upon by the National Executive Committee. 


A motion to amend the Constitution or By-Laws of this Association 
must be submitted in writing to the President, and be published by him in 
the leading newspapers for the deaf for at least thirty days before the 
meeting of the Association in National Convention, and then such, amend- 
ment shall require a two-thirds vote, a quorum voting, for its adoption. 



Section 1. The initiation fee of this Association shall be one dollar 
for gentlemen and fifty cents for ladies. 


§ 2. No person shall vote on the permanent organization of the 
convention of the Association or thereafter, who has not first paid the 
initiation fee. 


§ 3. The term of membership of each member expires during the pre- 
liminary organization of each convention, and must be renewed by the pay- 
ment of the initiation fee to the Enrollment Committee. 


§ 4. Any deaf person not present at any convention of the Association, 
may be enrolled as a member by forwarding the initiation fee. Any deaf 
person may, at any time after the adjournment of a convention, be enrolled 
as a member by the payment of the initiation fee to the Treasurer of the 
Association, but the term of such membership shall expire during the 
preliminary organization of the next following national convention. 


§ 5. No person shall be entitled to take part in the permanent organiza- 
tion of the convention, to offer any motion or resolution, to read any 
paper, to discuss any motion, resolution or paper, to address the conven- 
tion on any subject, or to hold any office, who has not first paid the initia- 
tion fee, but non-members may be invited to speak by special courtesy of 
the Association. 



The proceedings of the convention of this Association shall be governed 
by ordinary parliamentary practice, and in case of dispute on any question 
of parliamentary practice, "Roberts' Rules of Order" shall be regarded as 
authority on such points. 


The President of the Association shall open the proceedings of each 
National Convention by calling the meeting to order and reading the 
official call. In the absence of the President, this duty shall devolve 
upon the first, second, third, and fourth Vice-Presidents, in succession. 


At least three months before the time for holding each national conven- 
tion, the Chairman of the Executive Committee shall appoint a local com- 
mittee, not necessarily members of this Association, residing in the city 
where the convention is to be held, and this local committee shall make 
the best possible arrangements for the reception and entertainment of the 
members of the Association. 

Mr. A. B. Greener, O., presented the report of the Committee 
on Nominations, as follows : 

President, Robert Patterson, O. ; 1st Vice-President, Eman- 
uel Souweine, N. Y.; 2d Vice-President, T. H. Coleman, S. C; 
3d Vice-President, Chas. Kerney, Ind.; 4th Vice-President, F. 
W. Bigelow, Mass. ; Secretary, J. L. Smith, Minn. ; Treasurer, 
B. R. Allabough, Pa. 

Mr. Dougherty, Mo., moved that the report be accepted. 
Mr. Van Allen, N. Y., seconded. 

Mr. Ballin said that he did not exactly understand this 
method of voting for officers. He would prefer to have two 
lists, so that there could be a choice. 

He was told that if he objected to one or more persons on 
the ticket, he could vote against it. 

Mr. Bigelow was opposed to voting for the officers one by one. 

Mr. Davidson, Pa., said that, in order to save time, it was 
preferable to vote on the list as a whole. 

Mr. Patterson asked to have his name withdrawn from the 
head of the ticket. He suggested that it would be appropriate 
if the President of the Convention was chosen from the Dis- 


trict of Columbia, and he accordingly nominated Mr. James 
Denison for the office. Mr. Denison declined to allow his 
name to be used. 

Vote was then taken on Mr. Dougherty's motion. It was 
defeated — ayes 16, nays 18. 

Mr. Ballin moved that a committee of three be appointed to 
make out another list. The motion was seconded and put to 
vote. Defeated — ayes 20, nays 21. 

Mr. Froehlich, N. Y., said that he considered one ticket 
enough. As the next convention would be held in the West, 
and probably in Illinois, and as Mr. Patterson persisted in his 
desire to be excused, he therefore nominated Mr. D. W. George 
for President. The nomination, seconded by Mr. Yankauer, 
N. Y., was passed by an unanimous vote. 

Mr. Powell moved that the rest of the ticket be accepted. 
Mr. Van Allen seconded. Passed unanimously. 

Chairman McGregor then announced the following duly 
elected officers of the National Association of the Deaf : 


D. W. George, 111., - - President. 

Emanuel Souweine, N". Y., - 1st Vice-President. 

T. H. Coleman, S. C, - - 2d Vice-President. 

Chas. Kerney, Ind., - - - 3d Vice-President. 

F. W. Bioelow, Mass., - - 4th Vice-President. 

J. L. Smith, Minn., - - Secretary. 

B. R. Allabough, Pa., - - Treasurer. 

President George was then escorted to the chair, and made a 
neat and appropriate speech of acceptance, which was heartily 

Mr. Balis, Pa., moved that the next proceeding should be 
the reading of Mr. White's paper. Passed. 




The position of a teacher is an honorable one. It is also a 
responsible calling, for to the care of the educators are entrust- 
ed hundreds of immortal " buds of promise" whose destiny 
extends throughout eternity, and none but God can rightly 
estimate the influence a teacher has in moulding their ductile 
minds, their thirst for knowledge and their soaring fancies. A 
teacher, unless he strictly confines himself to the routine work 
of the school room, must be more than an instructor ; he must 
be a guide as well as a friend, to whom every confiding child 
looks up as to a copy to model after. Where else, except in the 
clerical profession, will you find so much power, so much re- 
sponsibility ? It might well make a conscientious young man 
upon the threshold of his career hesitate to adopt such a pro- 
fession. In ancient Greece, men who had original ideas, and 
possessed the courage to avow them, generally had a place and 
a following of young men who hung upon every word that they 
uttered as on that of an oracle, and readily adopted the views 
of their leaders. These were called teachers, and the theories 
they founded were called schools. The names of the beet 
among these teachers will occur to you : Socrates, Plato, 
Xenophon, Aristotle, and others. In our own day and genera- 
tion, Ralph Waldo Emerson was such a teacher. But in the 
present day, a teacher's work is circumscribed within the limits 
of the school-room, though there is no reason to doubt that his 
influence over the minds of his pupils is as potent as ever, 
possessing, as he does, much more knowledge than did the 
Greek philosophers of old, by the progress of centuries. The 
responsibility is, at the same time, the glory of the profession, 
and an earnest, religiously-minded young man, would gladly 
take it up as a holy calling. However, before entering the pro- 
fession, a man should decide whether he is fit, as a Christian, to 
be the guide of children in the pathway that leads to life 
eternal. If he entertains no faith in Bible religion, is not even 
an orthodox Christian, never observes the outward forms of 
religion ; such a teacher cannot expect to impress his pupils with 
any deep respect for the religion of their fathers. He may be 
as much on his guard as he will, but still his ideas will come out 
in his actions, in chance remarks, or in other unconscious ways. 
Even though the teaching of religion be forbidden, his life as 
shown in daily communication with his class will imperfectly 
mould theirs. Such a man ought not to enter the profession, 
out of deference to the universal respect for the worship of God. 
This is one view of the case. For this reason, don't be a 
teacher. Many young men take a too rose-colored view of the 
work of a teacher. They imagine that it is all plain sailing in 


smooth waters. They forget that, like the great world in 
which we live, a class is made up of all sorts of children, some 
with dull minds that task much of a teacher's patience, time 
and attention, some with an obstinate disposition that requires 
much tact and energy to manage, and others with a spirit for 
mischief which needs curbing, or for idleness, which needs 
correcting ; all of whom must be scolded, dragged along or 
pushed forward, a work that makes a strain on his nervous 
energy. To govern a class of little "humans," as Carlyle 
expresses it, gifted with an abundance of animal spirits and a 
tendency to respect no will but their own, is no easy task, and 
it is sometimes difficult to find the golden mean between the 
extremes of indulgent kindness on one hand and strict duty on 
the other. An inexperienced person is liable to make mistakes 
in one case or the other, so that, before he knows it, he is in 
trouble about the discipline of the school-room, from which, a 
bad start having been made, he will find it hard to recover for 
a long time. 

A sturdy laborer at his .daily toil, with none to trouble or 
make afraid, is happier by far, as he sits under his own vine 
and fig-tree with his wife and frolicsome children around him in 
the calm of an evening, or at the fireside during the winter 
twilight. By the exercise of his physical powers during the 
day, a good night's rest is assured him, and 'no harrowing cares 
cloud his brow at night in the midst of his family circle. 

The mental worry and anxiety incurred by the work in the 
school-room during the day, banishes nature's sweet restorer 
from the teacher's weary eyelids — hence rises that modern 
curse " Insomnia," which is the common bane of brain-workers 
and which has inflicted untold suffering upon countless victims, 
bringing some into the mad-house, some into a premature grave, 
or others into committing suicide, a notable example of which 
occurred at the Hartford Institution two or three years ago. 
By the unfortunate death of Prof. Storrs, the profession lost one 
of its chief ornaments — a scholar and an enthusiast. His sudden 
taking off serves to point the moral which has been referred to, 
and to adorn a tale of hard work which has been described in 
this paper. Theref 01 e, if you value your serenity, don't seek to 
be a teacher. 

As nothing in this world is without its compensation, the 
position of a teacher has some advantages that are eagerly 
sought after. The long summer vacation gives an opportunity 
for rest to the tired brain worker, who gladly seeks the cool 
mountains, the breezy seashore or the quiet country air in pur- 
suit of health or pleasure. Others there are who seek to aug- 
ment their store of knowledge by a course of travel. An en- 
terprising New York tourist's agency has made a specialty of 
teachers' excursions to Europe at astonishingly low prices, in 


which a very interesting itinerary over the most important 
places and scenes memorable for literary, historical or other as- 
sociations is made, " personally conducted," or by guides hired 
by the company at each stopping place. The success of these 
excursions for the benefit of the school teachers proves the 
need felt by them generally of a change of scene and air. 
There has been talk of pensioning the faithful teachers who 
have grown old in the service. It is a move in the right 
direction, and will, no doubt, be fully carried out one of these 
days; for it goes without saymg that, in proportion to work 
done, the teachers as a class are the most poorly paid body of 
workers in the world. While engaged in the pursuit of their 
profession, they are unable to enter other fields of business as a 
means of adding to their slender income, and in other cases, 
they are forbidden to engage in side occupations. As a variety 
of pursuits are not only remunerative, but also useful to the 
brain which requires a change as much as the body does, a 
young man should give up the idea of being a teacher. Though 
the work in any department is hard enough, yet the teacher of 
the "pure oral method" suffers the most from the stern intensity 
of his labors, as is clearly evident from the breaking down of 
so many principals and teachers of the Northampton Institu- 
tion. One or two teachers who have resigned or left that 
school to enter other institutions where the " combined method" 
is used, stated their reason to be that the attempt to teach the 
deaf without the assistance of a ready means of illustration 
like the sign-language, is a terrible strain upon them. Yet 
these teachers who are, in the nature of their work, nothing 
less than angels of mercy, are but poorly paid for the amount 
of good work that they do. 

The most important reason why no young man who desires to 
succeed best in life should swell the noble army of teachers, 
is the well-known fact that all the professions are overcrowded, 
and though, as Daniel Webster's famous saying is, " There is 
room at the top," still it takes a long time, and an opportunity 
which may never come to you, to reach the summit. No other 
profession offers so few chances for making money enough to 
provide for the family. Most moneyed men that we know 
have not made their colossal fortunes in a single branch of 
business, but by judicious, or if you will have it, lucky invest- 
ments in real estate, stocks, shares in manufactures, etc. The 
late Mark Hopkins, only a teacher, made his millions in Union 
Pacific Railroad stocks, and he is one of very few teachers who 
have made money outside of the profession. It is an interest- 
ing fact that most of our prominent public men have been, at 
the beginning of their career, teachers, and that they turned 
into other more lucrative pursuits as soon as they could. The 
late President Garfield and Hon. James G. Blaine were once 
school masters. 


Much is expected from the graduates of this college, not only 
by the friends of the Institution, but also by Congress which 
annually appropriates money for the higher education of the 
deaf from every State in the Union. It is our duty to show 
the world that the generosity of the Nation is not uselessly 
lavished upon us. In no other way can we honor the donors 
than to lead useful lives in as many different fields of labor as 
possible. To the undergraduates I would say, " Young men, 
turn away your thoughts from the position of teachers and take 
up some other branch of industry, as the diversity of pursuits 
by which you perform your allotted share of the world's produc- 
tive labor will reflect more credit upon your Alma Mater. 
Train yourself in some technical branch of a trade, as special- 
ists are always in demand and can command higher wages." 
Skilled workmen in every trade will always be wanted, and the 
best paid deaf-mutes, in proportion to number, are found in 
machine shops. It is a mistake to suppose that teachers al- 
ways command high salaries. There are not a few graduates 
of this college who began at $300 or $400 per annum, and after 
several years have not yet been given more than $600 per 
annum. In order to assist you in seeking a diversity of 
pursuits, the college might adopt the plan of technical 
schools, like the Institute of Technology at Boston, only upon a 
smaller scale, and impart instruction in special branches of in- 
dustrial education, which is more needed by the deaf-mutes 
than any other class of people in the whole world. My advice 
is, " Don't be a teacher, if you can possibly help it." 

Mr. Allabough believed that the deaf should be encouraged 
to follow the same employments as the hearing. But, with their 
institution training, they would find it hard work at first to 
master the details of their new work. They would have much 
to learn, which could not be learned from books. He himself, 
when he left college, had entered into business employment 
among the hearing. He had found it much more difficult than 
he imagined. As his listeners knew, he had eventually return- 
ed to work among the deaf. 

Mr. Davidson said that the next monument that the deaf 
would be called upon to erect, would be to the memory of the 
man who first secured the same recognition and the same com- 
pensation for deaf teachers as their hearing co-laborers receive. 

Mr. Smith knew of one school which, from the time of its 
establishment twenty-five years ago, has shown no discrimina- 
tion between the deaf and hearing teachers in the matter of 


salary, or in any other respect. That school was the Minnesota 
School for the Deaf. 

Mr. Elwell, Pa., could not say the same of his school. There 
the deaf teachers are not remunerated on the same scale as the 
hearing teachers. 

Mr. Greener, O., was glad to hear such a good report 
from Minnesota. In the Ohio Institution the same principle 
was followed. There are different departments, but a deaf 
teacher in any department receives equal compensation with a 
hearing teacher in the same department. 

Mr. Dougherty, Mo., said that Mr. White had made several 
good points in the paper. But the deaf should not be in too 
great a hurry about adopting Mr. White's advice not to 
be teachers. A deaf teacher can do much. He can help the 
pupils more, because he understands them better than a hearing 
teacher. Pursuits such as mechanical engineering, civil 
engineering, architecture, etc., are open to the deaf. But they 
must expect to begin low and work their way up. Moat 
colleges require a two years' course in any of these special 
branches. Teaching is a noble profession. Many of the best 
teachers of the deaf are deaf themselves. " Don't be a teacher 
if you can possibly help it," is easily said ; but it is harder to 
put it into practice. 

Mr. Ziegler, Pa., did not agree with Mr. White in some 
respects. He regarded the aptitude for teaching as a gift 
of God. If one can teach successfully, let him become a 
teacher. If he can not, then let him turn to something else. 
There are plenty of other trades and professions. If more 
money is wanted, don't be a teacher. Go into some other 
business. He was pleased to hear that the deaf teachers receiv- 
ed full consideration in the Minnesota School. In Pennsylvania 
they were paid lower salaries. This was the result of an old 
custom, originating in the belief that the deaf could not do as 
efficient work as the hearing. If a deaf teacher complains of a 
low salary, let him go somewhere else. 

Mr. White moved that the discussion end. Mr. McMaster 
seconded the motion, and it passed. 


On motion of Mr. Bailey, seconded by Mr. Weeks, the con- 
vention adjourned until nine o'clock the following morning. 

Fbiday, June 28. — Morning Session. 

President George .called the convention to order at 10:20. 
On motion of Mr. Veditz, the reading of the minutes of the pre- 
vious session was dispensed with. 

Mr. Balis, Chairman of the Business Committee, made the 
following report for the order of the day : 

1. Announcing the National Executive Committee. 

2. Unfinished business. 

3. A paper on " Compulsory Education for the Deaf," by 
J. L. Smith, followed by discussion of the same. 

4. " The Purity of the Sign-Language," by W. H. Weeks. 

5. The Alphabet in the Public Schools. Discussion. 

6. Prof. Bell's Theory. Discussion. 

7. Resolutions. 

The report was accepted by the Convention. 

President George then read the list of names of delegates 
chosen by him to constitute the new National Executive Com- 

Mr. Dougherty moved that Utah, the District of Columbia, 
and any Territory represented in the Convention be entitled to 
representation on the committee. Mr. Allabough seconded the 

Mr. LeClercq moved that the Constitution be amended to that 
effect. Mr. Smith said that, as the Constitution had been 
formally adopted, it could only be amended as itself provided. 
Mr. LeClercq's motion was ruled out. 

Mr. Dougherty's motion then passed unanimously. 

The President then named H. C. White, Utah, and C. K. 
W. Strong, D. C, as additional members of the Committee. 
As completed, it stands : 

third national convention of the deaf. 51 

National Executive Committee. 

W. S. Johnson, Ala. Albert Ballin, N. J. 

W. H. Weeks, Ct. E. A. Hodgson, N. Y. 

G. W. Veditz, Col. R. P. McGregor, O. 

J. H. Cloud, 111. S. G. Davidson, Pa. 

S. J. Vail, Ind. O. Kinsman, R. I. 

A. F. Adams, Iowa. T. H. Coleman, S. C. 

G. W. Wakefield, Me. W. O. Bbanum, Tenn. 

F. W. Bigelow, Mass. Job Turner, Va. 

J. A. Wells, Md. A. D. Hats, W. Va. 

Willis Hubbard, Mich. T. Hagerty, Wis. 

G. T. Dougherty, Mo. J. T. Keefe, Vt. 

J. L. Smith, Minn. C. K. W. Strong, D. C. 

H. C. White, Utah. 

Mr. Greener said that there had been a plan to call upon 
President Harrison in the afternoon. But it was one of the 
President's busy days, and he could not possibly receive the 
members of the convention that day. 

President George read a communication from Mr. Froehlich, 
who was unable to attend the session on account of an accident. 
He wished to extend his thanks to those who had aided him in 
collecting the funds for the Memorial. Especially did he thank 
the teachers of the California school, the principals of schools, 
those not members of the Association who had aided him, Messrs. 
Ziegler, Allabough, Veditz, and Tilden, and all others_who had 
shown zeal in the work. 

Mr. Dougherty moved that the Executive Committee adjourn 
from the convention to hold a meeting. Mr. Fairman seconded. 
Mr. Veditz moved an amendment that a recess be taken, but 
subsequently withdrew his motion. 

Mr. Smith said that there were only seven members of the 
Committee in the room, and they could not very well hold a 
meeting and transact business. 

Mr. Weeks thought it better to hold a meeting of the Com- 
mittee before the final adjournment of the convention, because, 
after that, the members of the Committee would be scattered, 
whereas quite a number were now together subject to call. 


Mr. Dougherty's motion, being put to vote, failed to pass. 

A motion was made by Mr. Denison that the President ascertain 
the sentiment of the Convention as to the next place of meet- 
ing. Motion carried. 

Mr. Dougherty took the floor and presented a cordial invita- 
tion from the St. Louis Deaf -Mute Club to the Association to 
hold its next convention in that city. Mr. Dougherty then 
went on to present the claims and advantages of St. Louis, 
and urged the Convention to accept the invitation. The hos- 
pitable Southern heart of the people of St. Louis would be open 
to receive them and make their stay pleasant and profitable. 

Mr. Elwell remarked that no doubt St. Louis had many ad- 
vantages, but he was in favor of Chicago. 

A vote was then taken, and a clear majority of the members 
declared in favor of Chicago. 

Mr. Strong then read the following letter from the venerable 
Edmund Booth, of Anamosa, Iowa. 


Anamosa, Iowa, June 11, 1889. 

Mr. Draper :— I see in the Journal that I am expected to say some- 
thing on Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet before McGregor delivers the oration. 
Age and hot weather in Summer are all that keep me away. I have just 
written something to be read if thought fit. I use pencil because my 
hand is unsteady with pen. 

I hope everything will pass well on the 26th, etc. 

Suppose the next national convention be at Columbus, or at Chicago ? 
More central than on the sea coast. 

Yours very truly, 

Edmund Booth. 

Next on the programme was a paper on " Compulsory Edu- 
cation for the Deaf," which was delivered in signs by Mr. 
Smith, and read orally by Prof. J. 0. Gordon. 



" For a moral and intelligent people, a republican govern- 
ment is the best in the world ; for an immoral and ignorant peo- 
ple, it is the worst." 

When the sovereignty of a nation is exercised by the citizen, 
it is essential that he shall be both morally and intellectually 


qualified to properly discharge the grave and responsible duties 
of citizenship. That republic is the the most stable, and most 
nearly approximates the ideal of perfect government, whose 
citizens are so qualified ; and that is the weakest, where" they 
are least fitted for those duties. 

In the universal education of the people lies the source of good 
government and the perpetuity of our liberties. The illiterate, 
ignorant citizen, is the greatest enemy of the nation. The in- 
flux of a foreign anarchistic and socialistic element into this 
country, is fraught with serious menace to the healthy life of 
the republic. 

Popular education is the true foundation of our country's 
greatness, and the common school is the bulwark of the nation. 
The first and highest duty of the state is to provide adequate 
means for the moral and intellectual advancement of its citizens, 
for upon this depends its own perpetuity and prosperity. 

Compulsory and restrictive legislation of all kinds meets with 
strong opposition. The cry is raised that it is contrary to the 
spirit of the Declaration of Independence, and assails the liberty 
guaranteed equally to all men by the Constitution. Thus is the 
sacred name of liberty made a shield for individual selfishness 
and oppression. " O Liberty, what crimes are committed in 
thy name !" 

But there is a wide distinction to be made between liberty 
and license. The liberty of one man ends where it begins to 
infringe upon the rights of another. Upon this ground the 
United States Supreme Court decided that the Kansas Prohibi- 
tory Law was constitutional. The Kansas brewers claimed that 
it interfered with their right to carry on a legitimate business. 
The Court decided that the state was perfectly justified in pro- 
hibiting a business regarded as detrimental to the public good. 

The chief objection made to compulsory education is that it 
interferes with the divine right of parents to control their chil- 
dren as they see fit. And have the children no rights ? Is their 
whole future to lie at the mercy of ignorant, careless, or vicious 
parents, who would rob them of their share of the fruits of that 
freedom won by the valor of our fathers ? 

Side by side with the divine right of parents, there is divine 
duty; — the duty to properly train the moral and intellectual 
nature of the child. When the parents fail in this duty, the 
state is justified in interfering, so that the rights of the parents 
may not become the wrongs of the children. 

Cardinal Manning says : " The state has a duty to protect 
the children abandoned by careless and criminal parents, and 
nobly to protect the rights of such children to the inheritance 
of a human and Christian education. What parents ought to 
do, and through their own unnatural abandonment of their 


children do not do, the state has both right and duty to pro- 
vide for." 

A writer in a recent number of the Forum, commenting on 
the same subject, observes : " The state has a right to guard its 
own existence, and to provide what is essential to its well-being. 
There can be no parental claim that nullifies this right ; for the 
child has duties to perform as a member of the civil community, 
as well as obligations within the family circle. The state, as 
really as the family, is a divine institution. * * 
* * * It is the right of the state to require that the 
whole people shall be taught, in early life, the rudiments of 
learning, and to provide effectual means to this end through 
public schools to be supported by general taxation. If this is 
what is meant by Compulsory Education, it is righteous and 

The parent who sends his child into the world uneducated, 
defrauds the community of a useful citizen, and bequeaths to 
it a nuisance. In the case of parents who starve, beat and 
otherwise physically maltreat their children, the sentiment of 
the community approves, nay, demands, the interference of the 
law. By as much as the moral and intellectual in man is 
superior to the physical, by so much should legal interference be 
justified to prevent parents from depriving their children of 
the development of their higher nature. 

There is no form of human bondage more pitiable and degrad- 
ing than bondage of the mind and soul. The body may be en- 
slaved, be loaded with chains, be placed behind prison bars, 
and yet the intellectual and spiritual may remain free and un- 
trammeled, defying all restraint. Imprisonment and threats of 
physical violence could not drive from the mind of Galileo his 
grand conceptions of the plan of the universe. Inside of prison 
walls Cervantes 

"Laughed Spain's chivalry away," 

and from a cell in Bedford Jail came the immortal " Pilgrim's 

But enchain a human mind and soul with the fetters of 
ignorance and superstition ; shut out every ray of the light of 
knowledge; and we have a human being robbed of the heritage 
of the ages, with the divine image of the Creator almost obliter- 

Whatever arguments there may be in favor of compulsory 
education in general, have fourfold weight when we consider 
the compulsory education of the deaf. The hearing child, 
neglected by his parents, yet has means of communication with 
his fellow beings, and from association, may acquire a great 
deal of information, and may even come to occupy a useful 
position in life. 


Not so the deaf child. His physical misfortune closes the 
natural avenue to the mind. Debarred thereby from communi- 
cation with his fellow beings, his mind remains a blank. He 
sees the busy, bustling world around him ; the crowds of happy j 
active, eager people passing to and fro ; his eyes take in the 
beauties of nature, the manifold wonders of the physical world; 
but all these things make no impression upon his mind. Hav- 
ing eyes, he sees not. He knows not that he, too, has a part in 
the busy world. He knows not even that he has a mind and 
soul, and a merciful Creator. Surrounded by all the accumu- 
lated knowledge of centuries, not one atom penetrates his mind. 
In the midst of thousands, he is a lonely exile in a world of 
silence and desolation. 

" Water, water everywhere, 
Nor any drop to drink." 

The saddest thought of all is, that behind all this darkness 
and solitude, there are a mind and soul all ready to leap alive to 
the touch of the magic wand of knowledge. 

It is estimated that there are 30,000 deaf persons in the 
United States. Of these, about 8,000 are now at school. Pro- 
bably eight or ten thousand have received more or less educa- 
tion, leaving twelve or fourteen thousand in complete ignorance. 
In many of our States, "less than half of the deaf children of 
school age are at school. Many are sent to school at an age 
when they should more properly be sent from school as grad- 
uates. The visitor to almost any school for the deaf is struck 
by the sight of great, overgrown boys and girls — often men and 
women in age and stature — slowly and painfully plodding 
along side by side with bright little children of seven or eight 
years, learning the names of the simplest common objects, 
which the ordinary infant in its mother's arms has at its 
tongue's end. A sad commentary are such cases upon the wilful 
neglect or criminal ignorance of the parents, and a powerful 
plea for State interference to prevent them. To witness the 
heart-breaking efforts of these adults in years, but babies in 
intellect, to traverse the path of knowledge ; and to see the 
stamp of unutterable sadness impressed on their features, as 
they realize the hopelessness of their endeavors ; is sufficient to 
make any one a warm champion of compulsory education for 
the deaf. 

Many other children are sent to school for a year or more, 
and then, on some insufficient pretext or other, are withdrawn, 
and return no more, passing the rest of their lives with only 
this sip at the fountain of knowledge. 

A law for the compulsory education of the deaf, to be effec- 
tual, must be thorough. 

First. It should require the State to provide ample accommo- 


dations for all the deaf children of school age within its borders. 
Second. It should provide for the payment, preferably by the 
counties, of the traveling and clothing expenses of children 
whose parents are unable to do it. Third. It should positively 
require that the children be sent to school at the earliest school 
age — seven or eight years. Fourth. It should require that 
the children remain in school until they complete a full course, 
both in the educational and industrial departments. 

There is no better place than a great national convention, 
such as this, to inaugurate a movement looking toward compul- 
sory education for the deaf. The alumni associations in the 
different States could take the matter up, and present memorials 
on the subject to the State legislatures. 

The noble work, commenced by the great benefactor whom 
we are gathered to honor, will not attain its fullest develop- 
ment until every deaf child from Cape Cod to the Golden Gate, 
from the borders of Manitoba to the warm water/ of the Gulf, is 
guaranteed the precious boon of an intellectual and industrial 
training. If such a result is to be obtained only through the 
operation of a strict compulsory law, let us all unite our efforts 
and work for such a law until we get it. 

And then, if ever the day arrives when the much-discussed 
"deaf variety of the human race" becomes a living reality, 
there is the consolation of knowing that it will be an educated 
"deaf variety," and, as such, divested of half its real or 
imaginary terrors. 

Mr. Bailey, Mass., spoke a few words in commendation of 
the points set forth in the paper. He laid especial stress upon 
the importance of moral training for the deaf. 

Mr. Weeks, while acknowledging the importance of education 
for the deaf, yet saw many objections to a compulsory law, which 
it would be difficult to overcome. 

Mr. Teegarden, Pa., expressed his unqualified approval of the 
paper as a whole. He believed that all deaf people would agree 
with the sentiments therein contained. 

Mr. Elwell expressed himself to the same purpose as Mr. Tee- 
garden. He did not consider the objections raised by Mr. 
Weeks as at all weighty. 

Mr. Schory, O., believed strongly in compulsory educa- 
tion for the deaf. He dwelt at some length upon the condition 
of the deaf in Ohio, and by certain facts and figures demon- 
strated how necessary a compulsory law was. Such a law had 


been passed by the last Ohio Legislature. It would go into 
effect next January, and the result of its operation was awaited 
with much interest by the friends of education. 

Mr. Elwell moved that the paper be accepted as the senti- 
ment of the Convention, but, at the suggestion of Mr. Dough- 
erty, it was referred to the Committee on Resolutions. The 
discussion then ended. 

Mr. Weeks followed with a paper on "The Purity of the 
Sign Language," which he delivered in signs. 



The history of the progress and development of the sign 
language is the history of all languages. The farther they go 
from the original source, the more they lose in their original 
purity and strength. The English of to-day, while more prac- 
tical and more universal than the English of Bunyan and 
Shakespeare, has lost much of its natural strength. The sign 
language, granting even all that maybe said of its imperfections, 
is the grandest means yet devised for rapidity and clearness of 
communication with the deaf. But there are a few thoughts 
upon this subject to which I ask your attention. 

1st. Signing must be clear. Everything else may be pardon- 
ed, but if signing is not plain, it loses its distinctive function as 
an instrument of thought. There are many other qualities 
necessary to the communication of clear and definite ideas, but 
this one of perspicuity stands at the head. It should be present- 
ed in all its original clearness, and its historical identity be 

2d. Vivacity. Signs, even if perspicuous, will fail of making 
a permanent impression unless they are presented with some 
degree of vivacity. Energy in sign-making is just as desirable 
as energy in written composition, or in the delivery of an oral 
speech. Indifference diminishes the force of speech and makes 
its rendering dull and uninteresting. 

3d. The third point is Purity. We must hold fast to the 
original purity and strength of our signs. There is a tendency 
to invent new signs, some of which mean nothing. Many of 
the good old signs have been chopped and clipped so that they 
have lost much of their original force. Loose signs coupled 
with mechanical signs take their place. Their identity is hard- 
ly perceptible, and as much of their force has been curtailed by 
cramping, they appear at a distance nearly as motionless as a 


fly showing only the signs of life. There is dignity and mean- 
ing in the gestures taught by Laurent Clerc and his associates, 
but, as their signs travel westward and southward, they are so 
transformed as to lose their identity. The sign for "faith" has 
become the sign for doubt, the sign for " if " gives one the im- 
pression of judging, the sign for " water" combines water and 
saliva. Why is not the moving sign for water ample ? These 
loose signs have a tendency to — 

4. Slang sign-making. It is astonishing what a number of 
slang signs have crept into our institutions. For example, I 
will point to the word " examination," the sign for which is put 
your forefingers to your temples and then bring all the fingers 
forward denoting the sign for attack, that is the students are 
attacked with a number of eyes ; for " stone" put forefinger to 
your teeth and strike them with the point ; there is no distinc- 
tion between stone, iron or hard wood. To denote the sign 
don't care, one will either make an attempt to catch the mind 
at the point of the nose and throw it aside, and it is sad to re- 
late that the sign has become of more degraded a nature by 
drawing the forefinger under the nose, and then throwing it 
aside ; and yet what a large number of the deaf use the latter 
sign, even in the company of the gentler sex. Sensible people 
are disgusted at the above sign and become prejudiced against 
all sign-making. The sign for a countryman shows that he 
possesses an uneven beard, and the act of drawing the hand un- 
der the chin gives one the impression of cutting the throat with 
the thumb. Even college students use a slang sign for eat, 
which they term "short cut." It is made by passing the open 
hand down the right side of the cheek as seen in a shadow pic- 
ture. All those unseemly signs should not be permitted to 
spread over the land, for they disfigure the purity of the lan- 
guage, and cause as much confusion as the languages at the 
tower of Babel. And to render sign-making admired, it must be 

The quality most desired in good sign-making is grace. 
Grace in the rendering of signs coupled with clearness makes 
an ideal sign-maker. Nothing is more admired in sign-making 
than grace. It renders the act as full of music as of form. 

Mr. Denison agreed with Mr. Weeks as to the importance of 
maintaining the purity of the sign-language. He was willing 
to acknowledge Mr. Weeks as a professor of the sign-language. 
Rut it was permitted for a pupil to sometimes disagree with 
his teacher. He disagreed with Mr. Weeks on one point. He 
did not. believe, as Mr. Weeks did, that the sign-language had 
degenerated. We had plenty of examples to the contrary in 
the Convention. 


Mr. Fairman, Mass., spoke a few words in eulogy of Laurent 
Clerc as a master of the sign-language. 

But the climax of the discussion was attained when Mr. W. 
G. Jones, N. Y., took the floor in defence of the sign-language 
of to-day. Mr. Jones has a national reputation as a sign-maker. 
For ten or fifteen minutes he kept the Convention convulsed 
with laughter by means of his inimitable gestures. Yet he, all 
the while, managed to present some powerful arguments to the 
effect that the sign-language had not degenerated. When Mr. 
Jones had finished, all felt that no more remained to be said. 

President George then called Vice-President Bigelow to the 
chair, and in his capacity as member of the Committee on Cen- 
sus, handed in the following report : 

Report of the Committee on Census. 

The Committee on Census beg leave to present the following 
report : — 

The very short time at the disposal of your committee before 
the departure of one member for Paris and another for 
Wyoming Ter., has prevented the thorough examination that 
the importance of the subject demands. We find that the Hon. 
Robert P. Porter, Superintendent of the Census, has already 
acceded to the request of the Standing Committee of the Con- 
vention of American Instructors of the Deaf, to separate the 
returns of the Deaf from the odious association with the pauper 
and criminal classes as in the Tenth Census. 

Other important points of vital interest to us as citizens and 
members of society are still held in abeyance by the Superin- 
tendent of the Census. We find that the Census of Italy con- 
tains statistics of professions, occupations or business of the 
deaf in Italy ; also statistics of the unmarried, married, widow- 
ed; able to read and write, and unable to read and write. 
Similar statistics may be found in the census of the Nether- 
lands and in that of Russia. 

The glaring omission of such statistics from the last census 
of the United States has been noted in Lord Iddesleigh's Report 
presented to the House of Commons in pursuance of their 
address to Her Majesty, dated August 13, 1885, page 57. 

When we turn to the special volume of the Tenth Census, we 
are pained to find no returns of the marital and family relations 
of the deaf, nor any information in regard to their occupations 
or wealth-producing power. We see evidences of carelessness 


and neglect on the part of enumerators, and of incompetency on 
the part of compilers of the last census, resulting in grossly in- 
accurate tables. 

We are glad to know that the new law makes it possible to 
secure competent and faithful enumerators, and we hope that all 
statistics of the deaf may be collected under the supervision of 
some one thoroughly familiar with this subject. 

We desire that care be taken to separate those who do not 
speak because they can not hear, from those who are dumb be- 
cause they are idiotic. We have not the time to present our 
views as fully as we could wish, but we commend to the atten- 
tion of this Convention the letter on the subject from the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of Instructors in the July Annals. And we 
recommend that Mr. George, the president of this Association, 
be authorized, in his official capacity, to address a letter to the 
Hon. Robert P. Porter, Superintendent of the Tenth Census, 
urging the importance of an accurate and complete census of 
the deaf, and that the president be guided in his letter by the 
letter already sent in the name of the committee of educators 
appointed at the Jackson, Miss., Conference. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Thos. F. Fox, Chairman. 

Melville Ballard. 

D. W. George. 

Mr. Veditz moved that the report be accepted. Mr. Balis 

seconded, and the motion passed without debate. 

Following is the correspondence between the President of the 

National Association and Hon. Robert Porter, Superintendent 

of the Census, in pursuance to the above report : 

Jacksonville, III., July 24, 1889. 
Hon. Robert P. Porter, Superintendent of the Census, 

Dear Sir :— At the convention of the National Association of the Deaf, 
held in Washington City on the 26th, 27th and 28th ult., the subject of the 
proper enumeration of the deaf and the collection of statistics relating to 
them was under discussion, and the convention instructed me, in my ca- 
pacity as president of the Association, to address you and respectfully call 
your attention to the importance of providing better methods than have 
heretofore been in use. The matter has already been fully discussed be- 
fore you by Messrs. E. M. Gallaudet, I. L. Peet, P. G. Gillett, J. L. Noyes, 
A. G. Bell, E. A. Fay and Miss Caroline Yale, a committee representing 
the Sixth Conference of Superintendents and Principals of Schools for the 
Deaf, and the committee has addressed you a letter containing sugges- 
tions in regard to more reliable methods in the enumeration of the deaf • 
The convention instructs me to say that the suggestions contained there- 
in are fully approved, and it is earnestly hoped that they will receive your 
careful consideration. 

Yours respectfully, 

D. Webster George, 
President National Association of the Deaf. 

third national convention of the deaf. 61 

Department of the Interior, ) 
Census Office. f 

"Washington, D. C, July 29, 1889. 
Mr. D. Webster George, President National Association of the Deaf, 
Jacksonville, III. 
Dear Sir : — I am in receipt of your letter of the 34th instant in relation 
to the collection of statistics relating to the deaf in the forthcoming 
census. Dr. John S. Billings is the special agent in charge of mortality 
and vital statistics, and your communication has been referred to him 
with the request that he will answer it. 

Very respectfully, 

Robert P. Porter, 

Superintendent of the Census. 

Department of the Interior, ) 
Census Office. f 

Washington, D. C. July 31, 1889. 
Mr. D. Webster George, President, National Association of the 

Deaf, Jacksonville, HI. 
Dear Sir :— Your letter of July 24th, addressed to the Superintendent of 
the Census, relative to a more accurate collection of statistics relating to 
the deaf in the next enumeration of the people has been referred to me. 
In reply, I have the honor to inform you that the importance and interest 
of this matter is fully recognized, and that the recommendations of the 
committee of the Conference of Superintendents and Principals of Schools 
for the Deaf, contained in a communication dated June 22, 1889, and ad- 
dressed to the Superintendent of the Census, will receive most careful con- 

The subject of the preparation of schedules for the enumeration of the 
population, and of special schedules for special classes, will probably be 
taken up in the course of the next two months, and then the suggestions 
of the committee be carefully studied. i 

Very respectfully, 
J. S. Billings, 

Surgeon IT. S. Army. 

In charge of Mortality and Vital Statistics, Eleventh Census. 

Mr. Greener moved that Mr. E. A. Hodgson and Mr. Robert 
Patterson be authorized to represent the convention at the Paris 
Congress. Mr. Veditz seconded the motion. 

Mr. Charles, O., moved an amendment that a telegram be 
sent to the gentlemen named, at New York, informing them of 
their appointment. The amendment was accepted, and the 
motion thus amended was passed. 

Mr. Weeks spoke about the American Asylum for the Deaf 
and Dumb. He explained how it came to be so named in the 
first place. . The name was now very inappropriate, and a 
change would be hailed with pleasure by the deaf and their 


friends. He accordingly presented a resolution to the effect 
that the secretary should write to the Board of Directors of the 
American Asylum, asking them, in the name of the National 
Association, to change the name of the Asylum, recommending 
as a substitute the title, " Gallaudet School for the Deaf." 

Mr. F. W. Bigelow and Mr. H. C. White earnestly seconded 
the resolution. Mr. White remarked that the word " asylum" 
was no longer applicable to our schools. That it was so applied 
as the result of a misapprehension on the part of the public. 

The resolution was adopted unanimously. 

Pursuant to the above, the secretary subsequently wrote the 
following letter : 

" To the Board of Directors of the American Asylum for 
the Deaf and Dumb, Hartford, Conn. : 

" Gentlemen : — At the National Convention of the Deaf 
held in Washington last June, a resolution, presented by Mr. 
W. H. Weeks, and seconded by Mr. F. W. Bigelow and Mr. H. 
C. White, was unanimously adopted, instructing the secretary 
to address you in the name of the National Association of the 
Deaf, requesting you to take the necessary steps toward chang- 
ing the name of the 'American Asylum for the Deaf and 
Dumb ' to the ' Gallaudet School for the Deaf.' 

" Some of the reasons given why such a change is desirable 
were, that when the name ' American Asylum ' was bestowed 
upon the school, it was the only one of its kind in America. 
Hence ' American' was appropriate. The establishment of so 
many like schools in the country deprives the word of its former 
distinctive meaning. 

"As to the word 'Asylum,' it was first used as the result of 
a misapprehension of the true scope and design of the school. 
As employed and understood at the present day, the word is 
clearly inapplicable to a purely educational institution such as 
the one under your direction. 

" Hoping that the matter will receive your favorable consi- 
deration, I remain 

" Very respectfully yours, 

" J. L. Smith, 
" Secretary of the National Association of the Deaf." 

" Faribault, Minn., Sept. 5, 1889." 

The hour for luncheon had now arrived, and Mr. Dougherty 
moved that the convention adjourn until eight o'clock in the 
evening. He subsequently withdrew his motion. 


Mr. Bailey moved that adjournment be taken until two o'clock 
in the afternoon. Passed. 

Fbidat, June 28. — Afternoon Session. 

President George opened the session at 2 :30 p.m. 

During the recess the Executive Committee had held a meet- 
ing, and Mr. Veditz, who had been chosen as secretary of the 
committee, was called upon to give a report of the meeting. 

The committee had met with a majority present. Mr. 
Veditz was chosen secretary. The question of the place of 
holding the next National Convention then came up. Mr. 
Dougherty proposed St. Louis. Mr. McGregor favored Chicago. 
A vote was taken, and Chicago was declared to be the place. 

The following bills were presented, allowed, and ordered 
paid : 

Mr. J. B. Hotchkiss, for postage and stationery, fifty-two 

Mr. C. K. W. Strong, for • postage, stationery, and street-car 
fare, $1.25. 

On motion of Mr. Smith, a vote of thanks was extended to 
the St. Louis Deaf-Mute Club for the cordial invitation to the 
Association to hold its next meeting there. 

Mr. McGregor was appointed as chairman of the committee. 
The committee then adjourned. 

On motion of Mr. Allabough, seconded by Mr. Balis, the 
report of the Executive Committee was accepted. 

Mr. Schory then sought to introduce a resolution of thanks, 
but was ruled out of order. 

Dr. E. M. Gallaudet entered the hall, and announced that he 
had just received, by express, from Mr. W. K. Chase, some 
decorative emblems designed to embellish the walls of the hall 
where the Convention held its meetings. Unfortunately they 
had arrived too late. Mr. Strong moved a recess of five minutes 
to allow the members to inspect the decorations. 

After the recess, the subject of the " Manual Alphabet in the 
Public Schools" was brought up for discussion. 


Mr. Denison spoke for a few minutes, giving reasons why the 
use of the manual alphabet by the hearing should be encouraged. 
Then he went on to tell how it could best be done. 

Mr. Smith then made a motion that the subject be referred to 
the National Executive Committee, with instructions to do what 
they could to further the project, and if necessary to draw on 
the funds of the Association to defray expenses. The motion 
was seconded by Mr. Veditz, and passed unanimously. 

Mr. Balis moved that the discussion of Prof. Bell's Theory be 
dropped for want of time. Carried. 

Resolutions were then in order, and the following were pre- 
sented and adopted unanimously : 

By Mr. Schory, seconded by Mr. Greener : — 

Resolved, That the Secretary of the Convention be instructed to extend 
a vote of thanks to the President of the College, and the Faculty, and to 
the Matron of the Institution, for their kindness in extending the hospital- 
ity of the Institution to the members of the Convention and invited guests. 

By Mr. Veditz :— 

Resol/oed, That the attention of the Faculty of the National Deaf-Mute 
College be respectfully called to the subject of a technical department in 
the College for instruction in special branches of industry, as suggested 
by Mr. Henry C. White in his paper entitled " Don't," and that their 
favorable consideration of the subject be solicited. 

By Mr. Smith :— 

Resolved, That the sentiment of this Convention is strongly in favor of 
State legislation to compel the education of deaf children ; and those hav- 
ing the management of the State institutions in hand, the alumni associa- 
tions, the societies, and the friends of the deaf in general, are earnestly 
urged to present the matter to the State legislatures, and to do all in their 
power to secure the passage of strict compulsory educational laws for 
the deaf in all of the States. 

By Mr. McGregor : — 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Convention are extended to the 
National Executive Committee, to Treasurer Draper, and to the Local 
Committee, for their services in making the Memorial and the ceremonies 
attendant upon its unveiling a success. 

By Mr. George : — 

Resolved, That Messrs. A. G. Draper and T. A. Froehlich continue to 
have charge of all business pertaining to the Memorial until it is finally 
disposed of. 

By Mr. Jones : — 

Resolved, That thanks are hereby extended to Mr. "W. K. Chase for his 
generous contribution of decorations for the Convention hall. 


By Mr. Bailey : — 

Resolved, That thanks are given to railroads and hotels which favored 
the delegates to the Convention with reduced rates. 

By Mr. Greener : — 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Association are due, and are hereby 
extended, to the press of the city for their fair and impartial reports of the 
proceedings of the Convention. 

By Mr. Bailey : — 

ResoVved, That the Executive Committee be instructed to print the Pro- 
ceedings of the Convention. 

By Mr. Greener : — 

Resolved, That the Thanks of the Association are due, and are heartily 
extsnded to President E. M. Gallaudet, Dr. Thomas Gallaudet, Profs. F. 
W. Booth, E. A. Fay, J. C. Gordon, J. B. Hotchkiss, J. W. Chickering, 
and others, for interpreting the proceedings of the Convention. 

Mr. Strong read the following letter from Mr. J. Crossett : 

Shanghai, China. 
To friends of the Deaf in China who meet in Convention in Washing- 
ton, D. C, June 36, 1889: 

Will you regard with deep interest our need of teachers for the Deaf in 
Eastern Asia. If you will recommend teachers to us, write an address to 
the friends of the Deaf in Asia, and put on foot plans for supplying the 
wants of China and adjoining countries. It would be a noble thin<r. The 
address would be published in the papers of China (and perhaps Japan), 
which are issued in the English language, and it could be translated into 
Chinese and made public in the native prints. These papers have done 
much and are ready to do more in this line. 

The Shanghai Mercury is printing freely all that we ask for, and its 
editor proposes to gather the information into a little volume. 

Please send to "Editor of Shanghai Mercury, Shanghai, China," your 
Institution newspapers regularly, and also enclose in envelopes articles 
to be printed or reprinted, directing as above. 

Address also the local committees for the Institution work for the Deaf 
in Shanghai and Peking. Letters or papers addressed " President or 
Secretary of the Deaf Belief, Shanghai, China, or Peking, China," would 
always reach the right parties. • 

It is still hoped, as before proposed in the Annals, that a Committee of 
Advice and Consultation be sent to Japan and China. 

Do, dear brethren, regard the sad and too long delayed condition of 
helplessness in which Asiatic deaf-mutes are left. 

Yours truly, 

May 15, '89. J. Crossett. 

On motion of Mr. Veditz, the letter was referred to the Na- 
tional Executive Committee. 

Mr. Strong announced that the boat would leave Washington 
for the excursion to Mt. Vernon at ten o'clock the following 
morning, returning at three o'clock in the afternoon. Tickets 
could be obtained of him at the Ebbit House that evening. 

Mr. McGregor moved that the Convention adjourn sine die, 
but by special request he suspended his motion for a while. 


Mr. Allabough said that the Western Pennsylvania Picnic 
Association invited the members of the convention to attend a 
picnic on the Fourth of July. 

Dr. E. M. Gallaudet asked leave to speak a few words before 
the final adjournment was taken. 

He had no doubt that the Convention had had all the talk it 
wanted, but he could not let it go without saying a few words. 
He was sorry that he had been obliged to be so often absent, 
and that he had missed the debates. He had been especially 
busy, and had to do the thing he must, rather than the thing he 
wanted to do. He felt very proud of the Association. The de- 
legates had met, and discussed matters with all the dignity of 
manhood and womanhood. Tliey had shown the world that, 
given an education, the deaf ask no more favors. This Con- 
vention marks an epoch in the history of the deaf. They have 
set up a beautiful milestone. May the future add more and 
more lustre. May they meet often and help, by discussion, to 
solve the educational and social problems relating to the deaf. 
Let them co-operate with all intelligent men who are laboring 
to help the deaf. Professor Bell is one of these. He is a noble 
man, who gives his time and money for the benefit of the deaf. 
He (Dr. Gallaudet) has met him often, and knows him well. 
They two do not agree on all points, and have frequent ar- 
guments. Prof. Bell is the friend of the deaf. Meet his theories 
by facts and prove them wrong. He is sincere and generous, 
full of enthusiasm in all that he doe's. 

In closing, Dr. Gallaudet said that he wished that he could 
have done more to make the meeting of the Convention pleasant 
to all concerned. He hoped to see the day when he could meet 
all there again. 

Dr. Gallaudet spoke with deep feeling, and his remarks were 
listened to attentively and made an impression upon all. 

Mr. McGregor's motion to adjourn sine die was then brought 
up and passed. 

After an earnest prayer by the venerable Professor Samuel 
Porter, the Third Convention of the National Association of the 
Deaf came to an end. 




W. S. Johnson, Talladega. I. L. Strauss, Montgomery. 


George W. Veditz, Colorado Springs. 


H. M. Fairman, Hartford. Robert D. Beers, Bridgeport. 

Mrs H. M Fairman, Hartford. James M. Allen, Melrose. 

William H. Weeks, Hartford. Mrs. Kate Miller, Thompsonville. 

Jonathan P. Marsh, Bristol. B. Newton Parsons, Bridgeport. 

District of Columbia. 
James Denison, Kendall Green. John Donnell, Washington City. 

Amos Draper, Kendall Green. Melville Ballard, Kendall Green. 

Ranald Douglas, Kendall Green. C. K. W. Strong, Washington City. 

Fred. Wedekind, Chicago. Thomas J. Rogers, Jacksonville. 

Oscar P. Regensberg, Chicago. Philip J. Hasenstab, Jacksonville. 

Rev. James H. Cloud, Jacksonville. D. Webster George, Jacksonville. 

Sidney J. Vail, Indianapolis. S. A. Heilbronner, Fort Wayne. 

Charles Kerney, Evansville. E. N. Bowes, Michigan City. 

A. F. Adams, Dubuque. 

Hiram P. Hunt, Gray. George W. Wakefield, Brownfleld. 

James S. Wells, Baltimore. H. Frieschmann, Randallstown. 

Charles M. Grow, Frederick City. 

F. W. Bigelow, Chelsea. Miss E. A. Boynton, Winchendon . 

F. S: Crossman, Springfield. George A. Converse, Winchendon. 

William Bailey, Beverley. Mrs. P. J. Converse, Winchendon. 

Alden F. Osgood, Natick. Henry A. Chapman, Salem. 

Oscar H. Evans, Winchendon. George T. Sanders, Haverhill. 

J. T. Keef e, Bellows Falls. 

Willis Hubbard, Flint. 

J. L. Smith. Faribault. John Schwirts, Wabasha. 

C. L. Washburn, Minneapolis. Jay C. Howard, Duluth. 

L. W. Saunders, Jackson. 

Leo A. Froning, St. Louis. Geo. T. Dougherty, St. Louis. 

Charles Wolff, St. Louis. Mrs, Geo. T. Dougherty, St. Louis. 

Marcus H. Kerr, St. Louis. Louis Jacoby, St. Louis. 

Henry Gross, St. Louis. 

68 third national convention of the deaf. 

New Jersey. 
Mrs. D. J. Ward, Newark. Anthony Capelli, Hoboken. 

Albert Ballin, Hoboken. S. W. McClelland, Mount View. 

Walter McDougall, Jersey City. 

New York. 

Solomon P. Cornelius, New York. Adolph Pfeiffer, New York. 

Moses Heyman, New York. James Gass, New York. 

Mrs. Moses Heyman, New York. A. C. Bacharach, New York. 

Theodore A. Froehlich. New York. Charles Bothner, New York. 

P. W. Nuboer. New York. W. L. Waters, Brooklyn. 

Mrs. Dr. T. Gallaudet, New York. George Taggard, Brooklyn. 

W. G. Jones, New York. Henry J. Haight, Goshen. 

Thomas F. Fox, New York. Mrs. Henry J. Haight, Goshen. 

E. A. Hodgson, New York. Thomas Godfrey, Brooklyn. 

Charles J. LeClercq, New York. Henry Van Allen, Utica. 

J. F. J. Tresch, New York. C. Cuddeback, Lyons. 

Emanuel Souweine, New York. Fred'k W. Meinken, Cornwall. 
Mrs. Emanuel Souweine, New York. S. A. Taber, Auburn. 

Charles McMann, New York. R. J. Martling, Port Chester. 

Joseph Yankauer, New York. Mrs. R. J. Martling, Port Chester. 
Thomas Schneider, Port Richmond. 

Robert Patterson, Columbus. R. H. Atwood, Columbus. 

A. H. Schory, Columbus. Albert C. Powell, Findlay. 

A. B. Greener, Columbus. Christian Meyer, Cleveland. 

R. P. McGregor, Columbus. Mrs. Christian Meyer, Cleveland. 

C. W. Charles, Columbus. • Rev. A. W. Mann, Gambier. 

Josey R. Croldman, Middletown. 


B. R. Allabough, Edgewoodville. S. G. Davidson, Philadelphia. 
James C. Balis, Edgewoodville. Mrs. Mary Rocap, Philadelphia. 
George M. Teegarden, Edgewoodville. W. R. Cullingworth, Philadelphia. 
Henry Bardes, Edgewoodville. John C. Lenta, Philadelphia. 

H. H. B. McMaster, Pittsburg. W. Houston, Frankford. 

R. M. zeigler, Philadelphia. Rev. J. M. Koehler, Reading. 

J. T. Elwell, Philadelphia. Alex. L. Pach, Easton. 

James Taylor, Allegheny City. 

Rhode Island. 
Oscar Kinsman. 

South Carolina. 
T. H. Coleman, Ridgeway. R. P. Rogers, Cedar Springs, 

J. M. Hughston, Cedar Springs. 

W. O. Branum, Knoxville. 

Henry C. White, Salt Lake City. 

Rev. Job Turner, Staunton. R. J. Cone, Riverton. 

Robert Bell, Jr., Alexandria. 

West Virginia. 
A. Dudley Hays, Romney. Miss Mollie Pickens, Peel Tree. 

E. L. Chapin, Romney. Mr. G. W. Steenrod, Wheeling. 

Mrs. G. W. Steenrod, Wheeling. 

Thomas Hagerty, Manitowoc. 


Chicago, 111., 

President World's Congress of the Deaf. 


New York, 

Vice-President of the Congress. 

r. p. McGregor, 

Columbus, O., 
Chairman Program Committee. 


Jacksonville, 111. 

Vice-President of the Congress. 


Faribault, Minn. 

Secretary of the Congress. 


Chicago, 111. 

Secretary General Committee on 

Congress of the Deaf. 

Chicago, 111., 
Of the General Committee. 


Chicago, 111., 

Of the General Committee. 


Chicago, 111., 

Of the General Committee. 


New York., 

President of the National Association 

of the Deaf. 


Philadelphia, Pa., 

Second Vice-President of the National 



Indianapolis, Ind., 

Third Vice-President of the National 



Nashville, Tenn., 

Fourth Vice-President of the National 



Belleville, Ont. 

Treasurer of the National 



Colorado Springs, Col. 

Chairman Executive Committee of the 

National Association. 











JULY l8TH, 20TH AND 22ND, 


In presenting to the deaf, to their friends and to the public 
at large, the following pages, embracing the minutes and proceed- 
ings of the World's Congress of the Deaf and the Convention of 
the National Association, it may not be out of place to explain 
the cause for the delay in publication, and present certain other 
details relating to the preparation of the volume. 

The adjournment of the Congress without any definite arrange- 
ment for publishing the work of its sessions, made necessary an 
open discussion on ways and means for attaining this very desira- 
ble object, the outcome of which was the agreement of the 
National Association, through its Executive Committee, to 
appropriate $i 50.00 to meet the preliminary expenses, and the 
appointment of the undersigned as a Special Committee on Pub- 
lication. It was apparent to the Committee that in order to 
accept the lowest bid offered for printing the volume it would be 
necessary to seek further additional means. This was accom- 
plished through the request for written pledges of subscriptions, 
to which the deaf of America, with several of their prominent 
hearing friends, responded most liberally, thus assuring the appear- 
ance of the work. 

In the preparation of the copy for the printer, the Committee 
desires to acknowledge their cordial appreciation of the invaluable 
assistance rendered by Miss Agatha M. Tiegel and Messrs. Dud- 
ley W. George, George W. Veditz, Amos G. Draper, James L. 
Smith and Thomas F. Fox, who kindly undertook the task of 
making full translations of the papers presented in their vernacu- 
lars by the French, German and Italian delegates to the Congress. 
The labor of our colaborators were in a number of instances 
greatly increased by the difficulties met with in deciphering 
obscure chirograpny and the extreme length of some of the 

iv Preface. 

papers. Their success is, therefore, all the more worthy of our 
thanks in opening to us the novel and interesting fields of thought 
presented by our foreign brethren. The volume contains every 
paper offered to the Congress by those invited to contribute and 
without abridgement, and these with the report of the National 
Association from a compilation of facts, opinions and statistics 
that in future can truly be referred to as a standard work — the 
outspoken and honest expression of the deaf on special subjects 
intimately affecting their common weal. 

We send it forth in the hope that it will accomplish its mis- 
sion, the dissemination of reliable information upon the deaf 
gathered together from the leading representatives in the princi- 
pal nations of the earth. 

Thomas Francis Fox, 
Olof Hanson, 
Robert P. McGregor, 

Committee on Publication. 




Preliminary History of the Congress 9 

Organization of the Congress 13 

Proceedings of the First Day 14 

Opening Addresses. 

Mr. George T. Dougherty, 14 

Mr. Henry C. White 19 

Congratulatory Messages, 20 

Associations of the Deaf in America. 

Mr. Thomas Francis Fox, • 25 

Mr. Joseph Chazal, 37 

Mr. A. M. Watzulik 47 

Mr. Gerhard Titze, 50 

Mr. Carl Werner 51 

Invitation from the American Association to Promote the Teaching of 

Speech to the Deaf 52 

Mission Work among the Deaf of America. 

Rev. A. W. Mann 53 

Work of Missions among Adult Deal Mutes. 

Mr. Henri Jeanvoine, 57 

Protestant Deaf Mutes in France. 

Mr. Victor Lagier 62 

Mission Work among the Adult Deaf and Dumb of England and 

Mr. James Muir, 66 

Mission Work among the Adult Deaf in Ireland. 

Mr. William Eccles Harris, 71 

Mission Work among the Adult Deaf of Germany. 

Mr. A. M. Watzulik, 79 

Mission Work among the Adult Deaf in Norway. 

Mr. Carl Weiner, 81 

Newspapers for the Deaf and Dumb. 

Mr. Henry B. Beale, 82 

Newspapers for the Deaf in France. 

Mr. Henri Remy 85 

vi Contents. 

Newspapers for the Deaf in Germany. 

Mr. A. M. Watzulik, 87 

Newspapers for the Deaf in Sweden. 

Mr. Gerhard Titze 88 

Newspapers in Norway. 

Mr. Carl Weiner, 89 

The Social Status of the Deaf in America. 

Mr. F. L. Seliney 9° 

The Social Status of the Deaf in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Mr. C. Gorham, 9 2 

The Duties of Society with Regard to Deaf Mutes, and Reciprocally 
of Deaf Mutes with Regard to Society. 

Mr. Henri Genis 101 

The Social Status of the Deaf in Germany. 

Mr. A. M. Watzulik, 105 

The Banquet, 107 

Proceedings of the Second Day. 
Should the Deaf Marry the Deaf? 

Mr. Jean Olivier, no 

Should the Deaf Marry the Deaf? 

Mr. D. W. George, 112 

The Work of the Royal Association in Aid of the Deaf and Dumb of 

Mr. Thomas Davidson, 116 

Address of Rev. Father Lebreton 119 

Pensions for Aged and Infirm Deaf and Dumb. 

Mr. S. Bright Lucas, 120 

Provisions for Aged and Infirm Deaf in Norway. 

Mr. Carl Weiner, 122 

■-Trades and Occupations of the Deaf in America. 

Mr. J. L. Smith, 124 

The Deaf Mute at Work in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Mr. C. J. Bromhead, 129 

The Deaf Mute in France at Work. 

Mr. Henri Gaillard 148 

The Deaf Mute at Work in Germany. 

Mr. A. M. Watzulik, 157 

The Deaf as Teachers and Teaching as a Profession for the Deaf. 

Mr. Joaquin Ligot, 159 

Deaf Teachers. 

Mr. R. P. M'Gregor 163 

Business Opportunities Open to the Deaf. 

Mr. L. A. Palmer, 167 

A Review of the Contemporary Deaf-Mute World — Consequences 
which Flow from it. 

Mr. Henri Gaillard, 173 

Contents. vii 

State of Deaf-Mute Education in America. 

Mr. Geo. W. Veditz, 177 

The State of Deaf-Mute Education in France. 

Mr. Louis Capon 181 

Remarks upon the Memoir of M. Louis Capon upon the State of Instruc- 
tion of the Deaf in France. 

Mr. Henri Gaillard, 188 

Reform of Schools in Great Britain. 

Mr. William Agnew, igi 

The State of Deaf-Mute Education in Germany. 

Mr. A. M. Watzulik, 196 

The State of Deaf-Mute Education in Sweden. 

Mr. Gerhard Titze, 198 

State of Deaf-Mute Education in Norway. 

Mr. Carl Werner 200 

Report of the Secretaries of the Fourth Convention of the National As- 
sociation of the Deaf 201 

Constitution and By-Laws of the National Association of the Deaf 215 

Proceedings of the Third Day. 
Oralism in France. 

Mr. Victor Chambellan 218 

Oralism from the Standpoint of Practical Experience in Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland. 

Mr. J. P. Foster, 222 

The Oral Method in Germany from the Standpoint of Practical Expe- 

Mr. A. M. Watzulik, 225 

Oralism from the Standpoint of Practical Experience. 

Mr. Henry Babbit, 227 

The Necessity of Technical Schools for the Deaf. 

Mr. Warren Robinson, 231 

Industrial Schools for Deaf Mutes. 

Mr. F. Aymard, 236 

The Physical Training of the Deaf. 

Mr. A. F. Adams, 240 

Indirect Results of Collegiate Training of the Deaf. 

Mr. Amos G. Draper, 245 

Art Education of the Deaf. 

Mr. Douglas Tilden, 249 

The Royal Commission of Great Britain — Its Work and Results. 

Mr. Robert E. Bray 255 

The Deaf of India. 

Mr. Francis Maginn 265 

The Term " Charitable" as Applied to our Schools, and Other Miscon- 
ceptions Concerning the Deaf. 

Mr. Olof Hanson, 268 

The Deaf Mutes of Switzerland. 

Mr. Jacques Rieca 271 

General Remarks, 274 

Delegates and Members of the Congress 278 

Preliminary History of the World's C ongress 
of the Deaf, at Chicago, in 1893. 

The National Association v of the Deaf, at its third Convention 
in Washington, in 1889, had voted to hold its next meeting at 
Chicago in 1892. Shortly afterward, Chicago, with the official 
sanction of Congress, after a memorable struggle with New York, 
St. Louis and Washington, began making preparations for the 
great Quadriennial Columbian Exposition within its limits; and 
its public spirited directors first conceived the idea of having a 
series of international congresses in conjunction with, and under 
control of the Exposition, whose drawing powers it was expected 
would be conducive of their attendance and international charac- 
ter. This unique idea was speedily carried into effect, and what 
is known as the " World's Congress Auxiliary of the World's 
Columbian Exposition " was installed, with that learned and pol- 
ished scholar and jurist, the Hon. C. C. Bonney, as president, 
with ample powers to carry out this most magnificent scheme, 
whose motto is " Not things but men." 

News of this new departure from the usual character of inter- 
national fairs or expositions was received with applause by pro- 
gressive men and women of all classes throughout the world. 
The management of the Congress Auxiliary was soon deluged 
with applications from associations or bodies of men of nearly 
every kind and sort for the privilege of holding a World's Con- 
gress under its auspices, and had to exercise great tact and dis- 
crimination in making or refusing apportionments. 

Early in February, 1891, R. P. McGregor, of Columbus, O., 
in his capacity as Chairman of the Executive Committee of the 
National Association of the Deaf, in accordance with the require- 

10 Preliminary History of the Worlds Congress 

ments of its constitution, appointed a local committee in Chicago 
composed of Geo. T. Dougherty, chairman; O. H. Regensburg, J. 
E. Gallaher, C. C. Codman, and Jacques Loew, to make arrange- 
ments for the triennial convention, which, as stated above, was to 
take place in the summer of 1892. After looking over the ground, 
and having in view the advent of the Congress Auxiliary of the 
great Exposition, which was to be opened in 1893 instead of in 
1892, this committee corresponded with Mr. McGregor, and the 
National Executive Committee, by a vote, postponed the proposed 
convention to the summer of 1893, and gave the local committee 
authority to make application to the Congress Auxiliary to hold 
a World's Congress of the Deaf under its auspices. The local 
committee went ahead, and right here it desires to acknowledge 
great obligations to Dr. P G. Gillett, then Superintendent of the 
Illinois Institution for the Deaf, and who happened to be chairman 
of the Department of Education of the Deaf for the Congress 
Auxiliary, for the influence he exerted on our behalf, as well as to 
the magnaminity shown by President Bonney, of the Congress 
Auxiliary, in granting our application. This was a most notable 
victory for us, for we thus got recognition on a basis co-equal 
with all the great World's Congresses of other kinds. Who would 
have dreamed one hundred years ago that this could ever be 
possible? Then the deaf were uneducated and widely scattered, 
unknown to each other; their influence, of course, was nil. 

The Congress Auxiliary appointed for its own General Com- 
mittee on a Congress of the Deaf, Geo. T. Dougherty, Chairman; 
J. E. Gallaher, Secretary; O. H. Regensburg, C. C. Codman and 
Jacques Loew. The Congress Auxiliary did its share in exploit- 
ing our coming Congress, as well as all others, through all avail- 
able channels, and provided for the expense of its different publi- 
cations, and engaged the new Art Institute on the Lake Front for 
the use of its Congresses. The General Committee was by no 
means idle. Following the general plan of the other Congresses, 
it recommended a large list of names, about 300 in number, for 
Advisory Council, of which the Congress Auxiliary approved and 
mailed formal letters of invitation to all persons so named in all 
civilized lands. Actuated by the ambition of seeing the Congress 
made a complete success in every way, the General Committee 

of the Deaf, at Chicago, in i8gj. u 

decided to subdivide the work of preparation, availing itself in 
many cases of the talents and services of prominent deaf gentle- 
men living outside of Chicago and Illinois. Accordingly, a Com- 
mittee on Program was nominated, with R. P. McGregor, of 
Columbus, O., as Chairman; Amos G. Draper, Washington, D. C; 
Theo. A. Froehlich, New York; J. M. Koehler, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
J. L. Smith, Faribault, Minn.; Geo. W. Veditz, Colorado Springs, 
Colo.; Douglas Tilden, San Francisco, Cal.; Francis Maginn, Bel- 
fast, Ireland; Henri Gaillard, Paris, France; Bernard Brill, Vienna, 
Austria; M. A. Watzulik, Altenburg, Germany. All accepted and 
promptly set to work on this difficult and delicate task, for it 
involved the assignment of proper topics to most competent per- 
sons available, with the result that they mapped out a program 
that was both superb and comprehensive, on seeing which, a 
distinguished educator of the deaf, in charge of a large seat of 
learning, wrote the General Committee, praising it unreservedly 
and saying: " You have the whole world for a field." 

To take care of and entertain visitors in attendance at the 
Congress, the General Committee appointed two separate com- 
mittees; one on Reception, with P. J. Hasenstab, J. E. Gallaher, 
G. A. Christensen, Benj. Frank, C. L. Buchan, Mrs. E. N. Bowes, 
and Mrs. F. D. Hunter, and the other on Entertainment, with O. 
H. Regensburg, R. L. H. Long, J. I. Sansom, Albert Berg and 
Chas. Kerney. Both committees did their part thoroughly and 
well. Frank P. Gibson was appointed chief usher at the Con- 

It was the custom of the Congress Auxiliary to make its own 
selection of presiding officer for each of the Congresses under its 
control, for obvious reasons. Accordingly, on recommendation 
of Dr. P. G. Gillett, as chairman of the Department of Education 
of the Deaf, Geo. T. Dougherty, chairman General Committee on 
a Congress of the Deaf, was named for President of that Congress. 

The total attendance at the Congress is estimated to have 
been nearly a thousand; each session was largely attended from 
the beginning to the end. The officials of the Congress Auxiliary 
have declared, with evident satisfaction, that among the hundreds 
of Congresses instituted under its auspices, that of the Deaf was 
one of the best conducted and the liveliest. 

1 2 Prelimitiary History of the World's Congress. 

The Pas-a-Pas Club bore most or all of the expenses 
incurred by the different committees' arrangements for the Con- 
gress which did not fall within the province of the Congress Aux- 
iliary to pay for, and also opened its halls for use as the delegates 
headquarters. The Club's large and enthusiastic membership (70) 
acted as a committee of the whole throughout the Congress in 
entertaining the visitors and helping out the several regular com- 
mittees in many and various ways. 

One of the most interesting features in connection with the 
meeting was the lecture of Dr. E. M. Gallandent, president of the 
Gallandent College at Washington. His subject treated on the 
Education of the Deaf, its advantages and perils. 

Thus came and passed the World's Congress of the Deaf. 
May its great object for promoting the welfare of our class be 

Organization of the Congress. 

George T. Dougherty, M. S., Chicago, 111. 

Honorary Vice Presidents. 
Robert P. McGregor, M. A., Columbus, Ohio. 
Amos G. Draper, M. A., District of Columbia. 
Dudley W. George, M. A., Jacksonville, 111. 
Edwin A. Hodgson, M. A., New York City. 
Henri Genis, Nanterre-Seine, France. 
A. M. Watzulik, Altenberg, Germany. 
Gerhard Titze, Karlskrona, Sweden. 
W. Eecles Harris, Belfast, Ireland. 

Thomas F. Fox, M. A., New York City. 
Olof Hanson, M. A., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Committee of the World's Congress Auxiliary on a Congress 

of the Deaf. 
George T. Dougherty, Chairman. 
James E. Gallaher, Secretary. 
Oscar H. Regensburg. 
Chester C. Codman. 
Jacques Loew. 
Hon. C. C. Bonney, President World's Congress Auxiliary. 



Tuesday, July 18, 1893. 

The World's Congress of the Deaf, held under the auspices 
of the World's Congress Auxilary of the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition of 1893, 'opened its sessions in Hall VIII of the Memorial 
Art Palace, Chicago, Illinois, at nine o'clock A. M. Mr. George 
T. Dougherty of Chicago, Illinois, in his capacity of representa- 
tive of the Directors and Commissioners of the Columbian Expo- 
sition and of the world's Congress Auxilary, presiding. 

Upon calling the Congress to order, the President introduced 
Rev. Austin W. Mann of Cleveland, Ohio, who offered the open- 
ing prayer. Mr. Dougherty then addressed the Congress as 



Ladies and Gentlemen: 

On behalf of the Directors and Commissioners of the Colum- 
bian Exposition and of its World's Congress Auxiliary, under 
whose auspices our Congress is being held, in the name of the Pas- 
a-Pas Club and the deaf of Chicago, I have the honor and pleas- 
ure of bidding you welcome, all of you who have come from afar 
and near, from the sister states of the Union ; from la belle France — 
the home of the blessed Abbes de 1' Epee and Sicard; from 

Opening Address. 1 5 

Germany, where flourished Heinecke, the father of oralism.; from 
England and Scotland where Braidwood taught; from Ireland, my 
own ancestral country; from Italy, the birth-place of Christopher 
Columbus, whose ever memorable achievement in the discovery 
of America we all are met to celebrate with the Quadri-Centennial 
Exposition at Chicago; from Spain, which rendered possible 
Columbus' great career of discovery, and what is more to our- 
selves, was the abode of the Benedictine monk, Ponce de Leon, 
the first teacher of a class of deaf-mutes in history ; from Sweden 
and Norway, whose almost nameless but recklessly daring vikings 
not without reason combatted with the great Genoese Sailor for 
the honor of originally discovering the new world; from all 
countries, we heartily welcome you to this — the land of Gallaudet. 

This Congress opens up another Epoch in the wonderful pro- 
gress of our class, which can scarce be realized fully when we con- 
sider practical provision was first made for educating them only as 
far back as one hundred or fifty more years ago, and even then for 
a long while only spasmodically. This is an era marked out with 
grand possibilities; it is the fruition of hopes which even our early 
teachers scarce ventured to entertain, the promise of a future 
enriched by the dream of equal opportunities and the recognition 
of merited self-support. Our Congress is to be both retrospective 
and suggestive in character and intent. 

The earliest mention of a deaf-mute by name in history is that 
of Gyges, a son of Croesus, the King of Lydia whose immense 
wealth has assumed the dignity of a proverb. When the father's 
regal city of Sardis was captured and sacked by Cyrus, Persian 
soldiery, and he was in imminent danger of being butchered by 
one of the victorious troops in violation of Cyrus' express orders 
to the contrary, the son, so history relates, suddenly from sheer 
will-power cried out in intelligible words to stop the intended 
slaughter of his father, whose life was thus saved; after this event, 
both father and son were treated with great respect and considera- 
tion by the magnanimous conqueror and his successors at the new 
capital of the growing Persian monarchy. Ebers has made con- 
siderable use of the once deaf but now thoroughly " restored-to- 
society " young prince's name in his instructive and fascinating 
novel, " The Egyptian Princess." 

1 6 Mr. Dougherty s 

Before the days of de 1' Epee and Heinecke, history was a 
perfect blank, so far as the deaf in general are concerned. They 
were deemed incapable of education, and unable or disqualified 
to enjoy the usual rights and privileges of citizenship. The senti- 
ment expressed by these lines of the Roman poet Laurentius: 

"To instruct the deaf no art could ever reach, 
No care improve them, and no wisdom teach," 

was universally accepted as gospel truth; but with us of the pres- 
ent day, this has passed into a chestnut to be rung now and then 
in the interest of our jollity at the expense of the ancients. Still, 
there is one thing to be said to their credit; they never worried 
themselves talking with gloomy forebodings of the possibilities 
of a " deaf variety of the human race." 

You all remember how, not many years ago, the reading of a 
paper on that very subject before a Scientific Academy at Wash- 
ington caused considerable excitement, and the learned members 
looked at each other as if to say " important if true " and appar- 
ently felt it was time to memoralize Congress or the State legisla- 
tures to enact laws with the express purpose of suppressing the 
imagined evil of intermarriage among the deaf. It was ludicrous 
the way the public press indulged for the while in solemn 
comments on the necessity of doing something heroic on the lines 
intimated by the author of that paper. Today we hear no more 
such talk. Deadly statistics dug up by the Superintendents of 
the several State institutions for the deaf have done the work; they, 
to use the slang of the day, knocked the sensational and alarmistic 
theory into a cocked hat. 

By the way, I pray you, do not fall into the mistake of taking 
my remarks as thus intending any disrespect for the distinguished 
gentleman who originally raised the discussion of this topic. Far 
from it; him we all concede, frankly and with pleasure, as honestly 
a well-wisher and friend of the deaf, as he has proved himself so 
in many ways; he took one of us for a help-meet, whose conduct 
and tact in high'society at the nation's capital has been reflecting 
much credit on our class. Competent authorities in the line of our 
educational work have, however, in my humble opinion not unjus- 
tifiably, insisted on placing him in the category of friends we 
should rather pray religiously to be saved from. He is, as you 

Opening Address. 1 7 

know well, strongly and uncompromisingly opposed to the Ameri- 
can or " Combined " method of instruction; the prestige he has 
acquired from his one great invention, as well as his immense 
wealth and high standing in social and business circles, together 
with his blind and invincible zeal, has rendered him worth a 
thousand men to the cause of the " pure oral " method which 
he has espoused as the only and great cure-all in the educa- 
tion of the deaf. The unthinking public, and even those who 
ought to judge better, are naturally apt to attach greater weight 
to the affirmations of such a man than to the negative verdict of 
experienced veterans of the profession. Therein lies the danger 
which menaces the future education of our class. We, therefore, 
view with increasing alarm his aggressive and relentless persistence 
in working and speaking with the avowed object of prejudicing 
the public and governmental authorities in favor of his hobby, the 
" pure oral " method. If it ever comes to pass that there is 
impending danger of the exclusively oral method becoming a 
" condition, not a theory which confronts us," and God forbid the 
day! let the ultra-oralists be now warned that they will rue it; we 
will fight back and as an inevitable result of the conflict, the pure 
oral method will be strictly confined to private and insignificant 
schools, and its reputation or prestige badly discredited most 
effectively and permanently — perhaps more than we ourselves 
intended to bargain for, because we, in truth, are in favor of speech 
and lip-reading being taught in a limited way — only to those 
children capable of being benefitted, but not to be forced down the 
throats of those found practically incapable at a great loss of time. 
We, or rather a large majority of us in America, have been 
reared by the manual or combined system of instruction, and are 
intimately familiar with with the contemporary results of the oral 
method in separate classes or schools near by. We all know 
France has not produced any more Massieus, Clercs or Berthiers 
since the ill-fated day when her minister of public instruction 
unadvisedly issued an ukase sweeping the manual system out of 
existence and inducting the pure oral method in all of her schools. 
Nearly, if not quite, all of the prominent and successful deaf 
mutes of the present day there have been educated under the 
old system; and a new generation, raised by the oral method 

1 8 Mr. Doughertys 

since, has utterly failed to show up equally signal examples. 
In Germany, which is the birth-place and stronghold of the oral 
system, two monster petitions have been presented to the Kaiser 
by his deaf mute subjects for a substitution of the American or 
Combined system in place of the other. We have seen Heidsick 
of Breslau, persecuted for having boldly proclaimed the practical 
failure of the prevailing system, and how he came out victorious 
when the courts declared the truth of his assertions which had 
been called in question by his opponents. He has at his back 
practically all the deaf of Germany; this is significant, verily, 
significant. Dr. Wilkinson, the distinguished superintendent of 
the California Institution for the Deaf, has passed the last two years 
in Europe, visiting the principal institutions and schools; and in 
his article in the "Annals of the Deaf" for October, 1892, took 
pains to particularize the universal scarcity of bright deaf mutes 
orally educated; in Germany, Italy and France, the three leading 
oral countries 6i Europe, he could scarce find any one worth special 
mention, though he went around with a lantern in his hand in 
better faith than Diogenes did in looking for an honest man in 
Athens 2,000 years ago. Almost any of our State Institutions, 
however young, has turned out a larger number of well-educated 
mutes than the oral system has in all Europe since the time of its 
founder, Heinecke. There are unmistakable signs of a general 
awakening in Europe to the fact that the oral method has been 
found wanting in its intended results; and true friends of the 
deaf, unfettered by prejudice or tradition, already are beginning 
to agitate for a change to the American system as the one which 
has proved by actual experience to produce the best and most 
practical results. We wish them Godspeed, realizing as we do 
that on the successful outcome of their labors, the Middle or Dark 
age, so to speak, which is now prevalent there, will have passed 
away. The Volta Bureau, established at Washington for the pre- 
servation and dissemination of literature relating to the deaf, will 
be a monument to the philanthropy and love of Professor 
Alexander Graham Bell for our class long after the pure oral 
method has blossomed forth and faded away as a " fad." 

Down to about ten years ago, public curiosity of the deaf 
had always been great, and not unfrequently a cause of painful 

Opening Address. 19 

annoyance to ourselves. No two of us could stop on a promi- 
nent street-corner and conduct a conversatiou in signs but lo! a 
large crowd would instantly form around us; even the copper- 
buttoned guardians of the peace would forget for the time their 
habit of shouting, " move on " and join in the general epidemic 
of staring with eyes intent and mouths ajar at the " air-cutters " 
as the Cincinnati dailies aptly termed us, in reporting the proceed- 
ings of the first national convention of the deaf in the city in 
1880. Things have, however, changed since then, and we are no 
longer inevitably surrounded or escorted by small armies of 
curiosity-seekers, and this " penalty of greatness " is now borne 
by a $10,000 beauty, or a real live lord or Infanta. For the public 
in general has become used to the existence — yea, in great abund- 
ance — of the educated deaf. 

I shall not pretend to cover in these, my informal remarks, 
all the questions aptly suggested by the nature of this Congress, 
as they are to be discussed more elaborately, and with greater 
profit to you, by the several able gentlemen already assigned 
places on the program. Permit me to say that the local committee, 
of which I have the honor to be a member, begs to thank all of 
you who have, with generous co-operation and valuable sugges- 
tions, greatly aided our work in making arrangements for this 
eumencial gathering. We are under great obligations to the 
World's Congress Auxiliary for its many evidences of friendly and 
magnanimous interest in the welfare of our class, and we duly 
appreciate the great compliment of the conspicuous recognition 
its high-minded and progressive management has accorded us 
with a place alongside of the other great World's Congresses, whose 
proceedings when published will form a memorial more enduring 
than the glories of the contemporary exposition, most wonderful 
and magnificent as the latter is. Let us utter only our most ele- 
vating thoughts on matters relating to the present and future 
welfare of the deaf, and may nothing but good come of this, our 

Ladies and gentlemen, allow me to re-iterate; you, one and 
all, are most heartily welcome to Chicago. 

Mr. Henry C. White, Boston, Mass.: 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

The President of the Congress has just bade us welcome to 

20 Communications. 

this World's Congress of the Deaf, and it would be well nigh im- 
possible for me to express all we feel in appreciation of the work 
the Committee has undertaken. They have brought the deaf 
together from all civilized nations of the earth. They have given 
us an opportunity to meet our old teachers and superintendents. 
They have made it possible for us to meet the hearing world 
in congresses, and if that were the only thing they have done for us, 
it is enough to deserve our whole thanks, but they have done much 
more than that. We will read papers on subjects of great impor- 
tance to us as a class, and we will thereby be able to impress the 
fact deeply upon the hearing world, that the time and money 
spent upon our education were not thrown away. For all that 
the Committee has done, we all return thanks, deep and sincere. 

The President: For this Congress, Messrs. Thomas F. Fox, 
of New York City, and Olof Hanson, of Minneapolis, Minn., 
have been selected as permanent Secretaries, and will please begin 
their duties. 

A number of cable and other communications have been 
received from absent brothers, and will now be presented to the 

[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 
The Deaf-Mute Club, " Unity," herewith extends the heartiest greetings 
to the brotherhood of international fellow deaf mutes. " Three cheers and a 
tiger " for the World's Congress of the Deaf. 

The Unity Deaf-Mute Club, Furth, Bavaria. 

[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 

Leipsic. July 18, 1893. 
Committee on World's Congress of the Deaf: 

Ever forward and onward in teaching the deaf. Buskheim. 

[Translated by Dr. E. A. Fay.] 

Berlin, July 17, 1893. 
Committee on World's Congress of the Deaf: 

The Central Local Union of Deaf Mutes Tromen of Berlin, send hearty 
greetings to the World's Congress of the Deaf. 

Rumpf Herrman, Michelsohn-Frau Schenk. 

[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 

Hanover, July 18, 1893. 
Committee on World's Congress of the Deaf: 
Hearty greetings; success full of blessings. 

Deaf Mute Society, Hanover. 

Communications. 2 1 

[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, June 25, 1893. 
To the Honorable Committee on the World's Congress of the Deaf, Chicago: 

Among the many felicitations which your honorable body will receive from 
all parts of the world, a greeting from our Union League must not be wanting. 

We cannot allow this solemn World's Congress to pass without expressing 
our deep conviction of the importance of the occasion, and that the moment 
has come for the consummation of an elevated purpose to be achieved by con- 
certed action and fraternal co-operation. 

United we will pray for the welfare and success of the Congress, and united 
and belonging to one another, we herewith give three cheers for the Congress. 

The Frankfort Union League herewith sends from beyond the seas the 
heartiest greetings with the hope that your efforts in behalf of the deaf-mute 
world will be crowned with glorious succes. 

" In union there is strength." 

The Deaf-Mute Union League. 

Adam Berhler, President. 

[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 
Cologne-Duetz, Province of the Rhine, Germany, July 3, 1893. 
The Cologne Deaf-Mute Association sends herewith congratulations and 
good wishes to the World's Congress of the Deaf. May God's blessing rest 
upon your deliberations and assure a glorius success. 

The Cologne-Deaf Mute Association, 
Frederich Wilhelm Rung, President. 

[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 
To the World's Congress of the Deaf, Chicago: 

The Cassel Deaf-Mute Society sends herewith to the many and highly 
esteemed fellow deaf-mutes in distant America, who, from the 17th to the 24th 
July are deliberating in serious conclave on the aims and welfare of the deaf, 
and are gallantly combating for the just cause of our neglected class, the 
heartiest greetings and congratulations. May the Congress further the realiza- 
tion of our wishes, and in whatever channel your efforts may be directed, may 
success attend you. We are with you in the spirit, jointly and separately. 
Let the watch word be: 

"Articulation, the Sign- Language, and Writing!" 
Three cheers for the committee and delegates, and also for our gallant and 
honored champion, Albin Maria Watzulick. 

Again with hearty German greetings and cheers, 

The Committee of the Cassell Deaf-Mute Society, 

Otto Vollmar, President. 
Cassell, July 1, 1893. Bahnhofstrasse, No. 2. 

22 Communications. 

[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 

Dresden, July 5, 1893. 
To the Most Honorable Deaf-Mute Congress: 

The undersigned committee herewtih takes the liberty to send in the name 
of the Dresden Deaf-Mute Society, " Eichen Kranz," its heartiest felicitations 
on the opening of the Congress, and anticipates valuable results therefrom for 
the deaf-mute world. With fraternal greetings, 

Very respectfully, 

Carl von Haase, 
Theodore Liskowsky, 
Ernst Adler, 


[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 

Breslau, July 18, 1893. 
Deaf Mutes' Congress, Memoral Art Palace, Chicago: 

Hail to the men who fight for the true improvement of mankind. 

Heidsick Lorenz. 

No. 14 Rue de Morieur de Burre, Paris, July 6, '93. 
My Dear President: 

I regret very much that the distance and the work I am now occupied 
upon, make it impossible to be present at your summer gathering. I am 
extremely glad that there is such a thing as a Congress of the Deaf at a World's 
Exposition and under its auspices. It exceeds the wildest dream of the Abbe 
de 1' Epee, and as to the results, can we think lightly of them? We have made 
a long stride ahead, when, in the opinion of the managers of the Auxiliary of 
the greatest fair the world ever saw, we are competent to take our place in the 
series of Congresses. 

In 1889, here in Paris, we had talked of holding our Congress at Trocadero 
which bore to the French exposition the same relation that the Art Palace now 
does to the Chicago Fair, but nothing came of it. It remained for my country- 
men to make a dream a reality! I wish you a harmonious and successful 
session. To be sure, there were murmers about this or that part of the 
programme, but I doubt not but that those same persons who were so much 
disatisfied, will, when they are once on the spot, feel within their heart that 
the question as to how a convention of the deaf should be run, sinks out of 
sight before that stupendous fact now before their faces: A Congress of the 
Deaf is met under the auspices of the Chicago Fair to show the world that we 
are intelligent beings and that the labors of our teachers were not in vain. 
I am, dear President, your obedient servant, 

Douglas Tilden. 

[Translated by Mr. T. F. Fox.] 
Extract from a letter from M. Dusuzeau to M. Genis, delegate from France to 

the Congress. 

Communications. 23 

Paris, July 9, 1893. 
My dear Friend: 

My thoughts have been with you since you departed yesterday morning; I 
see you on the open sea; may God protect you. I admire your courage in 
accepting the obligation to represent the fair Friendly Association of Deaf 
Mutes of France at the International Congress of Chicago. Bravo! my dear 
friend; I heartily congratulate you ! 

Do not forget that the voyage of the French deligation to Chicago has for 
its end to increase the splendor of the memory of our dear and illustrious 
benefactor the Abbe de 1' Epee, and to prove that his method remains infalli- 
ble, that is to say the language of signs shall never disappear. 

Challenge its opponents. See for me our dear American brothers whom I 
cannot take by the hand, but whom I clasp to my heart ! I wish very much 
to be close by them, to tell them all that my heart prompts, full of acknowl- 
edgement for him who has made us happy. I refer to the Abbe de 1' Epee. 

But you are aware what has prevented me. I am sure that the Abbe de 1' 
Epee, who sees me from on high, pardons me. Dusuzeau. 

[Translated by Mr. T. F. Fox.] 
Societe de Secours Mutuels des Sourds-Muets Adultes. 

Liege, Belgium, July 3, 1893. 
The President of the Chicago Congress of Deaf Mutes: 

The members of the Societe de Secours-Mutuels and of the Cercle " L' 
Abbe de 1' Epee " of Adult Deaf Mutes of Liege greatly regret that they find 
it impossible to send a delegate in response to your fervent appeal for the 
amelioration of the condition of the deaf from the want of the means, the great 
distance which separates us and the great expense of the voyage. 

We wish you great success in your undertaking, that the mixed method 
may be adopted in every part of the world, that is to say, gestures and articu- 
lation, which are of great usefulness for the instruction of deaf mutes. 

We congratulate you sincerely on your devotion and interest, of which you 
show proof in defending the admirable lauguage of signs, and the memory of 
our immortal benefactor, the Abbe de 1' Epee ! 

We close in requesting you, Mr. President, to accept with our excuse, the 
expression of our best feelings of devotion and respect. 

For the Society, 

Paul Delame, President, 
R. Drene, Vice President, 
Seb. Gatlry, Secretary. 

New York, July if, 1893. 
To Committee World's Congress of the Deaf, Memorial Art Palace: 

To my sorrow some things prevent me from going to Congress, my best 
wishes for Congress prosperous. I am in spirit in work with Congress, wishing 
you all a cheerful and happy time. Lindemann. 

24 Commwiications. 

New York, July i8, 1893. 
To Mr. Geo. T. Dougherty, Chairman World's Congress of the Deaf, Memorial 
Art Palace: 
Regret that uncontrollable circumstances prevent my attending the World's 
Congress of the Deaf, please convey to the members warmest greetings and 
best wishes for the success of their deliberations. 

Theodore A. Froelich. 

The President: It gives me much pleasure to introduce as 
the first of the honorary presidents, Mr. Robert P. McGregor, of 
Columbus, Ohio, who is well known to all of you. The secretaries 
will please take their places on the platform. 

Mr. McGregor: My friends, I shall not weaiy you with a 
speech, and without any unnecessary delay we shall proceed to 
business. Messrs. Leonce Odebrecht of Ohio, and Frank Reid, 
Jr. of Illinois, have kindly agreed to act as interpreters for the 
benefit of hearing visitors. The first subject for consideration is 
" Associations of the Deaf," and will be opened for America by 
Mr. Fox, of New York. Mr. Odebrecht will interpret orally. 



In seeking the practical results of any concerted effort in the 
cause of humanity, putting aside all mere theoretical hypothesis, 
we should be guided by the visible accomplishments. If such 
organization exerts beneficial influence^ if it tends to advance the 
moral improvement and social happiness of any portion of man- 
kind; if it rescues from mental turpitude and degrading influences 
human beings, who, otherwise might remain neglected, we may 
reasonably conclude that the efforts exerted have been beneficial 
and are worthy of our support and encouragement. 

Viewing associations of the deaf as a whole, and subjecting 
their objects, the character of their membership and the work 
they already have accomplished to the closest possible scrutiny, 
we shall be prepared to pass an impartial judgment upon their 
value, to discover their defects as well as their merits, and to point 
out wherein their work is beneficial or the reverse — for what these 
associations have done is the real test of what they are. It is 
easy enough to theorize upon what the deaf might accomplish 
under special conditions, but the fact must not be overlooked, as 
it is too frequently, that the deaf, as other people, differ in birth 
as they do in mind and body. While this individual difference 
may be modified to a certain degree by training, regimen and 
kindred influences, the incubus of deafness — the lack of the stim- 
ulating effects of vocal sound — is forever present, and draws them 
inexorably together without regard to the agents at work to keep 
them apart. Schools and systems alike lose all control over this 
natural inclination; nature directs and this simple truth must be 
kept constantly in mind through all impartial discussion of the 
subject. With this preliminary understanding we may proceed to 
a sensible review of associations of the deaf in America. 

Toward the close of the year 185 1, a number of deaf gentle- 

26 Thomas Francis Fox on 

men, at the head of whom was Laurent Clere, of honored memory, 
formed themselves into the Gallaudet Memorial Association. 
Most of the members were graduates of the various American 
schools for the deaf, and so claimed the privelege of erecting a 
memorial of Gallaudet, the pioneer of deaf mute education in 
America, then recently deceased. Ere their united efforts were 
accomplished, a second organization known as the New England 
Gallaudet Association offered its co-operation, and at its first con- 
vention held at Montpelier, Vt., in 1853, announced as its object 
"the raising of more funds for the erection of a monument to the 
memory of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, LL. D." Upon the com- 
pletion of the memorial, the associatien continued its organiza- 
tion " for the promotion <5f the general welfare of the mute com- 
munity," and remains to this day the oldest existing association 
of the deaf in the United States. 

In 1859 the Alumni Association of the High Class of the 
New York Institution came into existence for the encouragement 
of friendly and social feelings among graduates of the class, and 
the promotion of the literary and scientific interests of the class 
by the contribution of funds for the purchase of books, apparatus 
and the like. Six years later the Empire State Association of 
Deaf Mutes was founded, and in 1870 the Ohio. Alumni Associa- 
tion. Since then the number has increased till at present there 
are at least sixty-four such bodies variously designated Associa- 
tions, societies, clubs or guilds. By actual communication with 
officers of a majority of these, valuable facts and opinions have 
been collected that cannot fail to be both interesting and instruc- 
tive as voicing the views of the deaf upon subjects intimately con- 
cerning their own interests. 

A peculiar similarity of the associations — one which challen- 
ges the attention of the close observer — is the laudable motives 
by which they are animated. The controlling object of the asso- 
ciations of the deaf in the Union, may be grouped under one of 
the following headings: 

1. Promotion of the spiritual and temporal welfare of the 
deaf, and charitable assistance to the needy. 

2. Advancement of the general welfare and interests of the 

Associations of the Deafi?i America. 27 

3. Furtherance of the interests of the respective State schools 
for the deaf. 

4. Social and literary improvement of the adult deaf. Of 
the missions and guilds included under the first group, the 
majority are branches of the Episcopal Church Mission to Deaf 
Mutes, and whatever may be our individual religious preferences, 
there are few of us who will grudge full credit to the Mission for 
the good work it has done in behalf of the deaf without distinction 
of sect. Its clergy, both deaf and hearing, never weary in their 
good work. Their efforts for the deaf individually and collec- 
tively, especially at the meetings of the various associations, 
deserve our sincere praise and grateful acknowledgement. 

The societies in the other groups are of a secular character, 
but neverless beneficial in the results they accomplish. This 
may be, and frequently is, questioned by those who view the per- 
sistent association of the deaf with the deaf with ill concealed 
aversion; still it holds true that, in addition to furnishing a pleas- 
urable impulse and excitement, which the deaf, not less than 
others, need to quicken them in intellectual progress. This inter- 
association is an important factor in their education in and out of 
school. The coming together ,of deaf men and women of mature 
years may be said to be of greater benefit to them as a factor in 
mental improvement than the sum of all other influences put 
together. The Associations watch over the deaf beyond their 
school and industrial education, following them into life where so 
many difficulties and obstacles await them. At their gatherings 
they give full sway to their thoughts; they discuss all topics of 
current interest, science, art, literature, politics, religion, in fact 
everything contributes material for disputation, and they give to 
each other a closer attention and more patient hearing than is 
possible for them to expect from those who hear. The mental 
stimulus and habits of independent thought, study and investiga- 
tion so acquired are as valuable to them as the grist of their daily 
task. Moreover, the moral influence which their meetings and 
public actions exert has a salutatory effect on the pupils still at 
school — a fact entirely overlooked by others than the deaf them- 

Knowing so well the praiseworthy purposes of these Associ- 

28 Thomas Francis Fox on 

ations and the actual good they accomplish, it is superfluous to 
ask ourselves whether they should be encouraged. As might be 
expected, to all inquiries which were made with reference to this 
point, not a dissentient vote was received from among the acknowl- 
edged representative deaf of our country. In whatever else they 
may differ in opinion, they are a unit on the value of associations 
of the deaf. 

Nevertheless there is a class of hearing teachers and others 
with a quasi knowledge of the deaf, who claim superior qualifica- 
tions in deciding what is best for the deaf than we ourselves, and 
who are emphatic, occasionally in public, more frequently among 
groups of their personal admirers — who drink in every word as 
from a well of perfect wisdom — in their opposition to such socie- 
ties. To be sure their opposition is not entirely disinterested. 
My information advises me of at least half a dozen prominent 
educators who opposed the Associations in their respective States 
through fear of the influence these organizations wielded in oppo- 
sition to the pet schemes of the interested parties. It is only 
right that we should be kept fully warned as to such people who 
play a double part with the deaf — before them they are their 
friends; behind them they are their meanest enemies. But there 
is one fact that such people fully comprehend, and that is the adult 
deaf are sharp to discover sham and hypocrisy, however cleverly 
veiled, and are in consequence dangerous antagonists, through 
their impartial sense of justice and their readiness to give pub- 
licity to wrong doing, and their ability to supply evidence when 

A much more honest and open opposition was recently mani- 
fested by the head of a prominent New England school, who 
publicly expressed gratification that the brightest graduates of 
the school were " lost to the so-called deaf-mute world, and have 
gone out into the hearing and reading world and are a part of it." 
Forsooth the gifted beings alluded to had nothing in common 
with the woes of their unfortunate fellows, and if so, verily they 
can well be spared from the " so-called " deaf-mute world; but it 
is a very serious question whether a training which makes them 
ashamed of the impediment which an all-wise Providence has 
imposed on them, is the best for a useful, active life in the great 

Associations of the Deaf in America. 29 

world. We, inferior mortals, graduates alike of oral and Com- 
bined schools, are to be commisserated for considering less fortu- 
nate brethern of sufficient importance among God's creatures to 
combine in associations for their improvement, even though some 
of our time is taken from the hearing and reading world. A can- 
did consideration of the views advanced by the advocates of a 
single system forces the conclusion that they regard only those 
pupils under their own exclusive training of any consequence what- 
ever; this may be consistent, it is certainly not humane. It would 
indicate that they are too deeply engrossed in themselves and 
their own perfection to be deeply skilled in the character of the 
deaf. So that, while through their pupils, they are familiar with 
the deaf in general, they hear almost nothing of them in detail. 
They make reflections on the deaf which strike the uninitiated as 
true; but let an expert on the subject have them analyze their 
aphorisms, they argue, reason and attempt to prove, but are easily 
shown to be false alike in their deductions and conclusions. With 
such people argument is useless; " le plus fou souvent est le 
plus satisfait." 

It requires no special effort to point out numbers of deaf 
people well known in the " deaf mute world," who are prominent 
members of Associations of hearing people. Indeed in the 
replies to inquiries, the answers, in many cases, favored Associa- 
tions of the deaf and hearing when practicable . This modification is 
rather suggestive, and those would-be friends of the deaf, who gen- 
erally bother themselves very little about the deaf outside of the 
class-room, might study to advantage the real cause of this unpracti- 
cableness. They would deny to the deaf all the enjoyments that 
follow from the occasional social intercourse with their kind and 
bid them be contented with the chilling formality of a slight 
notice in the special set of their friends. When we consider that 
such people profess to be honest, sincere Christians, it becomes 
all the more difficult to reconcile their unchristianlike boasts and 
self-complacency with their great love for the deaf, more specially 
since their own graduates do intermarry and are found in Associa- 
tions of the deaf — one of many proofs that schools and systems 
do not enter into the question at all. 

The most charitable explanation that can be for the actions o f 

30 Thomas Francis Fox on 

bigots of this type is, that they fail to fully comprehend the scope 
of Associations for the deaf. They apparently are not aware that 
all the associations include hearing honorary members, who have 
full freedom of discussion at all meetings; but they do not con- 
trol the associations, and it is but proper that such should be the 
rule. The special work marked out by these bodies requires that 
the deaf alone should control them. This will be more fully 
comprehended upon considering some of the undertakings of the 
associations of the deaf. We find that gratitude, charity, benevo- 
lence and progress are the key-notes of all their efforts. Monu- 
ments have been erected to Gallaudet, through the efforts of the 
Gallaudet, New England and National Associations; one has 
been erected to Clerc, and lasting memorials testify the 
reverence of the deaf for the memory of Burnett, Garfield, 
Waite and Greene. Homes for the Aged and Infirm Deaf are now 
either in existence or projected in the State of New York, Penn- 
sylvania and Ohio. Through the efforts of Associations of the 
Deaf, we see the misnomer " Asylum " gradually expurged from 
the corporate titles of our schools, and there are not wanting 
numerous evidences of the useful influences they exert. We need 
no more emphatic proof of this than the confessions of those who 
have previously been opposed to such associations, and have seen 
that their prejudices were unjust and unwarranted. 

Coming more clearly to the consideration of some of the 
particular accomplishments of individual associations, we have 
cause to rejoice that the outcome of well-directed efforts has been 
so singularly fruitful in good results. The New England Gallaudet 
Association, as we have seen, assisted in erecting the first monu- 
ment to Gallaudet and has done much to perpetuate the name and 
works of Gallaudet. The Ohio Association has a project for a 
Home for the Aged and Infirm in good shape; it has waged per- 
sistent warfare upon imposters who have injured the cause of the 
deaf in the community; it has agitated the subject of cumpulsory 
school laws, and at all of its reunions, it holds expositions of the 
manual work of its members, thus encouraging a spirit of progres- 
sive improvement. In New York, the Empire State Association 
of Deaf Mutes has for years guarded the interests of the deaf of 
that great State. Indeed so conspicuous has been this care for 

Associations of the Deaf in America. 31 

their interests that it has, time and again, called forth the praise 
and acknowledgement of the authorities of the State Schools for 
the Deaf. It has, in its time, aided the Burnett Fund, Galluadet 
Home, and the Peet Memorial, and been firm and consistent in 
meeting and combatting unfair criticism of the deaf on the part 
of misguided partisans; it has gathered together valuable statis- 
tics, has followed closely the course of legislation affecting the 
schools for the deaf, and has taken decisive action when necessary. 
In Pennsylvania, the State Association will soon bring its efforts 
for a Home for the Aged to a successful culmination; the Minne- 
sota Association has called public attention to the need of a com- 
pulsory education law, and has a standing committee to watch 
over the interests of the deaf, and to act, when occasion so de- 
mands; the Virginia Association has given its aid in favor of 
legislation for the separation of the deaf and blind schools, and 
supports a special missionary to the deaf. The Chicago Pas-a-pas 
Club has hastened reforms in the local day school for the deaf, and 
will probably succeed in its efforts to have another State School 
for the Deaf in Northern Illinois, and so on throughout the differ- 
ent States. In nearly all large cities are found clubs' and societies 
which gather the deaf together into building and loan associations, 
savings clubs and the like, thus training the members to habits of 
thrift and sobriety. Examples of this character can easily be 
multiplied, and all tend to indicate that Associations of the Deaf 
in their proper sphere, and when properly conducted, accomplish 
untold good. 

But when it comes to Alumni Associations claiming a voice 
in the management of their respective schools, there arises a con- 
troversy which indicates too plainly the lack of accord on this 
subject on the part of the Deaf. Graduates of our schools for the 
deaf sustain a different relation to their mother institution than 
hearing youth who are generally represented by Alumnus on the 
board of trustees of their schools. Measures for the benefit of a 
school to be executed by the Alumni might be concerted, and are 
frequently welcomed by those in authority. It has been demon- 
strated quite frequently within recent years that those in charge 
of Institutions are sensitive to the criticism of the educated and 
experienced deaf people, and are desirous, when possible, of 

32 Thomas Francis Fox on 

removing cause for complaint in school management. But the 
trustees of schools for the deaf are never themselves graduates 
thereof; and often, so far from being likely to heed representations 
made by former pupils, there are on record bitter complaints that 
the officers, and even the principals are often not heeded, nor 
even consulted, concerning the management of some schools. 
Nevertheless, there is a steadily increasing sentiment spreading 
among the more highly gifted deaf to the effect that deaf-mute 
education in America will never attain the highest degree of 
development until the Alumni of our schools are allowed repre- 
sentation on the board of trustees of their schools, with a direct 
voice in determining the educational, and even the domestic 
policy, of the schools. 

While past achievements prove the Associations of the Deaf 
are alive to the interests they represent, there are not wanting 
evidence that in some instances their usefulness has been cur- 
tailed by reason of the personal ambitions of those in authority. 
When the control of our Associations falls into the hands of 
officers — a majority of whom are unscrupulous individuals — who, 
to accomplish their own private ends, resort to questionable means 
to misrepresent and harm others who may not agree with them — 
then it is that our Associations are open to criticism. It is unfor- 
tunately true that such classes of officials are found in some of our 
Associations — men who consider self above honor and probity — 
and who are a menace to the fair fame of Associations of the 
Deaf. It is the underhand work of such specimens of the deaf 
that gives rise to the question, " Have the deaf any moral sense?" 

The leaders in the bodies should look to it that their indi- 
vidual and collective action in the management of the Associations 
is of a character to court public inspection at all times, and that 
all underhand attempts to satiate private ambitions or grudges 
shall be frowned down without mercy. 

To prevent any possible misrepresentation as to the general 
opinion of the deaf on any special question effecting them, there 
should be a closer affiliation among the different associations. 
This would render more easy such united action as emergency 
might demand. Again, at the Conventions of the Associations, 
the papers, resolutions and discussions are valuable expressions 

Thomas Francis Fox on 33 

of opinion by the deaf on the deaf. Proceedings containing such 
expressions should be printed and find their way into every large 
library where they are always welcome as information on special 
subjects, and as offering opportunities to scholars and critics to 
find the opinion of the deaf themselves when some wonderful 
theory concerning them appears. It is especially important that 
the Associations be incorporated, and forming one person in 
the eye of the law, possess all the rights and powers conferred by 
the articles of incorporation. 

In seeking exact information for this paper, careful inquiries 
were made on the following points in regard to "Which class of 
Societies of the deaf should the deaf be encouraged to join? 
(1.) Societies of hearing Persons only; (2.) Societies of the 
deaf only; (3.) Societies composed of hearing and deaf persons? '* 
The replies favored the two latter, and the second especially, 
found numerous supporters. Some of the arguments presented 
in support of the Associations of the deaf with the deaf are so 
logically consistent that I present some specimen replies received 
from deaf persons whom I shall designate as X, Y, and Z, the 
first being probably the most distinguished graduate of an oral 
school that can be found, the others, semi-mute gentlemen whose 
names require only to be mentioned to be recognized as men of 
impartial judgement and perfect familiarity with the subject. 

X. — " A society composed of the deaf alone would, in my 
opinion, be most successful provided it is managed carefully by 
the right sort of officers, and it is the duty of every intelligent 
deaf person to do all he can for his less fortunate brethren. A 
club of hearing and deaf may be possible, but as there is a lack 
of cohesion between them, it is not likely to be successful." 

Y. — " From personal experience as a member and officer of 
such Associations, I am decidedly of the opinion that their influ- 
ence for good is very great. This is specially true of local 
societies; and my advice to deaf mutes is to form such associations 
wherever a few of them can be gathered together for stated 

"The education of deaf mutes is designed to fit them for the 
active duties of life. This implies constant contact with hearing 
people, and whenever the deaf can join the various societies of the 

34 Associations of the Deaf in America. 

the hearing, they should be encouraged. At the same time it is 
advisable for them to associate with their fellows in infirmity — 
chiefly for mutul counsel and assistance. 

"A deaf mute intelligent enough to be admitted to the intimate 
associations of the hearing, is thereby all the more qualified to 
minister to the welfare of those of his class who do not have 
similar advantages or opportunities; and such should be encour- 
aged to use their abilities for the benefit of their fellows through 
association with them." 

Mr. Z. — " My experience has been that the deaf reap the 
greatest pleasure and profit from societies composed solely of 
themselves. I here refer to the deaf in general and even semi- 
mutes. Even in societies composed partly of the deaf and partly 
of the hearing, there has been a subtle touch of compalisance and 
of the ' noli me tangere ' inseparable from human nature where 
one has an advantage, however slight, over another, and the result 
has been less satisfactory than in bona fide deaf societies. Of 
course this does not apply to building associations, benevolent 
organizations, labor unions and kindred bodies." 

Such candid expressions of opinion give additional emphasis 
to the sentiments enunciated by one of the greatest teachers of 
our day, when he made the prophetic utterance " that the problem 
in which they are personally so interested is eventually to be 
solved not by hearing and speaking theorists acting on outside 
lines and giving directions to the carrying out of predetermined 
evolutions, but by the concensus of opinion among the educated 
deaf mutes themselves, acting from the inside, learning from a 
comparison of views the benefits conferred and the injuries 
inflicted upon them by wise and unwise training." 





i. All Soul's Mission and branches 

2. Alumni Ass'n National College 

3. Anderson Society 

4. Apollo Working Men's Club 

5. Association of Deaf Mutes 

6. Association of Deaf Mutes 

7. Deaf Mute Association 

8. Deaf Mute Christian Union 

9. Deaf Mute Christian Endeavor Soc. 
io. Deaf Mute Club 

11. Deaf Mute Club 

12. Deaf Mute Club 

13. Deaf Mute Mission 

14. Deaf Mute Society 

15. Deaf Mute Society 

16. Deaf Mute Union League 

17. Empire State Association 

18. Fanwood Quad Club 

19. Gallaudet Society 

20. Gallaudet Literary Society 

21. German Charity Society 

22. Granite State Deaf Mute Mission 

23. Guild of Christian Workers 

24. Guild of Silent Workers 

25. Horace Mann School Al. Assn. 

26. Ida Montgomery Circle 

27. Illinois Alumni Association 

28. Indiana Alumni Association 

29. Iowa Alumni Association 

30. Manhattan Literary Association 

31. Maryland Alumni Association 

32. Methodist Church Mission 





Penn., N. J., 

Del., Md. 










San Francisco 


Los Angeles 







Kansas City 





St. Louis 


Kansas City 






New York City 

N. Y. 


N. Y. 


New York City 

N. Y. 




Grand Rapids 


New York 

N. Y. 


New Hampshire. 50 


N. Y. 


New York 

N. Y. 





New York 

N. Y. 








Council Bluffs 


New York 

N. Y. 








Organizations of the Deaf in the United States. 




All Angel's Mission 



All Saint's Mission 



Ephphatha Mission 



St. Agnes Mission 



St. Alban's Mission 



St. Bedes Mission 

Grand Rapids 


St. Clement's Mission 



St. Margaret's Mission 



St. Mark's Mission 



St. Thomas' Mission 

St. Louis 


Minnesota Alumni Association 




Mutual and Chairtable Relief Soc. 



National Association of the Deaf 

U. S. and Can. 


New England Gallaudet Ass'n 

New Eng'd. 


Ohio Alumni Association 




Pas-a-Pas Club 




Pennsylvania Association 



Protean Society 

New York 

N. Y. 

Rome Alumni Association 


N. Y. 


Salem Society 



Society of Deaf Mutes 


N. Y. 


Southern Kansas Association 



St. Andrew's Mission 



St. Ann Mission and Branches 

New York 

N. Y. 




St. Dand's Mission 


N. Y. 


Texas Association 



Troy Literary Association 


N. Y. 


Virginia Alumni Association 



Western N. Y. Miss'n and Branches 

N. Y. 

Whalen Social Club 


N. Y. 


Wisconsin Alumni Association 




Xavier Club 

New York 

N. Y. 













The Chair: 
French section. 

Mr. Chazal, of Paris, will now speak for the 


[Translated by Mr. D. W. George.] 

(Points to consider: Should they be encouraged? Are they condemned? 
If so, by whom and for what reasons? The object of the societies in your 
country, the results accomplished. Should hearing persons direct them wholly, 
partially or not at all? Give a list of all the kinds of associations in your 
country, with the object of each, and, if possible the number of members in 
them. Should they be incorporated? Are sufficient pains taken to acquaint 
the public with the nature and proceedings of their meetings? Should they 
have a voice and exert influence in the management of schools for the deaf? 
Should deaf mutes be encouraged to join the societies of hearing and speaking 
people? Any other matter you may deem to have bearing on the question.) 

In our view, societies of deaf mutes having a really practical and useful 
aim should be encouraged. They certainly will be one day; when they reach 
the point it will be time for the members to participate in the benefits prom- 
ised, when the members should be in the conditions demanded by the particu- 
lar statutes of the societies. 

In fact the French government and the city of Paris, which grant so many 
subsidies to hearing and speaking societies, can not but come to the aid of 
regularly constituted deaf mute societies. For, if the societies for mutual aid 
and pension of hearing and speaking persons, who make an effort to solve the 
difficult problem of assuring the necessaries to their members whom infirmity 
and age have reduced to inaction, merit all the solicitude of the public officers, 
with greater reason should the societies of the deaf mutes, who in spite of all 
are regarded as disabled persons, be listened to when they ask the government 
and the city to do for them that which they do for similar associations of hear- 
ing persons, and that on pain of high treason against humanity. 

We go further — we say to the French government: Every year, at the 
time of considering the budget you refuse to agree to the transfer of the estab- 
lishments for the education of the deaf to the Minister of Public Instruction, 
arguing that deaf mutes are an infirm class, and the establishments in which 
they are instructed should remain under the supervision of the Minister of the 
Interior, upon whom all the hospital services depend. Then be logical through- 
out, assure to these infirm people the means of gaining a living, and if they 
are incapable, which is. quite natural with infirm people, make it your business 
to provide for their subsistence. But, not being able to do this, you have the 
duty, the obligation to subsidize largely the societies of the deaf, and this in 
preference to hearing and speaking associations. 

For reasons which we have indicated, the deaf mute societies can not be 

38 Mr. Joseph Chazal on 

condemned to disappear; but the contrary is the case. Nevertheless they will 
condemn themselves to disappear by their own act in the more or less remote 
future, if their managers, instead of being actuated by the general good of all, 
have nothing in view but the gratification of their personal ambitions. This is 
what might very well have happened to the Societe d' Appui fraternal des 
Sourds Muets de France. Its president and founder has never been able to 
brook the slightest opposition; so when a deaf mute of intelligence is not in 
accord with him, he crushes him with a servile but short-sighted majority, and 
if need be he does not hesitate to oust with his private right him or those who 
make the great mistake of displeasing him. This style of proceeding has 
already brought the Societe d' Appui fraternal within an ace of its ruin. More- 
over, that which makes me forebode and regret the disappearance of this 
society is that its president has invariably been re-elected since' its foundation. 
Now if this president should die, it is almost certain that the members of the 
Societe d' Appui fraternal, accustomed always to see the same men at their 
head, will be vociferously clamoring for dissolution, the more so since this 
society has no one after its president who has the ability to manage it, all the 
deaf mutes of intelligence having withdrawn or having been brutally expelled. 
We conclude therefore that the society will disappear with its president and 
founder, unless the latter, by changing his tactics, succeeds in getting back to 
him those whom his brutality has repelled. Such a thing, the character of the 
man being given, is unfortunately not to be expected. 

With the Association Amicale des Sourds Muets, formerly Societe Univer- 
sale, nothing of the sort is to be feared; it is past speaking for its future. All 
the men who have been and are today at the helm are reckoned among the 
foremost deaf mutes of France. We can not judge the conduct of those who 
are no more, but we are well warranted in declaring that those who manage 
the Association at present are well worthy of their predecessors. Never 
stopping at any self-sacrifice that appears necessary for the good of the society, 
they voluntarily give place to younger members. What did I say? they called 
them forward themselves, they even encouraged them. If this manner of 
conducting the Association Amicale, so different from that of the Societe de 
Appui fraternel, does not change, we are convinced that the first of these 
societies, that is, the Association Amicale, will have an indefinite existence, and, 
do not suppose that what we have just said against the Societe d' Appui frater- 
nel and in favor of the Association Amicale is inspired by our antipathy 
towards the former or sympathy in favor of the latter; no, we have frankly stated 
what we believe to be the truth. We will not be suspected of partiality when 
we shall have added that our personal preference are rather for the Societe a" 
Appui fraternal des Sourds-Muets de France. 

In general, these French Societies have for their object: the education and 
assistance of their members, the propaganda of works of interest to the deaf, 
and, particularly, the celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the Abbe de 
1' Epee. 

Thus the Association Amicale des Sourds-Muets (formerly Societe Univer- 
salle) the first in date since it was founded in 1838 by Ferdinand Berthier, has 

Associations of Deaf Mutes in France. 39 

for its object: 1st. the amelioration of the condition of the deaf in general; 
2nd, the purchase of books and documents concerning their history and their 
education, in order to enable the deaf mutes to pursue their studies; 3rd, to 
enlighten and guide the deaf in the difficult affairs of life, and also to come to 
their assistance with loans of money when reverses of fortune and lack of 
employment put them in straightened circumstances; 4th, to make known and 
reward the deaf of both sexes for works and meritorious deeds. Lastly, to 
celebrate, as has been done since 1834, the anniversary of the first teacher of 
the deaf: the Abbe de 1' Epee. 

In resume, the Association Amicale des Sourds-Muets is a society for 
propaganda, for instruction, and, upon occasion, for mutual aid. But, as the 
realization of these different aims does not go on without heavy expenses, the 
association, in spite of its long existence, has not been able to accumulate but 
the very limited capital of about 4,000 or 5,000 francs. 

The interest on this sum, the assessments of the active members and the 
donations of honory members, who number about eighty, does not permit the 
Association to do as much good as it would like to, and the results attained by 
this society are very difficult to estimate. Nevertheless, the Association owns 
a library consisting of about 5,000 volumes, which furnish deaf mutes desirous 
of informing themselves all the necessary material; it grants a liberal subsidy 
to the Gazette des Sourds-Muets, whose aim is to defend our interests. In order 
to reach that aim this paper is open to all of whatever action. 

Shall we also speak of the numerous deaf mutes whom this society has 
aided in all sorts of difficulties? It would be too long and consequently too 
tiresome to enumerate them. We will, therefore, limit ourselves, to have done 
with this society, to saying a few words about the fetes given by the Association. 
The one held last year took place in the month of July; it is a summer fete 
without any special significance; the other one, which occurs during the month 
of November, is designed to celebrate the birthday of the Abbe de 1' Epee. 
This one deserves special mention, for it is the most brilliant fete in Paris, and 
consequently in France, not only for the number but also for the quality of the 
participants. In conclusion we shall add that the Association is the only 
French society that has agreed to take part in your International Congress in 

Briefly stated, the Association Amicale des Sourds-Muets, to become the 
foremost society in France, only needs to organize under its auspices a section 
having in view the assurance of a retreat, a pension for its members. We are 
well assured that just at present it is actively in contemplation to modify the 
statutes of this Society; but, while these modifications are being made, let us 
pass on to the Society d' Appui fraternel des Sourds-Muets de France. 

Founded in 1880, by Mr. Joseph Cochefer, the Society d' Appui fraternel 
des Sourds-Muets de France has for its aims: the amelioration of the condition 
of the deaf (of its members only) and especially to provide a life income for 
such of its members as are deprived by age or infirmity of the means of earn- 
ing a livelihood. The active members pay in one franc every month. By 
means of this moderate sum they become entitled at the end of five years of 

40 Mt . Joseph Chazal on 

assessment payments to a proportionate pension if an incurable disease or an 
accident entirely disables them for work. The honorary members pay in what 
they like, but they are entitled to none of the benefits which the society confers 
upon its participating members. 

The really useful and practical object of the Societe cT Appui fraternel a 
few years after its organization caused its honorary and participating member- 
ship to reach the number of 200, a figure which it has not touched again up to 
the present. Branches were established in the principal cities of France, at 
Bordeaux, Marseille, Lyon, Tours, Luzon, etc. The society then reached its 
zenith; but, starting from this point, there commenced for it an irretrievable 
period of decadence. Its founder, by his incessant and unjustifiable attacks 
in the newspaper the Echo de la Society d 'Appui fraternal, upon the elite of 
the deaf, who were not members of his Society, estranged even his own friends 
from him. To these acts of violence which brought on the disappearance of 
the Echo de la Society d' Appui fraternel in consequence of a condemnation 
for defamation, might be added the autocratic proceedings to which it is use- 
less to revert. All this produced a wide-spread prejudice against this society; 
little by little the branches disappeared, one by one the society members, tired 
of all the quarrels which continually burst forth at the general meetings, 
resigned en masse in such numbers that today the Society d 'Appui fraternel 
numbers only 100 members or more, active and honorary members included. 

As the status of the society do not in any case permit the refunding of 
the assessments paid in, the Societe d' Appeui fraternel, in spite of the decline 
to which it has fallen, possesses a capital of 16,000 francs. Since its founda- 
tion it has paid out 700 francs in pensions, apportioned among thirteen pen- 
sioners; it has found employment for ninety deaf mutes out of work, and pro- 
cured admission into houses of retirement for six aged persons. In reality, 
the results obtained by this society cannot be ascertained until igoo; at that 
date it will have numbered twenty years of existence; it will then become 
necessary to give every one of its members and founders a pension. The 
manager of the society expects to obtain at that time a subsidy from the gov- 
ernment or the city. We hope that it will be granted him. Without this Mr. 
Cochefer will have considerable difficulty in keeping his engagements. In 
fact, the society possessing actually 16,000 francs, putting things at their best, 
it will have in 1900, that is in seven years, 25,000 to 30,000 francs. At 3 per cent, 
this will yield a revenue of 1,000 to 1,200 francs. It is this which he will have to 
divide among all the society members who have paid their assessments for 
twenty years; so if the government fails to grant the subsidy hoped for, the 
pensions given to each of the original members of the Societe d' Appeui 
fraternel will be quite meagre. 

Let us now examine the Societe des Sourds Muets de- la Bourgogne, founded 
in 1880 by Mr. Borguin-Demangeot; the aim. of this society is to uphold the 
method of the Abbe de l'Epee, that is, the sign method; to look after the safe 
investment of the savings of its members, and to aid those who are tempo- 
rarily embarrassed, and then, of course, to celebrate the birthday of the Abbe 
de l'Epee. The social headquarters of this society is the town-house of Dijon 

Associations of Deaf Mutes in France. 41 

(Cote d' Or). The results attained by this society are mediocre, because its 
regular constitution only dates from a few months back, and the number of its 
members is necessarily limited, since it is a local society. It has not, so far, 
been able to defend the method of the Abbe de l'Epee, for the reason that its 
founders are but little in condition to carry out this part of the programme; as 
for assisting its members, if it does so at all, it must be in a manner of little 
efficacy. To tell the truth, the chief occupation of this society is to gather 
together the deaf mutes of Burgundy in reunion once a year, on the anniver- 
sary day of the birth of the first teacher of the deaf. In this field it meets 
with the most brilliant success. Thanks to the measures of the directors of 
the railroad companies, the deaf mutes who repair to Dijon, armed with an 
invitation of the society, travel at half fare. So they gather together in great 
numbers on the day of the fete of their intellectual father. They assemble in 
the afternoon to hear the report of the board of officers upon what had been 
done during the year just past, and then they retain this board or elect a new 
one, according as they are satisfied or not. Then they repair to the banquet of 
the society, and then disperse until the next year. 

Under such circumstances one would readily perceive that it would be 
wholly impracticable for the Societe des Sourds Mutes de la Bourgogne to put 
forth an effort to check the advance of the oral method. Other men and 
another kind of organization are needed. It is difficult to form the requisite 
kind of organization in the provinces. 

The Association Fraternelle des Sourds Muets de I' Est, whose social head- 
quarters are at Nancy has the same object as the Association Amicale des Sourds 
Muets de France. Its members number thirty. This number is fair con- 
sidering the sparseness of the silent population at Nancy. It is with the 
patronage of this society that Mr. Henri Remy w as enabled to issue the Gaz- 
ette des Sourds Muets. and afterwards, his activity and fidelity enabled him, 
with the continued assistance of the Association Fraternelle, to put the Gazette 
in the shape in which it appears to-day. This result is nothing short of won- 
derful, for it is the first time that a newspaper of such scope has maintained 
itself in our country. In fact, until to-day the deaf mute papers were about 
twice the size of the hand, and, notwithstanding they made their exit with 
clock-like regularity at the end of two or three years. But let us leave this 
subject to him who is assigned to discuss it, and return to the Association des 
Sourds Muets des I' Est. This society also engages in seeking employment 
for those who are out of work. In this respect it secures better results than 
the societies of Paris. It is no more than fair to state that the procuring situa- 
tions for those without work is chiefly the work of Mr. Henri Remy. This 
deaf mute, ever faithful to his brothers, never lets an opportunity to do good 
for them escape him. He is assisted in this by the prominent citizens of the 
place. In conclusion the Association Frat arnell des Sourds Muets de V Est, 
which was founded in 1890, celebrates every year the anniversary of the birth 
of the Abbe de l'Epee. 

In 1891, Mr. Henri Gaillard, at the instigation of Mr. Auguste Varenne, 
gathered around him a score of deaf mute amateurs, with whom he organized 

42 Mr. Joseph Chazal on 

the Comite des Sourds Nuets Mimes. The real founder of the company is, 
then, Mr. Varennes, but Mr. Gaillard is the soul of the enterprise. In spite of 
its limited membership, which never exceeds twenty, and its quite recent orga- 
nization, it is the one among the different associations of deaf mutes that has 
brought forth the most encouraging results. Its object is: I st, to seek means 
to give pantomimic exhibitions in France by deaf mute artists; 2d, to render 
easy the means of giving exhibitions in the great theatres to the deaf mutes 
who are endowed with theatrical talent. For this it is engaged in collecting 
funds for the realization of its plans. It has already succeeded in part. After 
the first pantomimic representation given at the banquet of the Association, 
November 29, 1891, a representation which created quite a stir in the Parisian 
press at the time, Mr. A. Varenne, who is one of the best pantomimists of the 
company, in company with Mr. H. Gaillard, had an interview with the manager 
of the Moulin-Rouge chorographical establishment, well known in the capital. 
As the outcome of this interview, an experiment was tried. The piece Rose 
entamee a vendre (Cut Rose for Sale) obtained a great success before the 
audience especially invited to witness the trial, but the piece was too lengthily 
detailed to suit such an establishment as the Moulin-Rouge. So nothing came 
of this affair. Only, the comment occasioned by this daring undertaking 
caused Mr. Bernard, the organizer of Blanc et Noir (exposition of design 
which was in Champ de Mars in the buildings of the old exposition) to propose 
to Mr. Gaillard to give some pantomimic representations in the exposition hall 
itself. These representations, which took place every Sunday for three con- 
secutive months, was without question the great attraction (le clou) of the expo- 
sition of Blanc et Noir. They had no other effect, however, than to make the 
public acquainted with the matchless talent which certain deaf mutes have for 
pantomime. This result was not to be despised by any means, but the mana- 
ger not having derived any profit from the enterprise, the artists of the com- 
pany did not obtain any remuneration. This almost discouraged them. For- 
tunately the representation which took place on November 27 of the same 
year, at the banquet of the association amicale opened new horizons for its 
colossal success. For nine days the Parisian press did not exhaust its encomi- 
ums upon the silent pantomimists; it is amazing that the comment made on 
them at the time did not suggest to the director of a single theatre the idea of 
employing these incomparable artists; they would have thereby done an excel- 
lent stroke of business. But if the great theatres have so far remained closed 
to our artists, their reputation is made to such an extent that those who dis- 
credited with the greatest obstinacy the ability of the deaf as pantomimists 
are now the loudest in heralding the talent of these artists. In this way society 
people not having the same reasons, the same obstacles as the theatre mana- 
gers, clamor with greedy rivalry for our deaf mute pantominists. Mr. Varenne 
in particular had the greatest difficulty in responding to demands made on 
him from all sides during the season of balls and soirees. Add to this that he 
does not give any charity entertainment without the co-operation of the com- 
pany of deaf mute pantomimists, and you will have an idea of the results 
obtained by this committee, in the success of which we have, for our part, long 

Associations of Deaf Mutes in France. 43 

refused to believe; but what! here are the facts; it is quite in order now for us 
to yield to the evidence. 

The creation of the Association Fraternelle des Sourds Muets de la Xor- 
mandie dates back to 1891 in fact, but in law it has hardly had an existence of 
three months. However, thanks to the fidelity and ability of its founder, Mr. 
Louis Capon, it already possesses a capital of 2,000 francs, which is a magnifi- 
cent augury for the future of this society. It is true that Mr. Louis Capon is 
one of the foremost deaf mutes of France, successful by his sole merits; he has 
by his works obtained rewards from the French Academy, and his conduct 
has earned him the Monthyon prize. Xo one more than he ever merited such 
handsome recognition and encouragement, for his devotion to the cause of the 
deaf is boundless and the services he renders them are of daily occurrance. 

Mr. Louis Capon began by founding a school for the deaf which may 
rival the Institution Nationale of Paris in excellence if not in size. But to 
devote himself simply to the education of the deaf seemed to be duty half 
done with him, so he sought means to patronize them or place them in situa- 
tions when they left his establishment; to aid them in case of sickness or loss 
of employment; to aid them with his advice in the serious difficulties such as 
court trials, etc., etc., and finally to assure them with means of living when age 
has condemned them to inactivity, and even to assure them a decent burial 
when their eyes are closed in death. With this aim, with these aims, we should 
rather say, for one may see that his aims are legion, he founded the Association 
Fraternelle des Sourds Muets de la Xormandie, which is a model of its kind. 

To accomplish the task which he undertook, which he imposed upon him- 
self, Mr. Louis Capon perceived that he and the deaf mutes ■alone were not 
sufficient, so he asked and obtained the adhesion of all the notabilities of his 
region, who not only assured him of their moral support but also of material 
and financial assistance. 

The establishment of a society for instruction, for moral improvement, for 
mutual aid, and retirement as thus proposed is the warrant of certain success, 
the more so for Mr. L. Capon is not the man to get discouraged by a check. He 
will triumph over all obstacles and carry his enterprise to a successful issue. 
We hope so .for the good of the deaf, at the same time regretting deeply that 
no man of such exceptional ability and disinterested fidelity can be found to 
establish an analogous society in Paris, the capital of the civilized world! 

The results attained by the Association Fraternelle des Sourds Muets, its 
recent foundation being considered, are difficult to enumerate; all that we 
know is that Mr. Louis Capon keeps right on helping the deaf mute, whom 
the industrial crisis bearing rigorously at present upon the cotton industry, 
puts into a precarious situation. Nevertheless, as we have already said, this 
society possessing a capital of two thousand francs after one year's existence; 
has made a beginning that presages a most brilliant future, so much so that the 
Association des Sourds Muets de la Normandie may well become the first 
society of France, and this would be right. 

All these societies which reckon hearing persons as honorary members 
are managed exclusively by the deaf. To us it seems quite natural, in fact 

44 Mr. Joseph Cliasal on 

the societies founded by and for the benefit of the deaf should, it is not neces- 
sary to say, be managed by themselves. Without doubt, the deaf are not 
always possessed of the necessary ability and experience — We speak for the 
provinces — but, with abundance of good sense, one is almost always certain to 
avoid the rocks in the way. The deaf have no need, therefore, of hearing 
persons to manage their affairs, except in dfficult cases, the administrators can 
have recourse to the Honorary President for light, the latter always being a 
man occupying a high position, and in case of need to engage a competent 
man to attend to special difficulties. Besides, where are hearing men to be found 
self-sacrificing enough, honest enough, to devote himself to a task so thankless 
as the management of a deaf mute society? Then, where are the hearing men 
possessing enough knowledge of the sign language to catch on the wing, in an 
animated discussion, the gestures of the deaf and to make himself under- 
stood? There are some of them — we know some of them personally, — some 
who are very capable of directing a deaf mute society. Nevertheless, we 
think that it is not necessary to allow hearing persons to have a hand in the 
administration of deaf mute societies under any circumstances. A society of 
deaf mutes administered by hearing persons may have been all right some 
fifty or sixty years ago, but to-day, with the degree of education attained by 
the elite of the deaf, they are eminently qualified, and, we do not fear to add, 
more expert than any others in managing the affairs of their likes, for, coming 
in the same condition, they have the same wants. 

In most cases the duties of the administrators is confined to superintend- 
ing the movement and investment of the common funds, to superintending 
the apportionment of the revenues, which are not very complicated when one has 
a little knowledge of arithmetic. They recommend and secure employment, if 
they can, for the deaf mutes out of work, and then they preside over the general 
meetings, and send, if they deem it worth while, an account of the proceedings to 
the newspapers, which most often they do not publish, the matter in hand 
being interesting only to the deaf. It is hardly more than during the months 
November and July, the time for holding the commemorative banquets, that 
the Parisian press seriously concerns itself about us. During the rest of the 
year the public manifests a supreme indifference for all that relates to the deaf 
Then, the societies, having each a different object, are often rivals; so that 
their bickerings lead to their mutual weakness. It would be desirable, there- 
fore, to have the societies incorporated and federated among themselves, 
under the direction of a single committee, in such a manner as to enable 
them to direct their whole energy to the same end while preserving for each 
its own autonomy. This is what was attempted by the ligue pour tunion 
amicale des sourds muets, (league for the friendly union of deaf mutes). 
This miscarried for many reasons. Where, then, is the man wise enough 
and influential enough to silence all these rivalries and resentments, and 
succeed in incorporating all these societies into a single one? For the mo- 
ment we do not see him. 

In regard to the influence which these associations of the deaf should 
have upon the direction of education in the schools, we think that compe- 

Associatiofis of Deaf Mutes in France. 45 

tent authority should institute the most careful inquiry before making any 
change in the existing order of things. For this purpose the government 
should name a consulting commission composed exclusively of the most 
intelligent deaf mutes. It will submit all the reforms and innovations to this 
commission, which will give an unfavorable opinion or not. No doubt, the 
opinion of such a commission, were one created, would not always receive 
attention; but it could in some cases have the correctness of their conclu- 
sions recognized when they are in the right, We would avoid the blind 
gropings, the mistakes which we so frequently see occurring in the education 
of the deaf under the system now in vogue, in which they listen only to 
the recommendations of hearing and speaking consulting commissions. The 
individuals who compose these commissions are always highly educated and 
of great breadth of informatian in everything save that which relates to the 
deaf, with which they have only a superficial acquaintance. Now we do not 
think it will be generally denied that the deaf mutes have the competency 
and, by consequence, the right to render an opinion concerning matters which 
relate to their younger brothers. This is why we think that the associations 
of the deaf should have a voice in the matter. 

L' Union fait la force (In union is strength) and every association, what- 
ever may be its aim, in grouping together a large number of individuals, its 
object is to give more weight to and, by consequence, to carry into effect 
the social or political demands of the majority of its members. This prin- 
ciple being admitted, deaf mutes desiring to enter a hearing and speaking 
society ought to be encouraged in such a design, for in having themselves 
enrolled in a society, the deaf mutes would thereby enlarge their circle of 
intercourse and they would be better assisted in the difficulties of life. Besides 
hearing and speaking societies always having a greater number of members 
than the deaf mute societies, by this single fact are able to offer the deaf 
mutes who join them much greater advantages than their own societies. 
Here the question occurs whether the deaf mute societies should be incor- 
porated into the other societies of analogous nature. This question seems 
to us to be very difficult of solution. In favor of it, may be said that the 
deaf mute societies which should coalesce with the hearing and speaking 
societies would, no doubt, derive much more benefit from the alliance with 
their more powerful sisters, but they would soon lose all individuality, would 
be utterly assimilated and have no further reason for existence. And, more- 
over, is it not to be feared that in these conglomerated societies, the hear- 
ing element being preponderant, they may not make the law for their deaf 
mute colleagues, and even may exclude them from participation in the bene- 
fits after having lured in as many members as possible? In such an appre- 
hension, we are of opinion that deaf mutes in individual capacity may 
become members of hearing and speaking societies, but they should retain 
most jealously their own societies, constantly trying to enhance their usefulness 
and, especially, they should try to unite them under the direction of a cen- 
tral committee, which, by concentrating their efforts, will necessarily pro- 
duce tangible results. 

46 Mr. Joseph Chazal on 

In our enumeration of the Societies of the deaf we have purposely omitted 
the Society Central d' Education et d' Assistance pour les Sourds-Muets en 
France. The object of this society, as its name inditates, is to occupy itself 
in the education of the deaf. With this end in view it assists private schools 
with money, it occupies itself in rendering aid to indigent deaf-mutes. This 
silence which we have maintained in regard to this society arises from the 
fact that it is enterely or nearly entirely managed by hearing persons; we 
think therefore this is not a matter for discussion that has place on the pro- 
gramme of the International Congress of Deaf-Mutes in Chicago. 

We have deemed it to the purpose to no more -than mention the existence of 
the Sigue pour V Union Amicale des Sourds-Muets. This league whose object 
is to rally all the societies around a common idea, through the intolerance of 
its leaders who are the same men as those of the Societie d' Appus fratemel 
reached a result diametrically opposed to the high purpose which it set out to 
accomplish — to such a degree that the number of participants at its last general 
meeting was fourteen all told. One may see, then, that it was quite useless to 
occupy ourselves any more with it. 

The Comite francais de participation^ rench Committee of Participation) in 
your Congress will no longer have the honors of your deliberations, for the 
reason that this committee organized on the 15th of March will have ceased to 
operate of the 30th of next June. However, during its brief existence the 
Comite francais de participatioyi will have done more work and made more 
clatter than quite a number of deaf-mute societies have done in several years 
of effort. 

Our task here comes to an end. We trust we have performed it as impar- 
tially as it is possible for a man who knows how on occasion to rise above the 
petty agitations of this world. However, not having any pretention of being 
infalible, we leave to the Congress the part of drawing from this improvised 
and very frequently interrupted study, the conclusion most conformable to the 
good of our brothers. May your resolutions be heard in high place and open 
an era of prosperity for Silent Humanity! 

The Chair: As the English section is not prepared to pre- 
sent the paper scheduled in the programmme, the next paper in 
order will be read by its author, Mr. Watzulik, representing 


[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 

Should they be encouraged? 

Yes, when it is considered that in comparison with other similar organiza- 
tions, deaf-mute associations are still in a rather primitive condition. 

Are they condemned? If so, by whom has this been done? 

Though they are not strictly condemned, they are regarded with an unfa- 
vorable eye by the radical element among our teachers, inasmuch as the self- 
assumed guardianship of certain instructors is more or less resented in the 
Associations, and occasionally not even tolerated. 

The objects of these societies? 

The intellectual and material welfare of members and deaf-mute non- 

Results accomplished? 

The results are almost uniformly gratifying. The intelligence of the 
members is quickened; their morals elevated; many are saved from want; 
many solecisms of- good manners are corrected; the horizon of practical life is 
widened; the love of man for man is fostered, whereas it would have been 
smothered in the unfeeling outside world. 

Should hearing persons be allowed to control them in whole, in part, or 
not at all? 

The control of such Associations should be entrusted to hearing persons 
only when they have a thorough and intimate acquaintance with the peculiari- 
ties of the deaf. Such trustees are in a position to avoid mistakes. It is 
self evident that the first qualifications of such a trustee must be a mastery of 
the sign language. Unfortunately, however, there are some to whom the deaf 
mute and his necessities are a sealed book, and such persons must be desig- 
nated as mischevious incumbents of high positions — the Association under 
their control make but poor progress, and the results achieved are meagre 
and unsatisfactory. 

Give a classified list of all such organizations in your own country with 
objects of each, and, if possible, number of members. 

First. — Altona: " Deaf Mute Association of Altona and Vicinity." — Object, 
Benevolent purposes; Enrollment: 202 deaf and 28,315 hearing members; 
Capital, 85,795 marks ($19,732.85). Period in existence, 10 years. 

Second. — Altwasser in Selesia: " The Bee Deaf Mute Association." — 
Object, Benevolent purposes; Enrollment, 46 members; Period in existence, 
8 years. 

48 Mr. G. IV. Veditz on 

Third. — Berlin: I. Saving and Loan Association, "Brotherly Love," — 
Period in existence, I year. 

2. Deaf Mute Society, " Harmony." Period in existance, 20 years. 

3. Deaf Mute Society, " Recreation." Period in existence, 18 years; 16 

4. Deaf Mute Club for establishing a hospital for deaf mutes. 

5. Deaf Mute Society, " Fortuna." Period in existence, I year; 6 members. 

6. Deaf Mute Society, " Marienburgia." Period in existence, 2 years. 

7. "Central Association for the Welfare of the Deaf." Founded 1848, 
240 members; a club house of its own valued at 200,000 marks ($46,000); 
monthly income form rent of building, 192 X marks. 

8. Deaf Mute Association, " Good Fellowship." 

9. Deaf Mute Association, " Nameless." 

10. Deaf Mute Ladies' Association, 94 members. 

11. Deaf Mute Local Association, 100 members. 

12. Deaf Mute Bowling Club, "Pleasure," 15 members. 

13. Deaf Mute Dramatic Association, "Cheerfulness." 

14. Deaf Mute Society, " Frederick," 4 years. 

15. Deaf Mute Society, "Ephphatha." 

Fourth. — Brunswick: Deaf- Mute Association, " Brunonia." 

Fifth. — Bochum: 1 Deaf Mute Association of Bochum and Vicinity, 

" Palm," 60 members 

2 Deaf Mute Benevolent Associations, 40 members. 
Sixth. — Breslau: Deaf Mute Association. 

Seventh. — Dusseldorf : Deaf Mute Club, " Germania," 30 members. 
Eighth. — Dortmund: Deaf Mute Association. 
Ninth. — Dresden: Deaf Mute Association, "Oak Chaplet," Deaf Mute 

Society, " Ephphatha," Deaf Mute Club, " Uphrosina (Bowling Club). 
Tenth. — Erfurt: Deaf Mute Association, 4 years. 
Eleventh. — Essen-on-the-Ruhr: Society, " The Westphalian Deaf." 
Twelfth. — Elberfeld: Provincial Deaf Mute Association of the Province 

of the Rhine. 
Thirteenth. — Friedberg, in Hesse: "General Deaf Mute Association." 
Fourteenth. — Frankfort-on-the-Main: Deaf Mute Association, "Unity." 

6 years. 
Fifteenth. — Furth. Deaf Mute Club, " Unity," 3 years, 10 members. 
Sixteenth: — Gorlitz: Deaf Mute Club. 

Seventeenth. — Gleiwitz: Deaf Mute Association, " Cheerfulness." 
Eighteenth. — Hildesheim: Deaf Mute Association. 
Nineteenth. — Hannover: 1. Deaf Mute Association, 20 years, 40 members. 

2. Deaf Mute Club, " Ephphatha." 

3. Hannover Provincal Deaf Mute Association, 1 year. 

Twentieth. — Hamburg: 1. Deaf Mute Association, " Ephphatha," 2 years, 
69 members. 

2. Fencing Club, y 2 year, 80 members. 

3. Savings Association, " The Bee." 

Associations of the Deaf in Germany. 49 

4. Hamburg Deaf Mute Association, 14 years, 104 members. 

5. Pleasure Club, " Friendship." 
Twenty-first. — Heide: Deaf Mute Association. 
Twenty-second. — Gera: Deaf Mute Club, 1 year. 
Twenty-third. — Itzelo: Deaf Mute Association. 

Twenty-fourth. — Gologne-on-the-Rhine: Deaf Mote Association, 2 years, 

34 members. 
Twenty-fifth.— Kiel: Deaf Mute Club, " Pleasure." 
Twethy-sixth. — Kassel: Deaf Mute Association, 64 members. 
Twenty-seventh. — Konigsberg in Prussia: East Prussian Association, 10 

Twenty-eighth.— Leipsic: Deaf Mute Association, " The Palm." 
Twenty-nineth. — Lubeck: Deaf Mute Club, " Humme of Luba," 2 years. 
Thirtieth. — Liegnitz in Silesia: Deaf Mute Association. 
Thirty-first. — Magdeburg: Deaf Mute Club, " Nameless," 40 members. 
Thirty-second. — Munich: 1. Deaf Mute Club, " Monachia Gruss," 10 years, 

29 members, 
2. Deaf Mute Association, " Bavaria," 5 years. 
Thirty-third. — Mannheim: Deaf Mute Club, " Friendship," 1 year, 9 

Thirty-fourth. — Nuremberg: Deaf Mute Association, 10 years. 
Thirty-fifth. — Osnabruck: Deaf Mute Association. 
Thirty-sixth. — Schmolle, near Altenburg: Deaf Mute Association, 1 year, 

10 members. 
Thirty-seventh. — Stuttgart: Wurtemberg Deaf Mute Association, 11 years, 

46 members. 
Thirty-eighth. — Sleswick: 1. Provincial Deaf Mute Association. 

2. Local Association, 17 members. 
Thirty-nineth. — Stettin: 1. Deaf Mute Association, "Harmony," 34 mem- 
2. Stettin Deaf Mute Association, " Aid Society," 14 members. 
Forty. — Ulsar, near Hannover: Deaf Mute Club, " Harmony." 
Forty-first. — Wiesbaden: 1. Rhenish Deaf Mute Union (Dramstadt, Frank- 

fort-on-the-Main, Mentz, Manneheim, Wiesbaden, Worms,) 79 members. 

2. Deaf Mute Association, " Wiesbaden." 

3. Pleasure Club, " The Sign Language," 7 years, 19 members. 

The object of the Associations enumerated above is chiefly to foster the 
spirit of mutual benevolence and social fellowship, and to promote the intel- 
lectual culture of the members in every possible manner. Several of the larger 
organizations are endeavoring to establish homes for the aged and infirm 
deaf mutes. 

Special Remark. A large number of deaf mute clubs and associations 
failed to supply me with statistics. But I judge that about one hundred clubs 
and associations, with about two thousand members, are in existence in the 
German Empire. 

The Chair: A paper will now be read by Mr. Titze, represent- 
ing the Swedish section. 



Air. President and Gentlemen : — I will try to be as short and concise as 
possible. It is unnecessary to tell you that it is our duty , and to our own 
advantage, in the first place to help one another as deaf mutes; you, of course, 
know that before hand. As you know we are able to help one another in 
different ways and by different means, and we are highly glad that there are so 
many associations founded for this purpose, as the fact is, working for the 
mutual assistance of the Deaf Mute. Only one party in our country has 
looked upon these associations with an unfavorable eye and made them the 
object of an unfriendly opinion, viz.: the "talking fanatics." According to 
the opinion of these fanatics the Associations of the Deaf Mute must be 
looked upon as great and dangerous haunts for the cultivation, preservation, 
vindication and propagation of the " sign-language method," as well among 
the deaf as among their hearing friends and relations. 

The associations are, as it were, " Academies of the sign-language method 
for the deaf." In Sweden there exists at present three associations of deaf 
mutes. The greatest and oldest of them is the association of Stockholm. 
This association was founded in the year 1868 with 94 members, but now 
the number of members is above 600, of which some 100 are hearing, passive 
members. The members are spread over the whole country. The associa- 
tion having existed twenty-five years, has now a fund of 43,000 kronor, or, 
in American money, about 12,000 dollars. According to the statutes it has 
to pursue the following purpose, viz.: 

1. To induce deaf persons to do their duties toward the commonwealth 
and each other by example of diligence, order, economy and good 

2. To assist members by advancing them money loans, when required. 

3. To procure work for such members who are in want thereof. 

4. To support by sick relief, or gifts, such members, who are in 
want of help on account of sickness, old age, or for other reasons. 

5. To establish a good library from which the members can have the 
loan of books, and also to spread knowledge and good morals by lectures 
on useful objects and by civilizating association. The second association, 
including the two provinces of the South of Sweden, was founded in 1890, 
on my initiative, and has gained such a large field by the deaf that during 
its short existence, the number of members at present amounts to 150. 
Hearing persons cannot be admitted to this association for several reasons. 
The purpose of this assoctiation is as follows: as soon as sufficient money 
has been collected by voluntary contribution or gifts from the members, 

Associations of the Deaf in Sweden. 51 

the Society will tender sick relief, contribution for burial and superannuated 
allowance at a certain age to its poor and needy members, also to found 
a higher school, where members of great capacity or energy should have 
an opportunity of improving their knowledge or raise their education above 
the low level of the ordinary school. The Association has a meeting every 
three months, when the directors must give their report. The third Asso- 
ciation that was founded in 1892 by eight Deaf Mute persons at a great 
railway station in the middle of Sweden, has its own saving fund and makes 
business with its deaf members and hearing friends. The profit of the 
business during the last year was no less than 33 per cent., although the 
per cent, of loans had been lowered. The purpose of this Association is 
also to promote the intellectual development of its members, by arranging 
meetings of discussion on public questions, by lectures upon different sub- 
jects, and by furnishing them with good and instructive books, and also to give 
them amusement and recreation by arranging for festive gatherings or meet- 
ings. No help is given in sickness nor in any other way. As for two or three 
other associations that may exist, or may have existed, in our country, I can give 
no information concerning them, having not heard of them for a long time and 
have accordingly not been able to give an account of them in this paper. 

The Chair: Mr. Werner, of Norway, has sent a general paper 
covering all the subjects in the programme. The Secretary has 
arranged them so that each subject is treated in its place. 



In Norway there are three societies of the Deaf; one at Christiana, one at 
Bergen and one at Trondhjem. The two last named are of very recent 
date, while that Christiana, by far the largest, dates from 1878. The Deaf 
Society of Christiana numbers about sixty members, and they admit, besides 
as passive members, some twenty hearing ladies and gentlemen. The pur- 
pose of the society is the double one of giving the members social oppor- 
tunities and of assisting poor deaf whether members or not. The society 
possesses a fund amounting to $8,000, entirely invested in a building with 
grounds, in the city of Christiana. They also manage a legacy of $1,600 
for aged and infirm deaf. 

The Chair: A gentleman with whom you all are more or less 
acquainted desires to address you. I have pleasure in introducing 
to you our friend the enemy, Dr. A. G. Bell, of Washington. Prof. 
Clarke will kindly interpret his remarks. 

Dr. Bell: I have been delegated by the American Association 
to promote the teaching of speech to the deaf to invite you to a 

52 The American Association Reception. 

reception to be given on Saturday afternoon. A mistaken impress- 
ion appears to prevail among the deaf that the Association is only 
for the hearing. I assure you that this is not the case; it confines 
its operations to no class or school or system, but simply desires 
to advance the teaching of speech to the deaf without regard to 
system. I have much pleasure in presenting you this invitation, 
and sincerely hope to see you among us on Saturday. 

The University of Chicago, July 18, 1893. 
The American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf 
extends a cordial invitation to the Congresses of the Deaf, and instructors 
of the Deaf, to attend a reception to be given at the University of Chicago, 
on Saturday afternoon, July 22, from 5 to 7 o'clock. 

F. W. Booth, Secretary, pro tern. 

The Chair: We shall now proceed to consider Mission work 
among the Adult Deaf. Rev. A. W. Mann, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
will open the discussion for the American Section. 



It seems proper to preface this paper with a brief reference to educa- 
tion, which is so intimately related to the religious advancement of our class. 
It is, in fact, indispensible, for without it the Church can expect no response 
to her " Ephphatha." The hand of the educator, like That of the pioneer, 
must first open the way by fitting the mind for a grasp of the truths of the 
Gospel. For reasons well understood a course at school means more to us 
than to our hearing friends. A hearing person can be taught these truths 
without any previous training at school. 

We are well aware that for many centuries the minds of the deaf 
languished in mental and spiritual darkness, owing to their isolation from 
the ordinary means of training, and the unwillingness of educators to devise 
special methods to meet their case. It is by no means strange, considering 
the mental condition of the deaf of ancient times, that the passage of Scrip- 
ture, " Faith cometh by hearing," should have been given a literal interpreta- 
tion by the early fathers of the Church. In their silent fellow beings, they saw 
no evidence of understanding, which is the true meaing of hearing. One may 
hear, or see, and yet not understand. It seems safe to say that the interpreta- 
tion would have been quite different if the deaf were educated in the early 
days of the Church. The deaf, so long neglected in the matter of education, 
were at last to receive attention. The middle of the last century witnessed the 
foundation of schools in France, Germany and England. Since then their 
number in Europe has rapidly grown. 

Over seventy years ago the school at Hartford, Conn., was founded by 
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, LL. D., of revered memory. So rapid has been 
the growth of educational facilities, that over eighty schools, with an annual 
attendance of nearly ten thousand pupils, may be counted from ocean to 
ocean. This does not include the two or three institutions established in 

Each year has marked an increase of educated deaf mutes fitted for lives 
of useful citizenship, but isolated from the ordinary modes of worship and 
religious instruction. Something had to be done to meet their spiritual needs. 
The initial movement towards meeting this long-felt need was undertaken in 
New Yorkctiy, in the year 1850, under the auspices of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church. The Rev. Thomas Gallaudet, D. D., son of the founder of the Hart- 
ford school, formed a Bible class of adult deaf mutes, which grew into St. 
Ann's Church, so well and widely known. It was founded in 1851. Twenty 
years afterward, in 1872, the society known as the Church Mission to Deaf 
Mutes, was incorporated with the above-named gentleman as general manager. 

54 Rev. A. W. Mann on 

Its labors are confined to the Dioceses of New York and New England. The 
clergy laboring under its auspices are, besides the above named, the Rev. 
John Chamberlain, and Rev. Anson T. Colt. They are assisted by three or 
four lay readers. The Rev. Mr. Colt has recently founded St. David's Mission 
for the Deaf in Brooklyn. The Rev. Mr. Chamberlain has charge of a Mission 
in Newark, N. J., but his chief duties are that of assistant minister at St. Ann's 
Church, New York. Of this church Dr. Gallaudet is now Rector Emritus, 
after forty years active and useful service. 

In Boston, the Rev. S. Stanley Searing has charge of St. Andrews Deaf 
Mute Mission. Itinerary work throughout New England is done by Mr. S. \V. 
Frisbee, a deaf mute lay reader. 

The Rev. C. Orvis Dantzer, a deaf mute, performs itinerary work in the 
Diocese of Central and Western New York. 

Initial services in Boston, Albany, Philadelphia, Baltimore and other east- 
ern cities were held by Rev. Dr. Gallaudet, not long after the inauguration of 
the work in New York city. The above-named society also sustains the Home 
for Aged and Infirm Deaf Mutes, located on a beautiful farm overlooking the 
Hudson River near Poughkeepsie, New York. It hopes soon to have a Mis- 
sion House in New York City, to be the centre of active work reaching over 
the city and suburbs. 

The Rev. Francis J. Clerc, D. D., whose father was associated with the 
elder Galluadet in establishing the Hartford School, held services in Philadel- 
phia for several years until his removal to another parish. The work was 
taken up by Mr. Henry Winter Syle, M. A., as a lay reader. He was the 
first deaf person to be ordained to the Christian Ministry. 

He was ordained Deacon by Bishop Stevens, October 8th, 1876, in St. 
Stephen's Church, Philadelphia. He and the Rev. Austin W. Mann were 
ordained to the priesthood together at the Church of the Covenent, of the same 
city, on Sunday, October 13th, 1883. Rev. Mr. Syle founded All Souls Church 
for the deaf. He was its faithful pastor until his death. His successor, the 
Rev. Mitchell Koehler, also a deaf mute, carries on energetically the work in 
Pennsylvania, Central Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland. He has over 
400 communicants to look after. 

During the imcumbency of Rev. Mr. Syle, Commissions on Church work 
among deaf mutes were formed for Pennsylvania and Central Pennsylvania, with 
the object of extending the Services of the Prayer Book in Sign Language. The 
Rev. Mr. Koehler is assisted by lay readers in Philidelphia and Baltimore. 

The work finally reached the Mid-West in 1873, when the Rev. Austin \V. 
Mann began services at Flint, Detroit and Jackson, Michigan. Two years 
later the work was carried into other Dioceses. The following Missions have 
been established: St. Thomas, St. Louis; All Angels, Chicago; Ephphatha, 
Detroit; St. Bede, Grand Rapids; St. Agnes, Cleveland; All Saints, Columbus; 
St. Marks, Cincinnati; St. Clements, Dayton; St. Albans, Indianapolis, and 
St. Margaret, Pittsburgh. Smaller cities to the number of over 200 have been 
served on week days, Sunday being given to the large ones. Mr. Mann has 
occasionally gone beyond the limits of his Missionery district. In 1886, he held 

Mission Work Among the Deaf of America. 55 

the first Prayer Book Service in sign language on the Pacific Coast, at Trinity 
Church, San Francisco. He has also visited the South. 

The Rev. James H. Cloud, M. A., principal of the St. Louis Day School 
for Deaf Children, has charge of St. Thomas Mission, St. Louis, as assistant of 
Mr. Mann. 

He has held services in Chicago, Kansas City and other places. Rev. Mr. 
Mann is assisted by the following lay readers: Prof. Brewster R. Allabough 
and Frank A. Litner, at Pittsburgh; Prof. Nathaniel F. Morrow, at Indianapolis, 
and Prof. Robert P. McGregor at Columbus. 

The dozen, or more, Southern Dioceses have been traveled over for several 
years by a Deaf Mute Missionary canonically connected with Virginia. Eight 
years ago the first convention of Church workers among the deaf mutes was 
held at St. Ann's Church, New York. Since then these gatherings have been 
repeated annually, the last one being held last week at All Angels"Church, 

The Roman Catholic Church supports schools for the deaf children at 
Fordham and Buffalo, New York; St. Francis, near Milwaukee; Monroe, 
Michigan; Montreal, Canada, and a few other places. Services in the Sign 
Language are provided for the graduates living in larger cities, notably, New 
York, Philadelphia, Buffalo and Montreal. 

During the past eight or nine years, the Congregationalists and Baptists 
have held services at a few places in New England. Mr. Samuel Rowe, of the 
former, has worked under a license renewed annually. Mr. P. W.Packard, 
authorized similarly by the latter, has ministered principally at Salem, Mass. 

About the year i8go, a movement was begun by the Methodists. Prof. 
Philip G. Gillet, Superintendent of the Illinois Institution, commenced to 
preach in Chicago, and soon afterward to send his teachers there by turns for 
the same purpose. 

In a few places, the Young Men's Christian Association have sustained 
services in the Sign Language. 

The effect of several different religious bodies working among a handful 
of deaf mutes is to reduce them to very small congregatians. Think of a dozen 
or more of a locality being looked after by as many denominations. Should this 
ever be the case the effect would be mortifying and ridiculous. In view of the 
movements towards Christian unity, of which we hear through the religious 
press, it must appear unwise to begin now to draw sectarian lines among the 
deaf. Christians have grown weary of division; besides they begin to per- 
ceive by Holy Writ that it is contrary to our Lord's will, as expressed in His 
prayer in the seventeenth chapter of St. John. Division is certain to trouble the 
deaf more than it does the hearing, who, being many, feel the evils less. It 
ought to be acknowledged that one church is sufficient for them. It is certainly 
very generally admitted that a Liturgy is best adapted to their spiritual needs. 

It is most interesting to note the perfect adaptability of the sign language 
to the religious culture of our class. Its equal will never be found. It is a 
Divine provision to meet the loss of a sense. The oral system, which claims 

56 Rev. A. W. Mann on 

so much, has thus far failed to offer the same advantages. We have not yet 
heard of worship and religious instruction being conducted in an edifying 
manner by lip signs among graduates of oral schools in either America or 
Europe. The inspiration of sound is wanting. The intellect and emotions 
can not be aroused. Even the very best lip-readers admit their inability to 
catch every word falling from the lips of the oral preacher moving with the 
usual rapidity — only a word here and there, consequently only a fragmentary 
sense of the discourse. How must it be with the less accomplished? 

The Chair: The paper that follows will be presented by the 
French section and will be read by M. Desperriers for M. 



[Translated by Mr. T. F. Fox.] 

Gentlemen : — At the time of the distribution of the programme of this 
Congress, my friends saw fit to allot to me the task of presenting a study on 
" The Work of Missions Among Adult Deaf Mutes." 

I should have been willing to decline this honor because of the gravity of 
the subject and the difficulty which it presents to my very limited experience; 
but then this would have me appear indifferent with respect to a leading 
question, and permit my inner-most feelings to continue unspoken. I therefore 
offer you, gentlemen, with my best wishes for the happy success of your meet- 
ings, a work as concientious as it is modest, for which I ask in advance 
your entire indulgence. It is the faithful echo of the thoughts and plans of 
the majority of my fellow deaf mutes and of hearing friends who have our 
welfare at heart. I have no doubt that you will give as much attention, as 
you will show kindness, to the representatives of France, manifesting in this 
way, once more, gentlemen, your ardent desire to be conjointly responsible in 
all the special questions tending to complete our social emancipation. 


By mission or retreat, is meant a uniformity of religious exercises made in 
common, and following an established order, under the direction of a minister 
of God. These exercises, which continue a certain number of days, are for 
the purpose of recalling to minds the truths of religion, to awaken the energy 
of the will, which, alas, allows itself too easily to be absorbed in the numerous 
affairs and cares of life, and to determine upon firm resolutions and practices 
in order to return again to every proper duty. 

The Missions for adult deaf mutes have received in latter years an active 
and generous impetus. This religious work, moral and civilizing, has for 
them the strongest sympathies, for Christian solicitude and charity are ingenious 
for the purpose of relieving the inexperience and weakness of deaf mutes. 

Up to this time, however, they are scarcely necessary in three or four parts 
of our country, notably at Hantes, at la Grande Chartreuse and at Vigille, 
(Isere.) Private benevolence here has met the expense of supporting them, 
and in each of those places it should be remarked that the greater part of the 
contributions is received from R. R. P. P. Chartreux, who in addition publish 
"La Conseiller Meessager des Sourds Muets" an excellent monthly review 
which dies much to keep deaf mutes in the right path. 

Elsewhere, at Paris, Sunday services by the brilliant M. 1' Abbe Lambert, 
that famous benefactor of deaf mutes, to whose worth I am here happy to 
render public tribute, continue to be given reglularly to the deaf mutes of 

58 Mr. M. Henri Jcanvoine on 

this city; in addition in the churches of St. Roch and St. Marguerite, a retreat 
is held each year during Easter week. 


One of the chief causes that operate in favor of the institution of retreats 
for adult deaf mutes, is the meeting with hearing and speaking people from 
whom religious instruction continues to be developed every Sunday, at least, 
at the divine office; since the deaf cannot profit from the sermon of his pastor, 
he consequently loses the salutatory influence of hearing the Holy word. 
Apart from the very rare exceptions, deaf mutes in life too quickly forget the 
knowledge acquired during their stay at the Institution, even in reference to 
religious truths. And think of the dangers surrounding them! Experience is 
not wanting to show that the deaf mute who does not understand enough, or 
almost enough, to talk of duty and of religion, who is surrounded by evil 
influences, cannot very long resist the attractions of sin; once in the wrong road 
he goes quickly and a great way. 

Nevertheless, we can affirm that in general, deaf mutes are not carried to 
atheism; with them it is rather indifference or apathy for religious things, and 
this need not surprise any one, if he stops to consider well the dualism that 
exists in every man; that is, the opposition between his aspiration for the 
beautiful and good, and his grosser and sensual instincts. Virtue, properly, is 
only realized by the price of efforts and sacrifices, always possible and efficious 
with the grace of God. 

Since then, we understand, that at his departure from school, where in the 
meantime he has received religious instruction in as large a measure as possi- 
ble, the deaf mute still has neither sufficient firmness nor experience to guide 
himself and to preserve in virtue; he is not full grown at the time he enters the 
world, he sees it close by and yet he is not accustomed to fly with his own wings. 
If, by wise counsels, by pious exhortations, he is not recalled to duty from time 
to time, then he is beyond hope! His inclination no longer meeting the curb 
which has checked them up to that time, he considers himself free from every 
yoke; he gradually looses the small stock of religious notions amassed with 
great effort; and his faith, becoming obscured in consequence of that forget- 
fulness, he goes on the unconscious victim of the events passing under his 
eyes; the object pleasure, has no pain to warn him, and ignorance favors his 
understanding! How shall we renew the light that has been extinguished? 

In whatever misery, however profound it may be, that befalls the deaf 
mute, religious faith is not entirely extinguished in his soul, it only awaits 
an occasion to be rekindled. Such an opportunity is the retreat or mission 
which will affect it. And, indeed it is by the spiritual exercises of the 
retreat, in whatever place, one regains the remembrance of Christian truths, 
value of an immortal soul, the shortness of time, the importance of eternity, 
the importance of pardon, the hideousness of sin, the love of God for man,, 
the vanity of earthly pleasures, and the folly of those who, in order to enjoy 
them, risk eternal happiness. 

If we question those who have followed the exercises of mission, we 
shall be convinced that they are generally bettter on coming out. What 

Work of Missions Among Adult Deaf Mutes. 59 

evil is repaired by the results of a good retreat! What unlawful injuries it 
has set right, the injustices which it has stopped, the happiness and peace 
it has restored to wretched despondents! Therefore, in order that the deaf 
mute should remain true to the faith, and, as a consequence, to religion, he 
must have exhortations and encouragement. 


This seems to me possible only by the mimic language, or signs. For, 
in order to preach to a numerous assembly of deaf mutes, speech alone will 
not suffice, the lecture on the lips is very difficult, not to say impossible, in the 
distance and often in the obscurity, without mentioning the weakness of the 
eyes with which deaf mutes are very much troubled. 

It has been said by the majority of the magazines that the mimic language 
is the only language really universal, and notably this was mentioned in the 
" Patriote Illustre de Bruxelles," in its sketches giving reproductions of the 
signs employed by the Indians of your continent. 

" This is yet," says the deaf mute Guibert, " the language that the first 
man spoke, and which our descendants will still speak in the most remote 
future, the language of signs understood alike by the inhabitants of cities as 
well as those of countries." 

We would add that it is the language which nature has bequeathed us. 
Without overlooking speech, the utility of which is incontestable, since, once 
in the possession of that speech will we not make use of it; shall we not like- 
wise with the language of signs, so expressive, which will be a greater medium 
for supplying our defects of the ear? In any case, for a numerous assembly, 
I am convinced that the mimic language should be preferred. 

From this one sees the necessity of giving the key of the sign language 
to most of the priests or missionaries, who require no more effort to initiate 
themselves in that study to render themselves familiar with it than they make 
in order to master the Chinese language and other dialects of savages to whom 
their apostatic zeal carries them to preach the Gospel. Then they would be 
able to periodically assemble the deaf mutes of such city or province, to recall 
to them religious truths, to sustain in them the faith, and to encourage them to 
remain faithful to the teachings which they had previously received while at 
school — duties toward God, toward their fellow men, toward the family and 
toward themselves. 

These, gentlemen, are my humble views on the needs of the deaf mute, 
and on the work of retreats or missions in France, considered from the 
moral point of view 

What follows is a rapid outline of what is practiced in our French institu- 
tions, from a religious point of view. 

Only the Catholic religion is professed in the generality of our schools for 
deaf mutes; the only exception being the institution St. Hippolyte-du-Tort, 
Department du Gard, which is only attended by Protestant deaf mutes, and 
the two institutions at Lyons and at Ruiel (near Paris), where Messiers Hugen- 
tobler and Magnat receive pupils of different sects, and moreover, they 

60 Mr. M. Henri Jeanvoine on 

arrange that speaking clergymen of their respective creeds give the religious 
instruction which the pupils require. 

In this way not one of our schools is without God. 

To those who would advance the folly and impiety, so to speak, that reli- 
gion should be banished from the instruction of the deaf mute, or else that 
religion should be neutrally observed in our institutions, I would answer with 
the words of one of the greatest thinkers of our age: 

" There is no neutral school, for there is no teacher that has not a religious 
or philosophic opinion." 

" If he has none he is outside of humanity, that is, an idiot or a monster." 

" If he he has one, and conceals it to save his salary, he is the meanest of 
cowards. But I defy him to conceal it entirely.'' 

" The final goal of neutrality is doubt, chaos, imbecility." 

" There is no neutrality possible, either in theory or practice." — Jules Si- 

Religiod is necessary for man individually, for the family, for society, but, 
among the^ different religions which exist one only is true — that is the Christian. 
Its faithful practice makes a man happy here below, and assures him the joy pre- 
pared without doubt for the other life. Its dogmas are sublime; sweet and 
light are its requirements. A good Christian never complains of his religion 
and never finds its obligations very onerous. Those who reject it have no taste 
for pure delights, and with the arguments which they oppose it they cannot hold 
their position in the presence of the demonstrations of Christian doctors and 

Is it because their ideal is so very sublime that so many soi-disant wits 
blaspheme and misrepresent the Catholic religion? Do they not see that it is 
the grandest school of honor perhaps on earth, and that in her shine with in- 
comparable brilliancy all the virtues which distinguish men of genius, heroes, 

I affirm, then, boldly, that religious instruction should retain its place in 
the schools of our brothers in misfortune, even more than in all other schools; 
for it is religion alone that can soften the bitterness of the deaf mute, and give 
to his soul the strength that it has need of in order to live in righteousness, in 
moral integrity, in peace with his conscience, and to attain his destiny in this 
life and that to come. 

We have a very impressive example presented to us in the impious Dide- 
rot, that ardent champion of the philosophic doctrines of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, which shows that without religion there is no education possible. 

Diderot taught the catechism to his young child. One of his friends ex- 
pressed his surprise. Diderot replied: " If I knew something better to make 
Marie a dutiful daughter, a devoted woman, a tender and worthy mother, I 
would teach it to her, but as I do not know anything in the world which con- 
tains all this except the catechism, I teach it to her." 

We hear such fine expressions as: "Self-interest is the religion of the 
future; that after death all is over; that the legendary belief in a problem- 
atic heaven, where the unfortunate find supreme consolation for the suffer- 

Work of Missions Among Adult Deaf Mutes. 61 

ing which they endure in this world, has lost its influence and no longer 
considered as serious, except by some weak and ignorant spirits, or by cer- 
tain badly-balanced minds; that the mass of the disinherited finally cease 
reckoning the nullity of all the religious fables, and, lowering their eyes to 
the things of earth, they show more and more strongly fixed a desire to 
experience a day that produces, them; that man has the power, and that he 
will use all the means at his disposal to improve his situation and to con- 
quer his rights. E. Alberge. 

To such errors we do not reply, for a spirit which dares to support them 
is too much materialized to return to the arguments of logic. 

Doubtless he would likewise treat as a weak and cowardly spirit badly 
balanced, the author of " The Spirit of the Laws," who spoke these delightful 
words; " Not only does religion prepare our eternal happiness, but what is 
more, it assures our peace, our dignity, and our happiness here below." 

In conclusion, gentlemen, is not the glory of the Abbe de l'Epee precisely 
in his quality as a priest of Jesus Chirst, and in the admirable works which 
religion has had him accomplish for the good of souls in general and ourselves 
in particular? 

Honor and glory, then, to the Catholic religion, and eternal acknowledge- 
ment to our liberator and dear Father, the Abbe de l'Epee. 

The Chair: Another paper also presented by the French sec- 
tion, will be read by M. Galliard, in the absence of the author, M. 


Our annex to the Memoir of M. Jeanvoine upon the work of the Religious 



[Translated by Mr. D. W. George.] 

According to the statistics of the deaf in France, there are, at least, 150 
Protestant children in a condition to attend school. 

The great majority of them are Calvanists, and they are scattered in small 
numbers over all parts of the country, principally in Gard, Ardeiche and 

Lutherans abound in the region of the east, especially in the circums- 
cription of Montbeliard. A large number of them, not to say all, receive- 
the benefits of training and education either in the institution of St. Hypolite- 
du-Tort (Gard), in laical schools or in their families. 

The celebrated Mr. Magnat of Paris, and Mr. Hugentobler,both Protestants, 
have furnished a magnificent phalanx of famous pupils, and have contributed 
more than any one to popularize the education of the deaf, but their pupils are 
not initiated into the Christian life. There are also Protestant children in the 
institutions of the government, unfortunately, as in the other private institu- 
tions; they are very much neglected from a religious point of view. While 
the Catholics receive religious instruction, the Protestants, as well as the Jews, 
are left in ignorance so far as concerns their respective creeds. It is sad 
for these children never to hear one speak the sweet ^name of God their 
Father and Creator. 

If laical work is not bad for those who hear and speak, it must be so 
for the deaf. Wherever there are schools there is at least a priest or a Pro- 
testant pastor, to whom the hearing can easily resort for lessons in religious 
instruction. Although the laical schools for the deaf may not be far from a 
minister of the faith, this minister is not always acquainted with the alphabet 
of the deaf, and there you have a poor child in the absolute impossibility of 
participating in the advantages of his religion. A special chaplain would be 
needed for every faith in all the laical schools. 

It is only in the Institution of St. Hyppolite-du-Tort that the deaf children 
of the reformed faith can find every guaranty desirable from a Protestant 
point of view. 

This school, the only one in France belonging exclusively to the Re- 
formed Church, and the first to put the pure oral method into practice, was 
founded in 1854 by Mr. Kilian, a gentleman as distinguished as modest, 

Protestant Deaf Mutes in France. 63 

who confided it to a committee consisting of twelve members (17 actually). It 
was recognized by the government shortly afterwards as an establishment of 
public utility, and the government granted it a small subsidy, which was cut 
off a few years ago. 

It supports itself by means of small payments, by departmental allow- 
ances, but principally by collections made in nearly all the Protestant centres. 
It is in a flourishing financial condition; its receipts exceed the expenditures 
by 20,000 francs, and- its annual budget is about 35,000 francs. It keeps 
fifty children of both sexes in actual attendance, nearly all of poor parentage. 
The more fortunate are instructed at home and their teachers are generally 
taken from the institutions, that of St. Hyppolite among others. 

The indigent pupils are received gratuitously in this school, and they fur- 
nish clothing free of charge to those who are .unable to pay for them. The 
poorest Protestant families have no excuse, then, for not sending their deaf 
children to school under the pretext that they have not the means. They are 
without excuse when they wilfully or from indifference leave them in igno- 
rance. The government would confer a real benefit upon the little silent 
world if it would at length decide to make primary instruction obligatory upon 
all young deaf children. 

Like all the other schools, that of St. Hyppolite gives its children primary 
instruction and an apprenticeship at a trade. Much attention is given to the 
moral and religious education of the children of this school and they are gene- 
rally well trained. Many have secured advantageous and honorable positions 
in life, and have commanded the admiration and respect of all they came in 
contact with. Some of them are distinguished painters and artists. One of 
them, although a Protestant, is much sought after to paint the vaults of cathe- 
drals, and his brush shines with brilliant lustre. Another achieved great suc- 
cess at the School of Fine Arts at Montpelier; some of his pictures, more 
magnificent than the others, have gained him rewards, medals and honorable 
mention. One of his paintings is on exhibition in the Musee des Sourds Muets 
in Paris, and it reveals the remarkable talent of this young deaf mute, the 
fruit of his labors. Some other pupils have been presented for examination 
for the certificate of primary studies, or the simple brevet, and they have 
passed successfully under the same conditions as the hearing. 

Some of the girls have become expert dressmakers, and are in great 
demand with ladies of quality. Some making excellent housekeepers or domes- 
tics, are eagerly sought after by first-class families who have no use for gossip- 
ers and tell-tales. Some of them are married and these marriages are 
generally mixed. All of the men earn their living, and, as far as I know, no 
one of them has ever been sent to prison or has resorted to beggary. 

This beautiful school is one of the first which have shown an interest in 
the welfare of their pupils after they have left school. It knows to whom to send 
them, to whom to recommend them. It has intermediaries everywhere in the 
Protestant centres. Nearly all of our children have been sent to us by pastors, 
and it is to these pastors that we confide them after we have educated them. 

When any of our former pupils have difficulty in obtaining employment, 

64 Mr. Victor Lagler on 

the Institution has rendered them assistance in quite a number of cases, but 
not always, because many of the pupils, instead of writing to it, prefer to let it 
remain unaware of their situation. The pastors, on their part, always volun- 
tarily assumes the task of seeing that the deaf mutes of their church get 
employment. They are very kind to them and do what they can to aid them 
in gaining a living. They make themselves understood by spoken words or 
by writing, and I do not know any of them who understand signs; hence the 
necessity for them to learn the oral method. At any rate, the combined method 
would not be without benefit to them. 

When the pupils can neither go home nor find employment, the Institution 
keeps them a little longer, but these are almost always boys, and the Institution 
employs them as laborers or make them foremen of workshops. The girls 
have more chances to obtain employment, and, since the foundation of the 
Institution, hardly one of the girls has remained in it longer than ten years (the 
legal length of stay is eight years.) 

It cannot be denied that the Institution of St. Hyppolite has accomplished 
much good for the deaf. Assuredly it is a great work, eminently worthy of 
French Protestantism. 

But alas! Every medal has its reverse side! For the fifty pupils there are 
only two male and two lady teachers. This is insufficient; for experience has 
demonstrated that one teacher is needed for every six pupils, at least in the 
oral system. There is something to be done, a gap to fill up, or we shall have 
to choose between obtaining unsatisfactory results for the pupils as a whole or 
change the system of instruction. 

The shops, however good workmen they have turned out, stand practi- 
cally in need of a good stock of tools. Since the mass of pupils are not 
capable of receiving either proficiency in speech nor an advanced education 
with such limited, means the efforts of the educator should be chiefly directed 
towards giving them an apprenticeship at a trade. It is of the utmost import- 
ance that one should seek with jealous care to develop in these pupils the taste 
for a trade, and so to do that all may be in condition to honorably earn a living 
when they leave the school. 

The higher education of the deaf, already sufficiently neglected, has great 
need to be abundantly encouraged with these intelligent young deaf mutes 
who are eager to master the highest uuiversity course. 

Ignorant or ill-founded prejudices concerning us are entertained in all ranks 
of society. But that which is the most humiliating among others is to hear the 
higher classes scout the possibility of our reaching the summit of the University 
or profesional ladder. This is a cronwing insult which we, in our dignity of man- 
hood and of citizenship, repel with all the force at our command. Xo, sir; in 
neither an intellectual and professional nor a moral and religious point of view 
are we a whit inferior to the privileged classes. If we are without representa- 
tives among the higher classes, it is because the ruling classes have systemati- 
cally closed the doors against us. It is grand time now to batter down these 
doors to give free access to our intelligent and aspiring youth! The same coup 
will dissipate those prejudices into thin air! 

Protestant Deaf Mutes in France. 65 

For a long time I have cherished the idea of asking for the establishment 
of a national lyceum, or a higher normal school for the deaf. At the close of my 
school life, I had a burning desire to pursue these higher studies; I felt myself 
irresistably attracted now to the bar, now to a pastoral career. I have been 
turned from my true calling by a train of fortuitous circumstances. If there had 
been a higher school for us I would have entered it, and I would now have the 
joy to plead, with a good competency, the cause of my brothers. It is greatly 
to be regretted that we have neither an advocate nor a minister of the gospel 
among our numbers. I have a firm conviction that there are many among us 
who are able to become such, and also that the time to found this grand school 
seems to be at hand, so imperative has become the necessity for it! 

I call the attention of competent men and of the government to this matter. 
In the meanwhile, I take the liberty to hail with joy the inauguration ot a new 
era for the Silent world, an era of liberty, of complete emancipation. 

The Chair: According to the programme, a paper from the 
British Section is in order. In the absence of Mr. Muir, the 
paper which he has forwarded will filed and take its place in the 



Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

Having been asked to write on the above subject, I have the greatest 
pleasure in doing so, as the interest I take in it is great, and I sincerely hope 
that results of great benefit may arise therefrom. 

Faithful and loving pastoral care is what the deaf and dumb most need 
after leaving school. Mission work among them, though of the greatest im- 
portance, has made but very slow progress in England and Wales, for there are 
thousands of them not yet reached and there are some counties where there is 
no organized Missionary Society. In some parts of the Country the mutes are 
in a deplorably neglected condition as regards their spiritual, intellectual, and 
temporal welfare. The church which has done so much to send the Gospel to 
heathen lands has not, so far as I am aware, done anything for the deaf and dumb, 
though they are in its very midst and as much in need of the Gospel as the 
heathens. I must, however, greatfully acknowledge the great interest indi- 
vidual Clergymen have taken in such missions, as have been organized, or are 
in course of organization, but what I most desire is that the Church, as a powerful 
agency, should acknowledge its duty to the deaf and dumb, and let me, one 
of the many whom the Almighty has seen fit to deprive of hearing, implore it 
to do what it can for its silent members who will ever be greatf ul for such help 
and support. Though the present missionaries have done much good in their 
own districts, they have been unable to do anything f<jr the mutes in places 
where there is no existing mission, and I do not know of anyone of them dur- 
ing the nine years I have held my present post ever bringing the cause of 
deaf mutes before the Church. The Church surely wants awakening 1 in this 
matter, and who are the persons to awaken it? Undoubtedly, the workers 
among the deaf and dumb. We are in want of more men like the late Rev. 
Samuel Smith, of London, and the late Rev. G. A. W. Downing, of Manchester, 
both of whom posessed considerable energy and earnestness, and the result 
was that they did much good for the deaf mutes by their preaching, speaking, 
and writing, and had they lived today we might be on far better lines than we 
are at present, perhaps better than our brethern and sisters across the waters. 
Surely it is time all the deaf and dumb in England and Wales and everywhere 
were reached and their cause more powerfully brought before the Church. 
During the nine years I have been working among the deaf aud dumb of 
North and East Lancashire, we have extended the benefits of our society to 

Mission Work Among the Adult Deafi?i E?igland and Wales. 67 

the mutes in Preston, Chorley, Lancaster, and Leyland, and at present we are 
making further extensions. Through our efforts the Bishop of Carlisle is 
about to form a Mission for his Diocese where there has never been one, though 
there are between 250 and 300 deaf mutes. Last year my committee, who are 
always ready to do all in their power for us, appointed me an assistant in the 
person of Mr. Joseph B. Foster, a deaf gentlemen, who is now a resident of 
Preston, and has charge of the Northern portion of the district. Out of the 
work of our Society has sprung the Cross Deaf and Dumb School in course of 
erection between Preston and Blackburn. This School when complete is to 
give the best possible education and somewhat on the lines laid down in the 
ideal of Dr. E. M. Gallaudet, of the National Deaf Mute College, Washington. 
I feel certain that if my brother missionaries pushed on the work fearlessly their 
efforts would be crowned with success. A good cause is always sure to bring 
in pecuniary assistance, and they need not fear, as so many do, for want of 
funds. Let them bear in mind that God who loves everything that is good is 
sure to move his people to do what He thinks they ought to do to assist us. 
By such efforts we may be the means of guiding many souls to the eternal 
Home, and this our Heavenly Father would value highly. 

The missions and societies are unfortunately entirely dependent on volun- 
tary contributions, only a few of them receive small sums from endowments de- 
rived from small legacies left by deceased friends, and the result is that their 
funds are always in an uncertain state. Most of the legacies go to the schools, the 
reason being that the benefactors think that the schools, are connected with the 
missions, which is really not the case. This confusion can easily be removed 
if the missions could be amalgamated with the schools, and I can see no objection 
to this if only the officials will work in harmony with each other for the good of 
all concerned. In amalgamation I believe the government would be more 
willing to grant us state aid. The church should fully recognize the missions, 
as the church in America so worthily does, where the offertory on the twelfth 
Sunday after Trinity, " Ephphatha Sunday," is devoted to the church mission 
to the deaf and dumb. Let us make this " Ephphatha Sunday " better known, 
as I believe it is at present known to a very little extent. Further the deaf 
and dumb should be encourrged as much as possible to give what they can 
afford, and to collect, and I am sure the results would be eminently satisfac- 
tory. My congregation, all of the working class, with the exception of one deaf 
gentleman who gives an annual subscription of five guineas, collected and 
subscribed last year .£59.16^, and this year I expect even a larger sum. I 
find that when encouraged the mutes are most willing to do anything they can 
to help themselves, especially if the missionary is in harmony with them. 

The deaf and dumb are of all denominations, and it is undesirable to 
inculculate denominationalism during school life, but the Lord's Prayer, the 
Creed, and the Ten Commandments, and some portions of Scripture History 
should be taught in all schools, and I believe this course of religious instruction 
is generally adopted. I find that such instruction cannot be properly conveyed 
to the pupils taught on the pure oral system owing to the absence of the signs. 
The pupils may commit each course to memory but the meaning is often as 

08 Mr. James Muir on Mission Work Among the 

unintelligible to them as it is to the almost uneducated. This is generally the 
case with those who remain at school only a short period, say, from four to five 
years; double that time would be required before they can have the proper 
understanding of these religious truths. I think that in conveying religious 
instruction to oral pupils, whose parents are only able to keep them at school 
for a short time, the sign language ought to be more practically used. It is of 
course different with those taught by the finger and sign language; they learn 
with more ease and more quickly. This difference I find to a large extent 
when preparing candidates for the rite of Confirmation. I have not found any 
of the pupils, after leaving school, inclined to atheism or infidelity, but the 
more inclined to religion. However, owing to want of missions and proper 
pastoral care, a good many become indifferent and it is sometimes very diffi- 
cult to reclaim them. We must, I urge, watch over the young with more than 
usual care, and if we do they will be most useful in after life. As soon as 
children leave school they should at once be taken under pastoral care. By 
this means the already long list of indifferent mutes who go about the country 
giving us so much trouble would be greatly reduced. 

My experience demonstrates that the finger and sign language to the 
educated, and the sign language to the uneducated, is the only satisfactory and 
proper medium for carrying on the work of the adult missions. The sign lan- 
guage is especially suited to the sick and dying, when the eyes are weak and 
heavy. How are the orally taughtto be reached? My emphatic answer is that 
they cannot be reached by any other means than the finger and sign language. 
The oralists cannot deny this; if they do their arguments only fall to the ground. 
All those under my charge who have been taught by the oral system, attend our 
services and lectures, and, in course of time, they become accustomed to the 
signs as the others, and become as proficient as the others, and this is gener- 
ally so with the others throughout England and Wales. I cordially agree 
with what the late Rev. Henry Winter Syle, M. A. has saidj viz: That the 
sign language is unequalled as a means of conducting public worship for deaf 
mutes. It is far more distinct to the eye than the motions of the lips which 
is really another form of sign language. In lip reading it is impossible to 
catch every word of a discourse, so that the words must be framed slowly 
on the lips, and sometimes repeated. A discourse in this fashion is tedious, 
lifeless, unprofitable. The minds of the silent congregation are not stirred. In 
very decided contrast is the presentation of the same Gospel truths by the 
distinct and graceful gestures of a master. They are to deaf mutes what 
pleasing speech and sounds are to their hearing children. By means of this 
language the charge is saying "Ephphatha" to the minds and the hearts of 
thousands of the scattered children of silence, who respond in the silent expres- 
sion of prayer and praise, as well understood and as acceptable on High as 
the words coming from the tongue. But in conversation we should encourage 
the mutes to use the finger language as much as possible. 

There are different forms of religious services, but I know of no services 
whether printed or extempore, so well adapted for the united prayer and wor- 
ship of the deaf and dumb as the Liturgy in the Prayer Book. 

Adult Deaf and Dumb in England and Wales. 69 

The deaf and dumb of America have made a step in advance that reflects 
honor on the Nation; I refer to the several recent ordinations of deaf mutes 
as clergymen, and I take the opportunity of offering them my hearty congratu- 
lations, and wish them Godspeed in their work. In England we are in an 
unfortunate position, having only one ordained deaf clergyman, the Rev. R. 
A. Pearce, of the Winchester Diocese and Mission to the Deaf and Dumb, and 
this gentleman has been in Deacons order since 1885, and there seems to be 
no knowing when he is to be in Priests orders. There is no substantial reason 
why deaf missionaries should not be admitted to Holy Orders; God's word 
does not forbid it, nor do the Conons of the Church. There are of course 
disqualifications for the priestly office stated in the Holy Scriptures, but deaf- 
ness 'and dumbness are no where mentioned. The Venerable Archdeacon 
Ranstorne M. A., Balderstone Grange, Blackburn, our esteemed President, has 
given me his views on the subject, which are as follows: " I fully realize that 
many advantages would follow to the deaf and dumb from the ordination of 
some of their more experienced and more able missionaries. Of course, before 
ordination they must be very carefully prepared by competent clergymen, and 
must receive definite instructions in the doctrines and sacraments and other 
ordinances of the Church. The difficulty — a difficulty which presses some- 
what hardly perhaps on the deaf and dumb members of the Church of Eng- 
land, lies in the fact that under present circumstances no permanent stipend 
can be assured to any deaf and dumb clergyman, for the North and East 
Lancashire Deaf and Dumb Society, like most others, has no permanent fund 
or endowment from which a fixed stipend can be guaranteed. The Society is 
dependent upon annual subscriptions and these are precarious and liable to 
fall short from various causes; in fact we can only promise to our Missionaries, 
however deserving they may be of higher remuneration, such salaries as our 
funds enable us to give. We hope that before long the Government will adopt 
some effectual measures for assisting the deaf and dumb, and the blind, and 
that by such support charitable efforts may be encouraged and a more general 
and thorough system of teaching and instruction be instituted and carried 

Committees of missions should exercise the greatest care when appointing 
candidates to missionaryship, as some have got into the field who are most 
unsuitable. Candidates ought to be self-denying, willing to devote their heart 
and # soul to the Holy Work entrusted to them, and the enlargement of the 
Saviour's Kingdom. They should be experts in the finger and sign language, 
especially in the signs, as there is often uneducated or partially educated mutes 
in the congregation, and the signs would keep them interested. A good many 
try to secure such posts for the sake of a living, or because they dislike their 
professions or trades,, or think themselves superior to others in education. 
They must bear in mind that such desires are wicked and contrary to God's 
Word. Their work will fail to do good. St. Paul in his epistle to Timothy 
says that " their character must be blameless, vigilant, sober, of good character, 
given to hospitality, apt to teach, not given to wine, no striker, nor greedy of 
filthy lucre, but patient, not a brawler, not covetous: one that ruleth his own 

70 Mr. James Muir on Mission Work Among the 

house, having children in subjection with all gravity. For if a man know not 
how to rule his own house how shall he take care of the house of God? Not 
a novice, lest being puffed up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the 
devil. Moreover he must have a good report of them that they are without 
lest he fall into reproach." Moreover the Missionary needs the power of the 
Holy Ghost: it shall be like a fire in the bones and the word spoken shall be 
like a hammer to break in pieces. If all were thus qualified for their work 
the Kingdom of Satan could not stand; it would fall like lightning from Heaven. 
I fear that all are not filled with the. Holy Spirit, for they do not appear to be of 
one soul, of one mind, of one accord. There is too often jealousy, suspicion, evil 
"surmising, looking doubtfully upon a brother's work, shrugging of shoulders 
when his name is mentioned. If we are filled with the Spirit we must be of 
one soul. 

I fervently hope the time will not be distant when the glad tidings of the 
ever blessed Gospel will be carried to every deaf mute throughout the length 
and breadth of the land. It must be known thatrfhis class is the worst to get 
access to the Gospel; the heathens may get to hear of it, but how can the deaf 
mute get to know of it unless it is conveyed to him in special language, and 
language suited to his circumstances and understanding? 

Let us, brethren, unite in doing what good we can among those committed 
to our care, and when the Chief Shepherd shall appear we shall receive a 
crown of glory that fadeth not away. 

The Chair: (Mr. A. G. Draper.) In the order of the pro- 
gramme the paper that follows is by the delegate from Ireland, 
Mr. Harris, whom I now introduce to you. 




Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

The first attempt at Mission work among the Adult Deaf of Ireland, was, 
I believe, made in Dublin in the year 1826, when Mr. Wm. Overend, a deaf 
gentleman, brother of the then principal of Clarement School for the deaf, 
commenced a class on Sunday evenings in St. Thomas Church schoolroom. 

Mr. Overend continued to conduct the class until his decease in 1867, 
when the work was continued by Mr. John T. Morris and Mr. Maurice F. G. 
Hewson (both deaf), who organized the Dublin Protestant Deaf and Dumb 
Association. Mr. Morris, whose services were given gratutiously, was killed 
by accident on the railway at Cardiff, Wales, in 1876, and since then Mr. 
Hewson has had entire charge of the Mission. 

He was licensed in 1877 as a lay reader by the late Archbishop Trench. 

The Society is managed by a committee of six gentlemen. Funds were 
first collected in 1871. The amount then raised was ^30. Last year the total 
income amounted to ^300. Of this sum Mr. Hewson himself collected ^125. 
.£80 was realized early in the present year by a bazaar. 

The society rents three rooms in the Y. M. C. A. Building, Lower Abbey 
street, Dublin, at the yearly rent of .£35, which includes gas. Services are held, 
according to the liturgy of the Church of Ireland, at 11:30 A. M. and 7 P. M. 
every Sunday. A prayer meeting is held on Wednesday evenings at 8 o'clock. 

The Society makes every effort to find employment for the deaf. There 
are, I understand, fifty deaf mutes connected with the congregation. 

In May, 1857, a service for the deaf was commenced in Belfast, by the 
Rev. John Kinghan, principal of the Ulster Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
and Blind. From the report of the Society for that year I extract the following 

" It may be mentioned, and your committee do so with this testimony of 
their approbation, that your principal has opened and conducted for some time 
past a Sunday school in Belfast for the deaf and dumb residing in town and 
neighborhood. Eleven adults have joined the class, some of them having been 
formerly inmates of your Institution and some having hardly had any instruc 
tion whatever, and he is of opinion that there is some prospect of increasing 
this number." 

In the following year I observed that the attendance was 15. In 1859, 16; 
in i860, 20; in 1861, 23. 

As years rolled by it was found desirable that, instead of holding the ser- 
vice in borrowed schoolhouses, a suitable building should be erected, and this, 

72 Mr. Wm. Eecles Harris on Mission Work 

mainly through the exertions of Mr. Kinghan, was accomplished in 1878, 
when the " Bethel " was built in Sandy Row. In conducting the services Mr. 
Kinghan was frequently assisted by the teachers. 

There is now only one service held at the Bethel on Sundays and the 
attendance averages 35. The congregation is composed of Presbyterians, 
Churchmen, Methodists, and one or two other denominations. No sectarian 
disputes ever disturb the noiseless tenor of our ways. Indeed I may have 
expressed my decided conviction that denominationalism with all its attendant 
evils is a thing unknown to the deaf. It is not their nature to go about search- 
ing out causes of sectarian strife, like terrier dogs sniffing for rats. 

We are, I rejoice to believe, saved from such petty quarrels by the bond 
of common infirmity, and I for one, glory in that infirmity when I find it pro- 
tecting the deaf from un-Christless Christianity which can see no good in a 
brother's work should he happen to belong to a different church. 

The congregation which attends the Bethel Service in the morning, attends 
the evenings service in the Mission Hall for the Adult Deaf and Dumb, at 
which the forms of the Church of Ireland are used. No deaf mute in Belfast 
dreams of staying away because the Missionary is not of his denomination. 

In the year 1873 there was started in Ireland a society called "The Deaf 
and Dumb Christian Association " which owed its foundation to the devoted 
labors of the late Miss W. Tredennick, a brave and gentle soldier of the Cross, 
who died on outpost duty the pioneer of ladies' work among the deaf and dumb. 
Her interest in the children of silence arose from the circumstances that a 
friend of her own had a deaf son, and also from the presence of one or two 
deaf mutes in the neighborhood of her home. 

About the year i860, she became Local Secretary of the Derry and Raphoe 
Diocesan School for the Deaf and Dumb, of which the present illustrious Bishop 
of Derry (Dr. Alexander) was then General Secretary. 

Associated in this way with poet-workers, her own poetic instinct was 
awakened, and, needless to say, employed on behalf of those whose interests 
already lay nearest her heart; but this interest she afterwards seems to have 
checked rather than cultivated, and the last poem she wrote partakes less of 
the character of an elaborated measure than of the spontaneous outporing of 
a reverent suppliant presenting her cause before the Highest Throne. 

The school building at Strabane was destroyed by fire, and it may be 
mentioned, in passing, that the efforts made to rebuild it occasioned the writing, 
by Dr. Alexander, of the poem in which occur the oft-quoted lines commencing: 

"The cunning finger finely twin'd 
The subtle thread that knitteth mind to mind." 

Later Miss Tredennick became the Local Secretary of the Ulster Institu- 
tion, a post which she did not relinquish until the year 1888, when she went to 
reside at Belfast. 

The circumstances which led to the rise of Special Litertaure for the Deaf 
in this country are worth relating. Two deaf boys — one of them the possessor 
of an intellect much below the average — were apprenticed in a place situated 
about two miles from Miss Tredennick's home. She invited the lads to visit 

Among the Adult Deaf in Ireland. 73 

her on Sundays, and, finding they had let slip from their minds many things 
they had learnt from school, she commenced to teach them, and continued to 
do so on Sunday afternoons as long as they remained apprentices. Similar 
cases elsewhere came under her notice. She entered into correspondence with 
many of the deaf and dumb, distributed books among them, and kept a register 
of their names and addresses and other particulars. Of personal contact there 
could be but little between a class of persons thinly scattered over the Chris- 
tian world, on the one hand, and a delicate lady residing in a remote corner of 
the Northwest of Ireland, on the other. But never was the Post-office made 
the instrument of nobler work. It almost conveyed the living agent. Ever a 
charming correspondent, Miss Tredennick addressed the deaf and their friends 
as no one else did. Her letters pulsated with life, rang with sincerity, and 
brought with them the airs of Heaven. 

But grateful to all as were the productions of her own pen, the printed 
matter at her disposal was, she knew, less acceptable to the generality of the 
deaf, consisting as it did of language too difficult for their understanding. 
Could not simpler paper be issused for those who required such introductions 
to ordinary literature? Upon this subject she addressed the late Rev. Samuel 
Smith, who proposed starting a magazine for the deaf and dumb, a venture 
which, with Miss Tredennick's assistance, he commenced in 1873. The maga- 
zine proved to be the pioneer of several class publications in Great Britian; 
and edited by Miss Tredennick, herself in 1882, appeared our Little Messenger, 
a periodical which is welcomed by average deaf-mute readers who are "out of 
the way.'' 

Quitely .and unostentatiously she worked on with the assistance of her 
sterling friend, the late Rev. Geo. A. Downing, who in 1873, an d each succeed- 
ing year until his death, conducted a Deputation and a Mission Tour, holding 
Special Services for the Deaf and Dumb in various towns in Ireland. Mr. 
Downing's assistance was rendered gratutiously, and during his summer vaca- 
tions. Other gentlemen, including the late Rev. Samuel Smith, of London, and 
Mr. B. H. Payne, who is still principal of the Cambrian Institute for the Deaf, 
at Swansea, Wales, lent adventitious aid until the Association was reorganized 
in 1885 under the title of " Missions to the Adult Deaf and Dumb of Ireland," 
and Mr. R. S. Lyon, a deaf mute, who had qualified himself for the post by a 
course of study at the National Deaf Mute College, Washington, D. C, U. S. 
A., was appointed missionary; but almost as soon as he had grasped the 
plough he lay down to die, leaving behind him the memory of a character of 
singular beauty. He was succeeded by his fellow student, Mr. Francis Maginn, 
who has travelled over nearly the whole of Ireland, and is at present stationed 
at Belfast. 

The deaf mute girls of Belfast had for a long time seemed to claim Miss 
Tredennick's special attention. She visited them in 1886 and 1887, and in the 
following year finally left her comfortable ancestral home and took up her 
abode near them. Upon the opening of the present Mission Hall for the Deaf 
at Belfast, she accepted the office of Lady Superintendent, with special charge 
of the females, and in the first year it was opened, the deaf signalized their 

74 Mr. Wm. Ecclcs Harris on Mission Work 

appreciation of its usefulness by collecting the sum of ^115, being quite one- 
third of the total receipts. Her anxeity for her charge and closeness of her 
labors brought on a severe illness at the commencement of 1891. Unable to 
bear the journey home, she was removed by her friend Mr. Lavens Ewart, to 
his seat in Ballysillan, about two miles from Belfast, where she lingered for a 
fortnight, receiving all the kind attention that love and friendship could 
bestow, and on the third of March she entered, after great suffering, into her 
joy and rest. Over her grave in Belfast Cemetery are carved the words 
" Wilhelmina Tredennick, Friend of the Deaf and Dumb." 

Our friend she was, " faithful unto death." 

Day by day, no day without a deed to crown it, she went about doing good. 

We shall see her again when 

" * * The night is gone ! 
And in the morn those angel faces smile 
Which we have loved long since and lost awhile." 
In all her efforts on behalf of the deaf, Miss Tredennick was ably seconded 
by her sister, Mrs. Kingstone, who still continues to act as General Secretary, 
as well as editor of Our Little Messenger, and it is under God^chiefly owing to 
the disinterestedness, zeal and unwearied self-denying labors of these two 
ladies that the Misson owes its present position of enlarged and increasing 

The following are the objects of the Society: 

1. To send authorized and properly qualified Missionaries among the 
Deaf and Dumb of Ireland, to conduct Special Services, and hold Bible Classes 
for them. 

2. To hold out to the Deaf and Dumb, especially to those residing in 
country districts, some inducement to keep up the knowledge acquired at 

3. To assist in providing employment for those out of work. 

To these may be added an effort to raise their moral and social status, by 
introducing them to such organizations in their respective neighborhoods asjmay 
be found already working for their advantage, or that of hearing and speaking 

The Society is supported by card collections, subscriptions, donations and 

The income of the Northern District amounted last year to^ioo, while that 
of the Southern District was .£96. 

An effort is being made to establish an Ephphatha Sunday in Ireland, but 
up to the present time only about eight churches have responded to the appeal. 
It should be noted that the management of the society is entirely in the hands 
of members of the Church of Ireland. 

The Lord Bishop of Cork, Dr. Gregg, is President, an office he has held since 
1885, and he has on many occasions shown warm interest in the cause of the deaf 
and a knowledge of their condition, which proves him to have given the subject 
his careful consideration. He has, I am glad to say, expressed himself fav- 
orably with regard to co-operation with other churches in the good work. 

Mention has been already made of the Mission Hall, and I have now to 

Among the Adult Deaf in Ireland. 75 

give an account of a new departure which was made in March, 1892, when the 
management of the Hall was placed in the hands of a Board consisting of 
eighteen Belfast gentlemen, eight of whom are Presbyterians, eight Churchmen 
and two Methodists. The everyday management is left in the hands of a 
Committee of the Deaf, who report quarterly to the Board. This sub-committee 
is elected anually at a public meeting of the deaf who are subscribers to the 
funds of the Hall, and the names of those elected are submitted at next quar- 
terly meeting of the Board for approval. There is also a ladies' Committee 
numbering 34, which meets quarterly and reports to the Board of Management 
regarding the work done among the girls, the state of the Hall, etc., and appoints 
two members whose duty it is to visit the house monthly and advise with the 
Lady Superintendent. In the collection of funds for the Hall the Ladies of 
the Committee render valuable assistance, having arranged districts in Belfast 
which are visited annually, and the details of the work explained to every house- 
holder, and an appeal made for assistance. A very great amount of support 
has been gained in this way during the past twelve months, and as our organi- 
zation becomes more perfect, we look forward to receiving a handsome sum 
every year from Belfast. The Mission Hall is mainly supported by card 
collection. In the years immediately following the opening of the Hall in 
November, 1885, the chief burden of collecting fell to the lot of Mr. Hugh 
Young, a Belfast deaf mute, who voluntarily undertook the task and carried it 
out with remarkable zeal and success, having raised an average of £70 per 
annum down to the present year. In collecting this sum Mr. Young did not 
confine his efforts to Belfast, but visited from time to time nearly every large 
town in Ulster. His traveling expenses were of course defrayed by the 

Others of the deaf also assisted in collecting, and from their Services we 
derive an average income of ^25, while to hearing and speaking friends we 
are indebted for collections amounting to .£35 per annum. 

Our Annual Reunion is also a source of profit to us, realizing an average 
of £10 a year, not to speak of the widespread interest which it arouses and the 
increased support we derive therefrom through channels which it would be 
impossible to trace. 

Last year we started a subscription list among the deaf themselves and 
from this source we received over £&. We have no wealthy deaf mutes in 
Belfast, nor so far as I know, in Ireland, and the sum thus contributed, though 
it may appear small, really represents a generous response to our appeal. 

From donations and annual subscriptions, not included in our card collec- 
tion, we derive little assistance, but we are not without hope that the future 
has something better in store for us. Time, Good Old Time! is on our side, 
and as our work becomes more widely known we look forward to receiving aid 
from many of our wealthy citizens who have not yet contributed, solely because 
the clains of our Mission have not been brought home to them. 

Twice since 1888, we have been favored with the presence of Rev. Dr. Gal- 
laudet, of New York, in Belfast. On both occasions he " opened his mouth for 
the dumb" and pleaded the cause of the Mission to the Adult Deaf of Ireland. 

?6 Mr. Wm. Eccles Harris on Mission Work 

I have reason to know that much interest was aroused by the addresses 
which he gave in several of our churches, and that through his efforts we gained 
many warm friends who still continue to help us. Among other visitors from 
America whose presence has aided us in our work I should mention Dr. E. M. 
Gallaudet, Washington; Rev. J. M. Koehler, Philadelphia; Rev. Job Turner, 

During the past five years we have circulated large numbers of manual 
alphabet cards throughout Ulster, and everywhere they have been eagerly 
soTight after, and have proved of great service to us. We use both the one hand 
and two hand alphabet, and if I may here make a suggestion, I would say that 
it would be well for the deaf of England and America to be able to use both 
alphabets as we do. We find it a very great advantage to be able to do so. 

In 1889, and again in 1890, we have held sales of work in aid of our Mission 
which brought us in some .£60 on each occasion. It is. in contemplation to 
hold a larger sale in November of this year by which we hope to realize about 


From the teachers in the Belfast Institution, the Mission Hall has always 
received the warmest support. They have on many occasions most kindly 
come forward to deliver or interpret lectures before our Literary Societies, and 
in various other ways have interested themselves in the success of the Mission. 

It is no small matter that in our work we should be thus closely in touch with 
the school, and that the adult deaf should always be able to count upon the 
ready sympathy and wise counsel of those whose position gives them the best 
opportunity of gaining their respect and confidence. 

In 1883 a Bible class was started in Cork by Mr. Maginn, and has been 
maintained ever since. In 1890 it was found desirable to appoint a missionary 
who could devote his entire time to the Southern District, and Mr. F. S. Bence, • 
a deaf gentleman from England, was selected to fill the post, which he has 
since done with marked zeal and ability. His chief duty is house to house 
visiting. This is carried out systematically, and as there is no Hall or Insti- 
tute in Cork where the deaf can meet during the week for social intercourse and 
recreation, the missionary's visits are the more necessary. Indeed the value 
of the individual attention and personal interest thus shown can scarcely be 

The number attending the Sunday service has risen from 5 or 6 in 1800 to 
12 or 15 the present year. 

Every alternate month Mr. Bence goes on a tour through the country dis- 
tricts, paying visits to the deaf, whose addresses are known and inquiring for 
any others who may not be on the register of the Society. 

Once a year a special service is held in Cork, when some 30 to 35 deaf 
mutes come in from the country round about. The service is usually inter- 
preted by Mr. Maginn. The income of the Southern Branch is mainly derived 
from card collections and donations and collections at public meetings held in 
behalf of the Society. There is at present a small balance on the wrong side, 
which I hope will soon be wiped out. 

There are in Cork a number of Roman Catholic deaf mutes with whom 

Among the Adult Deaf in Ireland. jj 

the Protestant Missionary has never had much intercourse. Any attempt to 
gather them together in secular meetings might have been misunderstood and 
proselytism suspected, where nothing of the kind was meant. The condition 
of these deaf mutes has at length appealed to the hearts of the Clergy and 
laity of their own Church, and I rejoice to be able to record that early in the 
present year a new departure was made in the formation of a Roman Catholic 
Deaf Mute Club in Cork. ' Two large rooms have been rented and fitted up as 
recreation and reading rooms. The experiment, for such it was, has proved 
successful, and has contributed greatly to the class in whose interest it was 

From the outset the Bishop of the diocese (Dr. 0'Callaghan)has given the 
undertaking his warmest support and has liberally subscribed towards the 
expenses of the club. 

I have not been able to hear of any other organized efforts in behalf of the 
Roman Catholic Church to care for the adult deaf mute members of their com- 
munion. I understand that the authorities at the Cabra Institution, Dublin, do 
make every effort to procure employment for the pupils when they leave school, 
but that is all. 

According to the census of 1891, there were in Ireland 4,464 deaf mutes, of 
whom 2,462 were uneducated. This is little short of a national disgrace when 
it is remembered that our government spent over six million pounds sterling 
in grants to the hearing and speaking schools last year. 

To reach the deaf who are scattered here and there throughout the country 
districts is an object on which we, in Belfast, have set our hearts. A few 
months ago we started a " Deaf and Dumb Missionary Society " and by the 
help of the pennies we receive from our members we have already been able to 
send our Missionary to visit the deaf in Ballymena, Londonderry and Porta- 
down. This is but a beginning. Our friends who hear the music of the 
Sabbath bell will not be backward in coming to our assistance when once they 
understand the position of the Country deaf mutes. They have no classes, no 
services, no meetings. The clergymen of the parish can seldom speak to them. 
It is absolutely necessary that a special mission be maintained if they are to 
be reached at all. God in His providence has sealed their ears and t;hey pass 
from a silent cradle to a silent grave. It must not be said that in a Christian 
land with the glorious light of the Gospel shining all around them, they were 
left to die in darkness " without a hope to cheer the tomb." 

The Chair: I am requested by Mr. Dougherty, representing 
the deaf of Chicago, to present for your consideration the follow- 
ing resolutions, which will be put to a vote: 

Whereas, There has been a steadily growing recognition of the value of 
women in educational work, and in accordance with this recognition many of 
our most conservative Eastern cities have appointed women to serve on their 

yS Resolutions. 

school boards, and many of the States have given them power to vote on school 
questions; and, 

Whereas, It is fitting that Chicago, which has shown itself so progressive 
in other matters, should in this also put itself on record as influenced by 
advanced thought; and, 

Whereas, The opposition to the appointment of Mrs. Caroline K. Sherman 
to the board of Education seems to be based solely on the fact of her being a 
woman and not on any doubt of her ability; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the members of this World's Congress do hereby tender 
their support to those members of the City Council of Chicago who are endeav- 
oring in this matter to bring the school policy of their city into line with its 
progression in other departments. 

The Chair: The vote just taken indicates that the resolution 
is approved. We shall now have a paper by Mr. Watzulik. 



[Translated by Mr. G. W. Yeditz.] 

Is it necessary? If so, Why? 

The question of mission work among the adult deaf should be considered 
only so far as it seems desirable that the deaf mute, as well as the hearing, 
should be constantly exhorted and enlightened in regard to his omissions and 
commissions. This condition is best observed by reminding him again, and 
again of the tenets of his religious denomination, thus pointing out the path of 
duty, morality and virtue. That deaf mute who has to fight the battle of life 
under so many adverse conditions may lay special claim to hours of devotion, 
of consolation and of spiritual edification does not require any special demon- 

What progress has it made in your country? 

Unfortunately hardly any progress is to be chronicled in the field of 
"spiritual mission work," and this retrogression is moreover intimately con- 
nected with the prevalence of the " pure oral method." With the exception of 
one clergyman in Berlin, there is in all Germany not a single pastor conversant 
with the sign language, and, as the teachers of the deaf purposely avoid the 
use of this language (the younger teachers not even knowing it), and confine 
themselves exclusively to speech, the interest of the deaf in religious services 
has become more and more a negative quantity. 

Is it supported? 

Until about twelve years ago there were general church festivals in .Ber- 
lin, to attend which Prussian deaf mutes in the first place, were granted free 
passage over the railroads. These festivals in which Pastor Schonberner, of 
Berlin, conducted the religious services, were very largely attended (in certain 
years by over two thousand deaf mutes) and received the unqualified approval 
of the deaf. But representatives of the " pure oral method " among our teach- 
ers pretended to see a danger to morals in these mass conventions, and at their 
request the festivals were discontinued. 

What results have been achieved? 

As a substitute for the arrangement described above, we may regard the 
church festivals that take place anually in the different provinces, and which 
are most co-incident with the confirmation of deaf mute pupils who are about 
to graduate. Besides this, adult deaf mutes are allowed to attend the Sunday 
services in the various institutions. But as in these services the oral method 
is employed exclusively, and the adult deaf are unable to follow the sermon of 
the preacher, they hold thenselves more and more aloof. 

80 Mr. A. M. Watzulik on 

Have the deaf any special religious inclinations? 

The intuitive knowledge of a Supreme Being that rules the universe and 
in whose hands lies our fate, slumbers in the breast of the deaf mute as well as 
in that of the hearing. Though the deaf mute is decidedly open to religious 
instruction, still it is only in rare cases that he exhibits a tendency to ponder 
over religious questions, as most deaf mutes lack the necessary power of 
abstract reasoning. 

What is the result of this school life religiously considered? 

With a part of the pupils, especially the semi-mutes, the semi-deaf, and 
very bright deaf mutes, the results of religious instruction are good. They are 
on a par with those achieved in the public schools. With the bona-fide and 
dull deaf mute, the present oral method produces results in religious instruc- 
tionaltogether unsatisfactory — a mere imitative babbling without any compre- 
hension of the subject. 

Are all of one or different denominations? 

As the German population is partly Protestants, partly Catholics, (not 
counting the Jews,) we naturally find both denominations among the deaf, and 
generally mingled, in the schools. Still there are also exclusively Protestant, 
Catholic and Hebrew Institutions. 

Is it desirable to inculcate denominationalism during school life or not? 

This question must be answered emphatically in the negative. The deaf 
form a family among themselves, and are so much dependent upon one another 
and linked together by reason of their misfortune, that everything should be 
avoided which would tend to produce discord and antagonism. True religion 
consists in charity to all and malice toward none, and therefore tolerance should 
be the uppermost principle to be inculcated. Whoever, from individual con- 
viction, subsequently follows different religious tenets, does what is right. 
Such a person thinks, and is therefore not dangerous. 

Are any particular religious tenets taught in your country? 

No. Germany is a Christian country, or rather consists of Christian states, 
and therefore the Christian religion upon whose banner flames the motto 
" Christian Charity," predominates. Religious intolerance should be avoided, 
and it would be a cause of lamentation if the present epidemic of anti-semitism 
should also infect the deaf. 

How do you find the deaf with regard to religion after leaving school — 
inclined to atheism, infidelity, religion or indifference? 

Deaf mutes who incline to atheism are seldom found in Germany. Deaf 
mute atheists, in fact, are found only among the better educated class. Most 
of the deaf mutes cling to the doctrines that they have learned at school, and 
must be classed religious and devout. Dull deaf mutes, however, who because 
of an unsuitable method of instruction, have hardly attained to any conception 
of religion, almost completely forget the little they have learned at school. 
They are not only indifferent, but may even be regarded as possessed of no 
religion at all. 

Deaf Mute Church Festivals in Germany. 

The most favorable opportunity to rouse the deaf from their legarthy and 

Mission Work Among the Adult Deaf in Germany. 8 1 

to stimulate them to more useful and benevolent efforts, is offered by the 
church festivals that take place annually in the different provinces, and gener- 
ally occur in combination with the confirmation or first communion of gradu- 
ating pupils. It is only within the last few years that the more intelligent 
elements among the participants have recognized the value of these gatherings 
and have taken advantage of them so far as was possible under the circum- 
stances. There is no doubt that an intelligent agitation for the cause of men- 
tal and social improvement is to be expected. Attendance upon these church 
festivals, therefore, cannot be too strongly urged upon all those who wish to 
aid in this movement and take advantage of whatever favorable opportunity 
may present themselves. 

The Chair: The closing remarks on this topic will be read 
from a paper by Mr. Weiner. 



In the rooms of the Deaf Society of Christiana, lay preachers have for 
many years read the Gospel on Sundays. Some years ago a young student 
(hearing) was appointed missionary, and the Society received a State grant of 
Si 50. This year (1893) the missionary was by royal permission, admitted to the 
Holy Orders and the State grant was raised to S250. Thus the Deaf of Christ- 
iana have now a missionary of their own. Next year he will begin visiting 
other parts of the country a few weeks of the year. In this and other ways 
the Deaf Society of Christiana will extend its operations all over the country. 

The Chair: We now take up another topic for discussion, 
" Newspapers for the Deaf." Mr. Van Allen, who was to repre- 
sent the American section, is not present and has sent no substi- 
tute. Mr. Beals, of England, also happens to be absent, but his 
paper has been presented to the Secretary, and will be placed on 
the records. 



My personal experience of Deaf Mute Newspapers has been derived 
from writing frequent editorials for papers on both sides of the Atlantic, and 
from an intimate acquaintance with many publications of a similar nature with 
which I was thus brought into contact. 

With regard to America, I must notice the large number of papers pub- 
lished as compared with that of England. Most of these papers are published 
at Colleges or Institutions of the Deaf and Dumb, and are written and often 
printed by the teachers and pupils. These papers serve a valuable purpose, 
not only to keep up the standard of composition among the pupils and teachers 
by encouraging emulation among themselves in the expression of their 
thoughts and ideas, but also in keeping up the friendship formed there in after 

Separated as the mutes generally are on leaving school by wide distances, 
and with relatives, who, for the most part, cannot be as near and dear to them 
as those who suffer under a common affliction, the papers form a means of 
keeping up their knowledge and memory of each other. People of superior 
abilities and education may be inclined to smile at what they regard as the 
trivial matters often recorded, but we must remember that life is made up of 
many things. Life is not only education but social pleasure also, and that 
education which neglects the heart and only looks to the brain is a very one- 
sided and partial education. And, therefore, speaking for myself, though I 
am not separated from my Canadian friends and fellow mutes, I must confess 
that it is to those personal items I turn first of all, neglecting for the time lead- 
ing articles by the able scholars, Mr. " What'shisname " and Professor 
" Thingumabob," which grace the first page. Jack Horner has bought a cow 
and built a new cow-house — how exceedingly trivial you may think it — but to 
me, who knew poor Jack and how bravely he had worked to keep a roof over 
his head, and his struggles to support a small but increasing family, that item 
tells of increasing happiness and prosperity with plenty of plums in Jack's 
Christmas pudding. So these small bits of news travel round, and we know 
in a general way where our old schoolfellows are and how they are prospering. 
We are thus partakers, through the newspapers, of their cares, joys and sor- 
rows; and that, I think, is a very important item in the newspapers of 

The discussion of educational matters in these papers, is, of course, of 
great value also; it answers the purpose of argument among educated hear- 
ing men. 

Newspapers for the Deaf and Dumb. 8 3 

" Where, ground in yonder social mill, 
We rub each other's angles down." 

Oral teaching versus Signs and Mannualism is discussed, and, no doubt, 
the subject will in time be threshed out, and each subject will get the 
proper place assigned to it in the work of education. This is the burning 
question of the day at present, and occupies the place among the deaf 
mutes that Home Rule does among the English and Irish people- No doubt 
other subjects will arise from time to time 10 distract and divide the deaf 
mute communities, and here, I think, comes in the chief use of independent 

I do not know how it may be in America, but in England and Canada I 
know it is very difficult to keep up an Independent newspaper. We have, at the 
present time in England, only one such paper, as far as I am aware, and this a 
new venture; and unless that paper be cordially supported by the English 
deaf mutes, it will have to go the way of many past efforts in the same line. 
Of course it is not possible to carry on a really first-class publication, unless it 
be widely supported. The editor and manager ought to be able to spend 
his entire time in the management and editing of the paper, looking after the 
proof-reading and correcting, etc.; yet, as a rule he is obliged to toil all day in 
some manual occupation, and then bring a tired and jaded brain to the 
work of editing. Is it wonderful, under the circumstances, that mistakes are 
frequent, especially considering that a large part of his correspondents are 
illiterate men, and their letters, however useful in their ideas, are ungrammati- 
cally expressed. But even if the weary editor has contrived at last to make 
the crooked places straight, there is still the printer's devil to be dealt with. 
For my part, though I have seen the most ghastly and horrible mutiliation of 
my prose and — agony beyond all — of my verse, I am yet, on the whole, filled 
with admiration at the success with which our manager copes with the diffi- 
culties of the situation. 

But this is not as it ought to be — the deaf mute population of Great Brit- 
ain is sufficiently numerous to support one good man as an editor for a paper, 
and it is far better to have one really good paper than fifty poor or bad ones. 
The trouble is that the deaf mutes are not as a rule awake to the necessity of 
the case. When, some years ago, the Bill of Compulsory Education was 
before Parliament it was rightly said, " If we only compulsorily educate one 
generation the task will be over for ever, because that generation will be 
too firmly convinced of the value of such a system not to support it for their 
own children." This is where the trouble lies among English mutes— they do 
not feel the need of keeping up their knowledge of matters pertaining to their 
own welfare and interests. A few of them who are very well educated look 
down and despise the deaf mute paper saying to themselves. " This is not 
mental pabulum for me, I will read the Contemporary, Nineteenth Century, 
Harper, etc." Very good, let them do so, but let them not " despise the day of 
small things " and overlook the Mute paper. If properly supported, the 
bantling will grow — I see no reason for thinking that the training, derived from 
writing in deaf mute papers and magazines may not in time enable many of 

84 Mr. Henry B. Beale on 

the best writers for them to form a paper or magazine among themselves 
worthy to take its place among the publications for ^hearing people, and in so 
doing open a new branch of industry among the deaf. The hearing world is 
too apt to lump the deaf and deaf mutes with lunatics and idiots, and the reason 
is that our minds are an unknown land to them. If they knew an important 
magazine was carried on entirely by deaf mutes, how much it would do to 
break down the barriers between the hearing and the deaf mutes. 

There is no innate reason for there being any inferiority in the writings of the 
deaf as compared with the hearing, except in their not being able to draw 
their characters from actual life, but imignation will bridge the gulf, and 
though I do not expect we shall ever turn out a Shakespeare, I hope we may 
expect such writers as Ryder Haggard and many more who will write amus- 
ing and popular tales. 

This is one reason why I advocate the support of a central Independent 
newspaper as apart from papers in all countries, so that the ablest members 
of each school may meet there on common ground. 

Apart from this, however, an Independent newspaper is needed to push the 
claims of deaf mutes on the State. Were the deaf mutes to pull all together, 
they might have a considerable power and influence in forcing their wants and 
needs on the attention of their Governments, for such schemes as providing 
Homes for aged and infirm Mutes; Government workshops where they could 
be employed for large manufacture of government stores, etc. I look forward 
in the future to many such things, but before we can do this, we must have, in 
a far larger degree than at present, the " Power of the Press " within our own 
hands, and that power can only come by exercise and practice. 

The Chair: The paper presented by M. Remy, for the French 
Section, will be delivered in signs by M. Gaillard. 



In France there is only one newspaper published by the deaf and for the 
deaf. This is the Gazette des Sourds Muds, which I had the honor to estab- 
lish with my own money in 1890, and of which the editor-in-chief is Monsieur 
Henri Gaillard. Its aim is to make the public acquainted with the mental and 
physical condition of the deaf. To destroy the prejudice which a great num- 
ber of persons entertain against them, To enable them to become useful 
members of society. To occupy itself in proving the superiority of the cele- 
brated Abbe de l'Epee's method of instruction over the artificial speech which 
certain blind innovators have invented; and to appeal to the government for 
good will and protection in their behalf. Its service is: to seek means to bet- 
ter the condition of the deaf; to develop and make clear by means of a good 
education their intelligence, teaching them to fulfill their duty to God, to their 
parents, to their neighbors, and respect the law of the land; to supply them 
with instructive and entertaining and moral reading; to inform them of news 
curious or agreeable, and of various facts which concern the deaf; to encour- 
age societies of the deaf, especially societies of mutual aid; to recommend to 
those having command, or who have superintendence, or who manufacture, to 
interest themselves in the condition of deaf laborers and to treat them with 

This newspaper is managed by deaf persons in particular, well educated 
and gifted with special qualifications 

There are other newspapers published by hearing personsand which I 
shall name. 

It is probable that the discussion of political and religious topics is wholly 
excluded from these periodical publications. 

Here is the list of French newspapers for the deaf published by hearing 

1st. Revue Francaise de I' Education des Sourdes-Muets, published under 
the direction of Mr. Ad Belanger, teacher in the National Institution of Deaf 
Mutes in Paris. 

2nd. Revue Internationale de t ' enseignement des Sourdes Muets, pub- 
lished by the teachers of the National Institution for Deaf Mutes. 

3rd. Conseiller Menager des Sourds Parlants, under the patronage of R. 
R. I. I. Chartreux, directed by the Abbe Hiboux. 

There were five newspapers published by the deaf, which have ceased to 
appear for lack of subscribers. 

86 Mr. Henri Remy on 

1st. Bulletin de la Society Universelle des Sourds \Mtiets edited by 
Mr. Benjamin Dubois in 1870. 

2nd. La Defense'des Sourds Muets (1885-1888), managed by Mr. Joseph 

3rd. La Sincerite, managed by Mr. Louis Remond (in 1857). 

4th. L Abbe de I ' Eppee, published by Benjamin Dubois (1888-1889), 

5th. L Echo de la Societe d' Appui Fraternal des Sourds Muets, pub- 
lished by Mr. Joseph Cochefer (1889-1891). 

" No longer pipe no longer dance." Everyone knows what this proverb 
means. So we say, no pecuniary resources, no independence. Now a deaf 
journalist who should be devoted to his brothers can easily dispose of his 
revenues or income in order that his newspaper may continue to appear as long 
as he likes even though he have but few subscribers. Here his independence is 
assured. Moreover, he will be free to examine all the articles concerning the 
deaf published by hearing editors, to criticise some and to approve of others. 

But if the journalist has not sufficient means, he will need to have one or 
more associates in sufficiently easy circumstances to aid him in the enterprise, 
otherwise his newspaper will disappear sooner or later as have those I have 
mentioned above, whose founders were not rich enough. 

We doubt if a newspaper published by a school for the deaf can be inde- 
pendent in all things, and can give utterance to the real sentiments of the 
deaf, because its hearing editor or director does not think as we do, because he 
depends only upon his own opinion, because he takes care not to call attention 
to what the deaf editors write and not to insert in his paper any articles the 
latter may have published. Such a paper would be too partisan. 

There is only one paper which does not depend upon anybody but its editors. 
This is the Gazette des Sourds Muets. 

We give here our conception of a newspaper suited to the needs of the 

If its manager, aided by good editors, should suceeed in realizing the ideal 
of a good newspaper, he would render a good service to the deaf; he would 
deserve their gratitude, the respect and sympathy of all who can appreciate 
unselfish devotion. It would be desirable to have the government encourage 
him by some recompense or subsidy. The paper that is striving more and 
more to reach this goal is the Gazette des Sourds Muets. This is the objec- 
tive aim of all the efforts of its manager and its editor-in-chief. 

Besides this most important newspaper, it will be necessary to publish a 
small paper to appear more frequently (say every Saturday) for the benefit of 
the not so well educated deaf, which shall contain instructive, moral and en- 
tertaining reading, not omitting little stories. 

Its aim will be to develop the education of the deaf, to keep up the moral 
and religious life and to give him agreeable reading matter for Sunday. 

We have been considering the matter of issuing the Gazette des Sourds- 
Muets every fifteen days. 

The Chair: The paper to follow will be presented and read 
by Mr. Watzulik, for the German section, 

Newspapers for the Deaf in Germaiiy. 87 



[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 

Their necessity ? 

Newspapers for the deaf are altogether necessary. The interests of the 
deaf are best promoted in newspapers of their own, and the deaf themselves 
generally miss the comprehension of their necessities, that they find so neces- 
sary, in other papers which are, moreover, conducted on very different prin- 

Their usefulness? 

The usefulness of papers for the deaf, in the first place, lies in the mental 
stimulus they furnish, and of which the deaf stand so much in need, but which 
they fail to find in daily and other literature, as the latter are written mostly in 
too complex a style and are not adapted to their mental capacities. 

How should they be conducted ? 

Religious and political questions should be avoided. They should be ed- 
ifying, instructive and entertaining, and above all written in such simple lan- 
guage that even a poorly educated deaf mute can find in them a source of 
pleasure and further education. 

Give a list of newspapers for the deaf in your country. 

1. " Taubstummenfreund," (Editor, Mr. Furstenberg, teacher, Berlin.) 

2. " Hephata," (Editors, Messrs. Kruse and Franke, teachers, Sleswick.) 

3. " Blatter fur Taubstumme," (Editor, Superintendent Hirzel, Gmund, 

4. " Blatter fur Taubstummenbildung,'' (Editor. Principal Walther, 

5. "Organ der Taubstummenanstalten;'' (Editor, Mr. Vatler, teacher, 

How can their independence be best secured ? 

The first three papers named above are edited and published by teachers. 
As a matter of course, they accept only such communications as suit their tastes, 
and which are written in such a manner as not to give umbrage to the powers 
that be. As teachers of the deaf are generally in a dependent position, the 
editors, from motives of self-interest, give their leaflets only such coloring as 
would win the approval of their superiors, and the real opinions on the deaf 
can therefore be ventilated only with difficulty. It is worthy of note that there 
is not a single paper in all Germany which, like the " Taubstummen Courier," 
of Vienna, is edited independent of teachers and school authorities. It is very 
much to be regretted that the deaf mute associations of Germany have not yet 
had the energy and independence to found such a paper of their own and in- 
trust its management to some prominent and intelligent deaf mute. It is only 
under such conditions that the real sentiments of the deaf regarding important 
questions and controversies of the day can be given publicity. Austria is so 
fortunate as to possess such an independent publication in the "Taubstummen 
Courier," but this paper, being an Austrian publication, does not wield the in- 
fluence over the school anthorities in Germany that a German paper would be 

88 Mr. Gerhard Titze on 

sure to exercise. To establish an independent paper is one of the most urgent 
duties confronting the German deaf. The time, however, is not yet ripe, as 
the indifference among the silent fraternity is still too great, and a very active 
agitation would be necessary. 

The Chair: The next paper is by Mr Titze, of Sweden. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen : 

It is an acknowledged fact that a journal business, founded on small means 
and with little circulation can only continue for a short time, it soon being 
obliged to stop, on account of too great expense both in printing and transla- 
tion. Such has been the case also in Sweden. The first newspaper in Sweden 
for the deaf, " Dofstumvannen," (in English, "The Friend of the Deaf Mute") 
edited by Director O. E. Berg, soon was obliged to discontinue for want of en- 
couragement. Ten years later, a young typographer (deaf mute) in a little 
town began to publish another journal, but on account of economical difficulties 
he also was soon obliged to sell the journal to the Association of the Deaf Mutes 
in Stockholm. 

At last, in the year 1891, it was decided, at a meeting of the deaf mutes of 
Sweden in Stockholm, to publish a new journal, intended to appear once a 
month. On the same occasion a committee of three members was appointed, 
two of whom were deaf and the other hearing. The society of the deaf mutes 
in Stockholm is the editor of this journal till the business is able to pay its own 
account. The paper, whose editor is a deaf person, bears the name " Tidning 
for Iofstumma." (Journal for the Deaf Mute). Its purpose is to take care of 
the interests of the deaf mute and of their advantage in general, and besides 
to work for the promulgation of knowledge and to gather information concern- 
ing the state of the deaf mute question, their schools, etc., in all civilized coun- 
tries (whole world.) The journal is absolutely independent in every respect, 
and gives a true account of the real opinions of deaf mutes; it being carried on 
by a clever deaf person, and subject to no other control than that of the deaf 

The deaf mutes in Sweden also have expressed their joy in the great work 
of enlightenment which it has undertaken to execute, a work that perhaps can 
be of more use to their cause than that which is performed in a certain number 
of the schools for deaf mutes. 

The Chair : The final paper on this topic is from Mr. 

Newspapers in Norway. 89 



In 1891 was started a paper for the deaf, named "Journal for Dove." It 
appears at Christiana once a month, alternately in four and eight pages, and it 
is frequently illustrated. The office is 8 Prinsens gade, Christiana (at Mr. Carl 
Weiner's) and the subscription price is kr. 1.80 annually; in foreign parts, kr. 
2.50 (70 cents.) 

The Chair: We now proceed to consider the concluding 
topic of the day session, " The Social Status of the Deaf." 



As a matter of course, the deaf in their earliest years are dependent upon 
their parents and friends for proper guidance. It is held by some that this de- 
pendence never ceases, except in degree; by others, that the character of the 
education shapes the social status; while a few maintain that the position of 
the deaf, in any given surrounding, depends entirely upon themselves. He 
who picks up the threads of truth running through these theories will probably 
be able to weave a mantle to cover all. 

The deaf are very much like other people; If some of them are peculiar, 
it is because they evince that common trait of humanity under the disadvan- 
tage of few and scattered numbers, while the oddities of hearing folk escape 
prominence in the dilution of vast populations. 

The deaf marry, settle down, and some rear families. Many marriages 
are not fruitful. In some cases the infirmity is perpetuated. But there can 
always be, through judicious selection, perfect immunity from deaf offspring, 
and the deaf still marry the deaf. As statistics go, we think, taking marriages 
of all kinds among the deaf, that there are many times more chances that the 
marriage will be unfruitful than, if fruitful, that the offspring will be deaf. 

The deaf family (the parents are referred to) generally has the respect, the 
attention, the assistance, the natural sympathy of the neighborhood. The ideal 
oral taught deaf should be familiar with the local lip reading facilities; but the 
general fact is that the manual alphabet is soon known and used as a means of 
communication from neighbor to neighbor, and in all the essentials of infor- 
mation, as well as in some of the luxuries of gossip, it is not apparent that these 
deaf sustain any loss. 

Society js relative, and very comparative. In some places there is no so- 
ciety, not even for the hearing, unless as members of the small fashionable 
cliques that spring up as followers of the latest fads, to the despair of their 
pastors and elderly friends. Here, indeed, it is not uncommon to find a deaf 
person, whose family affiliations or local prominence may carry him into the 
whirl of this sort of society whether he likes it or not. As one ascends from 
the valley of exclusiveness, the deaf, in common with the hearing, reach the 
atmosphere of the real society which charms and invigorates. The private 
tea party, the afternoon or evening reception, the literary meet, the church fair 
or sociable, the private theatricals, are all gatherings in which the deaf may, 
and frequently do, take part, increasing their own and adding to the common 

On such and kindred occasions some arrangement as to communication is 
essential. The lip reader is accompanied by a friend who supplies the vocal 

The Social Status of the Deaf in Atneriea. 91 

necessities, and he who has dependence upon dactylology probably has the 
choice of several willing hands. Where the deaf recognize their deprivation 
and make provision accordingly, there is no reason why, whatever the system 
of their instruction, they should not mingle in most forms of society, and par- 
take in nearly all the advantages society exists to confer. It must be con- 
fessed, however, that there are conditions that require remedies. While there 
is a tendency to shyness in many persons about appearing in company, it is 
true that this diffidence is more pronounced in the deaf. This is easily inten- 
sified by neglect, unintentional though it may be, and by lack of association 
and training during school life. Our schools have nothing to do with the vo- 
taries of fashion, but they should accustom the pupils to association with the 
hearing, socially, and teach them how to derive the most profit by conduct in 
such company. Hearing people should be glad to use a little extra pressure 
and coaxing to secure attendance, whenever coyness is manifested. 

It is asserted that the deaf are clannish, but experience and observation 
refute the charge. Who that has to do with conventions, picnics, clubs, balls, 
associations and the like, does not know that the number of those deaf who 
actually attend is very far short of what it easily could be were there any 
marked tendency to huddling? It is claimed that there are a thousand adult 
deaf in New York City. Yet the largest club of that locality has less than fifty 
members, and the Pas-a-Pas Club, of Chicago, claims to be the largest club in 
the country, with its less than seventy members. One would suppose that from 
the fifty thousand deaf the census gives the United States, there would be 
found enough to assure the weekly papers for the deaf adequate support. But 
it is a sorry truth that were all the actual support concentrated upon one of 
these papers, and outside assistance would be insufficient to keep 
the publication alive for six months. 

The laws of this country are good to the deaf. They are educated at pub- 
lic expense; they are exempted from all civil duties where their deafness 
would be a disability, but they are accountable the same in other respects as 
are the hearing. Their friends follow them in adult life, and largely assist in 
providing " homes " for the infirmities of indigent old age. While poverty and 
dependence are the lot of a portion of mankind, and it is the privilege of 
the other portion to relieve, there is less call for charity to the aid of the deaf 
than to almost any other of what may be described as the handicapped classes. 
Barring accidents, the deaf of America leave the schools fitted to make their 
own way in the world, and they do make it. They are found in nearly all the 
occupations of man where deafness has not been proven an insuperable bar- 
rier; some of them are leaders in their particular callings; not a few occupy 
positions of wealth and influence. 

The effect of the loss of hearing upon the individual is often very marked. 
As certain curtailments in animal and vegetable life work to bodily advantage, 
so the loss of a sense augments energy and strengthens faculties; and, without 
any perceptible strain, more accurate work is the result. This will account for 
the uniform successes of many of the deaf in positions to which they are not 
admitted without misgivings. This condition also overcomes undesirable ten- 

92 Mr. C. Gorham on the Social Status of the 

dencies that show themselves in other members of the family. It has been 
demonstrated time and [again that a person deaf from childhood can, under 
proper cultivation, reach a development superior to that of his hearing broth- 
ers and sisters, and, in fact, become practically the mainstay of the family to 
which he belongs. 

The Chair: The second paper on this subject has been prepared 
for the British section by Mr. Gorham. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

Though highly appreciating the honor of being invited to read a paper on 
the Social Status of the Deaf of Great Britain and Ireland, I cannot help feel- 
ing that this subject might more fittingly have been taken up by some other 
deaf gentleman, with higher attainments than mine in literature and elo- 

However, at Mr. Maggins' urgent request, as he pointed out that no other 
gentleman, who could claim to have a thorough knowledge of the ins and outs 
of our society, seemed disposed to go to the trouble from want of time or other 
causes, I have with the greatest possible pleasure consented to oblige him, 
though much pressed for time. 

Much as I wished, it was with deep regret that I have found it quite im- 
possible to get away from business, and to join with you in the happy celebra- 
tion of the Second International Congress of the Deaf World. 

It is indeed refreshing to observe deaf individuals or associations showing 
originality and breaking out from the commonplace monotony of their ordinary 
life by holding conventions among themselves. Assemblies of this nature, 
and especially the International Congresses, cannot — whatever a few preju- 
diced oralists may say to the contrary — do any harm to the cause of the deaf. 
If no harm is done by our hearing friends in holding their teachers' conven- 
tions; the clergy their congresses; and scientific and archaeological bodies 
their periodical meetings, why should not the deaf follow their example? 

This Congress is really, in the truest sense, a great social meeting of all 
classes of the deaf of different nationalities throughout the world, and without 
in any way wishing to digress, I may mention that in England there are certain 
persons who view the organization of the British Deaf and Dumb Association 
and its Congresses, with eyes askance; maintaining that such unions are little 
likely to effect the real object they have in view, of undeavoring to diminish 
the so-called clannishness which exists amongst the deaf, by the the adoption 

Deaf in Great Britain and Ire/and. 93 

of their pet scheme — pure oralism — and further that they tend to obviate the 
chances of establishing orally conducted services for the deaf. 

If these well-meaning gentlemen object to the deaf uniting in social meet- 
ings of this kind, they are showing their shortsightedness by suggesting 
the establishment of orally conducted service, which is truly a step in the 
direction of clanishment! 

Now to the point. The subject upon which I am about to address you, 
might perhaps have been, with advantage, more fully treated, but this would 
have rendered this paper too voluminous, and I am not forgetting my foreign 
co-workers who have similar papers to read. 

The first question I am asked is: 

How the British deaf are received in society? 

As far as the aristocracy and middle classes are concerned, my reply is 
"Very fairly;" but not so as regards the working classes, among whom, rather 
the reverse is the case. 

In the higher classes, the deaf are now far more highly educated and 
trained to the duties of the functions of our society, than was the case formerly, 
providing, of course, that they are fitted for the purpose mentally and physically. 
Much, however, depends on the deaf individual himself, as to the extent to 
which he may be sought after by society in the higher classes, which is so 
exacting in its requirements and etiquette. 

The three great points which I consider to be most essestial for a deaf lady 
or gentleman to hope to maintain a footing of equality with their more 
fortunate brethren are : 

(1) Education; (2) Conversational capacity, and (3) Proper knowledge 
of the tone and manners of good society. 

Formerly, before the means of educating the deaf were discovered, the 
deaf were considered veritable idiots, and terrible social burdens and 
nuisances. We can well imagine the anguish of families in knowing that they 
had amongst themselves, members utterly devoid of one of the greatest bless- 
ings Providence has bestowed upon men, the faculty of hearing, and there 
being no means of educating them, these unhappy wretches were shut up in 
rooms apart, so that they might not be seen. There are even recorded cases 
of the deaf being chained up like dogs. How to put them away or to get rid 
of them was then a terrible puzzle to society. 

Even in the early part of this century, long after the discovery of the 
means of educating the deaf, thanks to Abbe de 1' Eppe, Thomas Gallaudet, 
Thomas Braidwood and others, the prejudice against the deaf was very 

I may give you an instance of a case, which, though authenticated, is very 
little known. 

In the South of Ireland there was a Squire who had a lovely girl bom to 
him, and her mother died soon after. Naturally, the father was devoted to the 
baby girl. As she grew into childhood, however, she was discovered to be 
deaf. Though passionately fond of her, the father, from sheer and cruel pre- 
.udice, recoiled from the sight of her, and as the girl grew up into a fine young 

94 Mr. C. Gorham on the Social Status of the 

woman, the more repugnance the father felt to her presence, until he could 
bear it no longer, and had her kept closely confined to the kitchen and would 
not allow her to join her brothers and sisters in his private rooms, nor, if he 
could help it, rest his eyes on her. 

By and by she was suddenly taken ill, and with a natural instinct, she 
broke away to regain, if possible, her father's love and sympathy, only to be 
roughly repulsed. One day when she showed signs of dying, her father delib- 
erately turned out the servants, locked the door and took away the key, despite 
the tears and entreaties of his servants and others. Meanwhile, moans of the 
dying girl could be distinctly heard, but the hardened father remained 

At last the door was unlocked, and when her father made himself sure 
that the girl was beyond help, he allowed the rest to enter. 

The agonizing scene of the poor girl in her fast ebbing life, when she, with 
her outstretched arms, made feeble signs to her father (Should he thus be 
called?) to embrace her for the last time ***** Well, 
let the curtain fall. 

There are still a good many people in our country who shun the deaf alto- 
gether. I have had one or two experiences of this kind. When applying 
for apartments in a certain city, the landlady declined to entertain me on the 
ground that " it would be a source of great trouble to her and her maids to cor- 
respond on paper regarding my wants!" Needless to say, I took care that 
none of my friends went near her. Another was a Midland rector on whom I 
first called, on an introduction from a friend, some twelve years ago. He 
seemed at a loss how to entertain me, and could never understand how I could 
feel contented in spite of my affliction, and ended by giving me such unnec- 
essary advice that I got up in disgust and left the house, never to repeat my 
visit or to his attend his church. 

So much for modern ignorance and prejudice, which is, happily for us, now 
exceedingly rare. 

Much depends, as I have said before, on the conduct and behavior of the 
deaf mutes themselves, whereby they can endear themselves to families and 
their friends according to their temperament. The most difficult thing for a 
deaf caller is to avoid remaining too long in the drawing room, and another, to 
find topics for conversation suitable to the pecularities of his hostess. 

The popular deaf persons are those who when calling only remain a few 
minutes, where the persons called upon are comparative strangers; all that is 
done is merely to pay compliments, remark on the chief topics of the day, #nd 
then retire as gracefully as possible, unless requested to stay. People are 
often needlessly nervous at first receiving any one whom they must treat in 
the least degree differently from the conventional run of visitors, and by 
speedily relieving them from their imaginary dilemma, misgivings may be 
allayed as to how they are to entertain such "awkward callers." For let it be 
remembered that a large proportion of ladies, especially the elder ones, have a 
great objection to writing on paper. Advocates of pure oral system need not 

Deaf in Great Britain and Ireland. 95 

jump at this declaration and say, " That is just why I have so constantly urged 
the advantages of the pure oral system." 

On the contrary, I find that all my born deaf friends who can speak orally 
well, will not speak before so many people, and especially at dinner parties, 
preferring to use the simple pencil and paper, for the very reason that they are 
conscious that they are apt to speak far too loudly to be agreeable, or make 
slips in their pronunciation which would at once attract attention. Still, I wish 
it to be understood that I am entirely in favor of the deaf being educated on 
pure oral lines, whenever it is possible, as it comes in exceedingly useful at 
garden parties, picnics, and when too dark to read and write. 

With semi-mutes this is very different, for having acquired their speech 
before they lost hearing they can manage to converse fluently without any fear 
of making themselves ridiculous before the company. 

When one can dance well, hunt and shoot, and, above all, possesses the gift 
of conversational talk, he gets on very well indeed with society in general. 

Deaf ladies are often exceedingly popular and much sought after at such 
gatherings as these, and especially by the elderly gentlemen, who find, as they 
have personally told me, a really delightful contrast in conversing with the 
deaf ladies after the slow conversation with hearing visitors. 

Where a deaf lady or a deaf couple happens to be " at home," some hear- 
ing people are apt to err on the etiquette side, and sometimes give rise to 
unpleasant comments. As I have pointed out before, several ladies object to 
go to the trouble of conversing in writing with their deaf callers or hostesses, 
and it is on this score that these people feel so reluctant to make calls, though 
forced to do so by the stern conditions of the code of good manners in society. 

Still, on the whole, I think that as for the impressions that deaf people re- 
ceive scant courtesy at the hands of the majority of hostesses and their families, 
it is more imaginary than real. Such a state of things may exist, where the 
deaf individual is too stupid to see " the hint " that he or she is not wanted just 
at present, for, like ourselves, people are sure to be tired and wish to be left 
alone every now and then; a well trained deaf visitor is careful enough to study 
these facts and amuse himself or herself in other ways, meantime. 


Having purposely lived for a year or two with a most respectable working 
family, with a view of making myself more intimate with their social routine, 
I find a very marked difference between the high and working classes, and do 
not now wonder why the working deaf people complain of their being, as a 
rule, shunned by their hearing neighbors. 

The real secret lies in the fact that if the working men and women canno 
read or write properly, they are too much occupied with their daily routine of 
work to afford time to entertain their deaf friends, except during meal times 
and on Sundays, if they are so disposed to do a little to amuse their guests. 

What struck me very much was that the pure oral is much more favored 
by the working classes than the higher classes. Whenever I went to see the 
deaf people at their houses I found that when they could speak orally they 

96 Mr. C. Gorham on the Social Status of the 

were spoken to, i. e. lip reading, more than on the manual system by their 
hearing friends and neighbors. The contrast is very curious. 

Do the deaf superiors as a rule shun their deaf inferiors? 

This is unfortunately too true, but the blame lies in great measure on the 
deaf of the lower classes themselves, and more so on their teachers and mis- 
sionaries for not training them to treat their superiors with due respect, in 
accordance with the custom of the land. 

The aristocratic deaf are obliged to be very careful how they encourage 
their deaf inferiors to speak with them or call at their houses, should they be 
so disposed to show their sympathetic help. 

From want of proper training at their schools, the deaf in the lower classes 
acquire very bad and almost unbreakable habit of " cheek " and insolence to 
people who are above them socially. 

Thus when one sees you walking with a lady on the other side of the road 
or talking amongst a party of ladies and gentleman, he will frequently cross 
the street and slap you on the back or arm, and greet you with the words or in 
the rough sign language, so objectionable in its aspect: "Are you deaf? " "I 
am." " What school were you at?" and so on. 

And instead of taking a gentle hint that he is not wanted, he will either 
remain and talk familiarly to you, or walk alongside you, while you, in disgust, 
are forced to tell him plainly that he is not wanted, and a volley of abuse fol- 
lows you, and if he does find out who you are he is sure to spread reports of 
slanderous character among the deaf of his own class. 

The only possible remedy for this unfortunate state of things, is that all 
deaf children of the lower classes should be carefully trained at their school to 
cultivate good manners and behavior in public, and above all show their re- 
spect to their social superiors. They also should be taught the proper form of 
introduction, and that they cannot expect to introduce themselves to those 
above themselves. 

No child born of good family should be allowed to become a private pupil 
at an institution where children of lower castes are taught, any more than a 
hearing child is sent to a school where he will associate with those beneath 

If these suggestions were adopted, I am certain that in the near future the 
so-called " snobbishness " would entirely, disappear. For we must not indulge 
anything in a deaf child or adult, simply because he is deaf; he must be taught 
and trained on the same lines as hearing people. 

Many missionaries of Adult Deaf Missions make unpardonable mistakes 
by dictating too much to the " deaf swells," as they are called in England, 
should these swells feel inclined to frequent such missions — such as hints that 
they need not look too much above their similiarly afflicted brethren and so on. 

Consequently the "swells" look on the missionaries with contempt and pity 
at their ignorance, or presumption that they are on an equality with them- 
selves. The natural consequence is that the Adult Societies not only lose their 
immense influence, but the chances of getting their well-to-do friends to 
become subscribers or take an interest in the mission work. 

Deaf in Great Britain and Ireland. 97 



On this matter there appears to be a divided opinion. Some say, "Yes, as 
a rule;" others say " No." 

I am inclined, after fifteen years' experience amongst allclasses of the 
deaf, to say " No, in the case of the deaf in the middle and higher classes," 
but, " Certainly, yes, as regards those of the working class." 

In the higher classes, the deaf being of somewhat a sensitive temperament, 
are most particular as to what families they shall visit or receive. As I have 
already explained, the deaf are most averse to keeping up acquaintanceship 
with people who do not appear to care for them, or show a disposition to avoid 
conversing with them; while they take good care to cultivate friendship with 
the other section who are disposed to receive them with cordiality, especially 
when making calls. Still, on the whole, these deaf do not as a rule shun 
society, as is the general impression. 

The deaf of laboring or artisan classes are more or less clannish, and 
really shun the society of their own hearing people, unless they happen to be 
courting a hearing person, in which case they are much better off than the rest, 
but this is very rare. 

Wherever you go, you will notice, in our own country, that the deaf of the 
working classes congregate together at one of their own houses, or in a public 
house, night after night, after their day's work is over. 

This need not be wondered at when we remember that the men of the 
working classes, as a rule, prefer to spend their spare time at their clubs or 
public houses, and to leave their wives or elder daughters to do their house- 
work or gossip among themselves as may be the case, while their children may 
be seen playing together in the streets. 

As I have pointed out before, orally taught deaf will get on well with their 
hearing neighbors, simply because their parents, brothers, sisters and friends 
will ta]k to them a la lip reading, and the deaf themselves are not so sensitive 
as those in higher life. This is most noticeable in Nottingham. I have ob- 
served young deaf youths and girls who have been taught in the Board School 
Deaf Department there, converse remarkably well with their hearing 
companions not only when out walking but with work hands also. 

I am asked if there is any possibility of a remedy. I should say " Encour- 
age the oral system in every possible way whenever possible — where there is a 
chance of a deaf pupil remaining at school for say six or seven years, and they 
show an aptitude for picking it up;" but I cannot but strongly urge the gener- 
al adoption of the combined system in all cases where children are backward 
or, rather, not more than usually intelligent. 

Libraries should be established in every institution and school, and this 
without any stint whatever as regards the unlimited supply of suitable books 
of all kinds, with plenty of geographical maps, as well as astronomical and 
scientific researches added. 

Suitable prizes of good value should be offered periodically for essays on 
what the children have previously been reading. 

98 Mr. C. Gorhant on the Social Status of the 

Cricket and football should be encouraged in every way as they are in all 
our universities and public schools, as I notice that deaf pupils after once acquir- 
ing the art of wielding the bat at cricket, or the art of attacking or defending at 
football, invariably when they leave school join hearing cricket and football 
clubs much to their advantage and benefit, as there they are constantly brought 
into contact with' their hearing comrades. I have many pleasant reminiscen- 
ses of the days when playing with crack teams of the deaf, as well as having 
formed many charming friendships through introductions arising out of my 
connection with them. 

During winter time each and all institutions ought to hold special recep- 
tion or party days, by inviting hearing young people and children to mix with 
the deaf pupils, and to promote more unrestricted social intercourse. 

Alas! our institutions are so very backward and conservative in character 
that I very much fear it will be generations before we can ever hope to see the 
deaf of our working class on a better social footing. 

" How do the laws treat them? Do they enjoy the same civil rights as 
hearing citizens?" 

Our deaf are on equal footing with others as regards their civil rights; 
there is nothing to prevent their transacting business, forming legal contracts 
or persuing each his own trade or business. Many deaf persons own property 
and houses, and even mansions and estates. 

A deaf man may inherit by lineal descent a peerage, baronetcy, even be 
created a knight, or take clerical degrees as in the case of the Rev. R. A. 
Pearce, of the Winchester division. 

"Any exemption on account of deafness?" 

There is an old act still in existence which treats the uneducated deaf as 
imbeciles and not responsible for their actions. 

This, by a piece of legislative wisdom, means that none of our deaf can be 
created king or queen, even by rightful descent, a barrister, a solicitor or even 
a doctor. Nor can he become a member of parliament, or sit in the jury box. 

The deaf as tax payers and voters. 

Our deaf as soon as they become owners or tenants of lands or premises, 
become ratepayers or taxpayers and have all the privileges and duties arising 
therefrom as if they were not deaf. Needless to say, it is very seldom we hear 
of a deaf person abusing those rights. 

A deaf householder or landowner may, if he so desires, vote at all political, 
municipal and council elections. He may even speak or discuss the questions 
appertaining to such elections. At the last general election in England, a 
Nottingham deaf voter, through a hearing friend, put a few questions to one 
of the candidates for that borough, with the result that almost the whole of the 
deaf voters of that town voted for him and had the satisfaction of seeing him 
duly elected. 

" What effect has marriage with the hearing on their relations with society 
in general?" 

A greater proportion of the deaf in higher life marry hearing partners 
with the result that their social position is considerably advanced. For by do- 

Deaf in Great Britain and Ireland. 99 

ing so the deaf are enabled, with the aid of the hearing partner, to get on more 
quickly with others, when visiting or attending balls or dinner parties, than 
would be the case were the couples both deaf. 

Of course there are several couples who are both deaf, and they really get 
on very well, indeed, all things considered. 

It has been said that a marriage between a deaf person and a hearing per- 
son generally results in an unhappy afterlife. This is true in one or two cases 
that have come under my own observation; but these were entirely due to 
marriage being too hastily undertaken, and the fact of one party being deaf 
was not in any way responsible for the unfortunate aspect of affairs. 

In the working classes the deaf intermarry to a very large extent, and, I 
must say, with the happiest results in nearly every case where marriages were 
solemized at a proper time, when all the parties could afford to keep them- 
selves comfortably. As for the offspring, I have only come across three in- 
stances where deaf children were born as a result of intermarriage. 

Whether the deaf in the working classes marry hearing persons or inter- 
marry amongst themselves, makes no difference whatever as to their social 
status; such is the result of my own personal observations. 

The indigent deaf. 

This is, I believe, fully described by S. Bright Lucas in his paper on 
another subject, which is, however, purely local (London), so I will leave that 
to him. 

I may, however, make a remark that the British Deaf and Dumb Associa- 
tion has devised a scheme which will come up before their confreres at 
Swansea, in August next, whereby a " Pension Fund " will in all probability be- 
come an established reality, and should, so I confidently anticipate, be a great 
boon to the indigent deaf out of London. 

Deaf criminals. 

In comparison with the criminal classes of Great Britian and Ireland, the 
proportion of deaf criminals is very small indeed, a fact that must be regarded 
as most gratifying. 

Of course we cannot expect any country, home or foreign, to be totally 
devoid of deaf criminals. 

The principal offences committed by our deaf appear to be vagrancy, 
stealing from shops, being in enclosed premises with felonious intention, poach- 
ing and drunkeness. 

Only two cases of forgery by deaf persons in recent times have come under 
my notice. Obtaining money for charity purposes by false pretenses, is a very 
favorite method adopted by our deaf who have no notion of an honest life, and 
so cunningly is it practiced that it is very difficult indeed to detect them. 

A deaf man was arraigned on his trial at the Leicester assizes held early 
this month for the attempted murder of his wife, which ended in his being 
sentenced to five years' penal servitude. 

A somewhat similar case occured in Armagh, Ireland, a year or two since. 
After a long trial the jury acquitted the deaf mute, partly on the ground of his 
want of education. 

100 Mr. C. Gorham on 

A head master and missionary of a Midland town, remarked to me only 
the other day, that "After trials in which I have been engaged and put the deaf 
off, I have called lawyers' attention to the existing act regarding the deaf being 
classed as imbeciles, and they said yes, if we had got a conviction you could 
have got it quashed, eh?" 

This of course only refers to the uneducated deaf and it is satisfactory to 
note that our laws treat such deaf criminals exactly in the same light as if they 
were hearing. And let us hope that with better education and better manage- 
ment of our institutions and schools, we may look forward to a time when we 
shall be able to chronicle the fact that the deaf are far better off from a social 
point of view, and where there will be a smaller proportion of indigent per- 
sons and criminals among their numbers than at the present time. 

The Chair: The paper that follows is presented by the 
French section arid will be delivered in signs by its author, M. 
Genis, President of l'Association Amicale des Sourds-Muets, de 




[Translated by Mr. Thomas Francis Fox.] 

Gentlemen : The majority of deaf mutes seek the society of their com- 
panions in misfortune, who have the same medium of communication and al- 
most the same tendencies. 

The rest, but few in number, often frequent the society of hearing and 
speaking people; but they are not the only intelligent and well-informed deaf 
mutes who can get along in this way. 

Deaf mutes educated by the method of the Abbe de l'Epee, are very much 
superior to those instructed by the new method, consisting in their learning to 
speak, as is proved by Berthier, Clerc, Massieu, Lenoir, Pelissier, and others. 

In general deaf mutes are disposed to frequent the society of their associ- 
ates; for the reason that they understand each other more easily and more 
quickly. It is Nature; there is not and never will be a remedy for this habit. 

Deaf mutes are controlled by the same laws as other people; there is no 
exception for them. 

They enjoy the same rights as citizens as those who hear and speak. They 
can vote, make contracts, equally pay taxes, and can own real estate. 

Marriage between deaf mutes produces much happier results than those 
between deaf mutes and hearing persons; yet there are a few rare exceptions. 

Unfortunately there are more indigent deaf mutes than there are those in 
easy circumstances; this is the result of so little communication with people 
who hear. I believe it will become necessary for deaf mutes to frequent the 
society of the hearing in order to be able to obtain a comfortable position. 

In France there are but few deaf criminals; these are only deaf mutes 
who do not frequent any society and are isolated; for this reason they have no 
idea of propriety. As hindrances to the' commission of crime I believe it will 
be constantly necessary to have them associate with good company, where 
they will learn many things that will put a stop to their evil doings. 

That the deaf mute has the right, and the sacred right, to an education 
and to encouragement, is happily a truth that does not require demonstration. 

Who would deny the rights of the deaf mute population? Could any one 
do so without denying the rights of humanity? The misfortune of his birth, 
the injury of nature, his moral and intellectual debasement, his sufferings, his 
weakness, these are his claims. Do you recognize them? Alas! are they not 
most real and of the most honorable nature? 

102 M. He?iri Getiis on the Duties of Society With Regard to 

Member of society and child of the great human family, the deaf mute 
invokes in the name of the dignity of his nature, the tactic agreement which 
assures him aid and protection. Yes, I repeat in the name of the dignity of his 
nature, for the more that this human dignity in him is hurt, unknowingly, the 
more does the derogation of God from the good laws of our creation seem pal- 
pable. Moreover he has a right to whatever in our fraternal benevolence 
would make him forget this seeming injustice. And if, in accordance with the 
sacred and eternal law which we carry in our own hearts, assistance is every- 
where due to those in danger, aid is due to the weak, refuge to the lost trav- 
eler; with all these claims society does not need to be reminded of what is due 
toward the deaf mute. 

M. Chamberlain, at the Congress of Deaf Mutes, in 1889, remarked that 
" at the close of his studies the young deaf mute seeks everywhere the society 
of other deaf mutes." This proves that they understand each other, and they 
get together. Without ceasing to meet his brothers in misfortune he should 
still, nevertheless, seek the society of people who hear and speak. It would 
then be more easy for him to seek aid, assistance and counsel. Such contact 
would not only lead him to assume the manners of speaking people, but would 
extend the circle of his acquaintances, and, in consequence, be very profitable 
to him. 

He needs, then, instruction because he is ignorant; education, for he must 
live in society with us; and it is only in this way that his destiny would be put 
under the safeguard of laws, and his misfortune under the tutelar protection of 
the noblest and best sentiments of our nature. 

These, gentlemen, are the motives which should pledge you not to forsake 
the deaf mute. For, it has been said many times, it is not merely a question 
of relieving the physical needs; the object is to create in him intellectual life, 
to introduce him into the dominion of thought, and everywhere to trace out a 
road to his heart, and there open that mysterious source so full of all the feel- 
ings and affections which appear so strong on the exterior. And when the 
duties of society with regard to the deaf mute are not founded upon strict right, 
the mere picture of his misfortune will not suffice, in itself, to serve in bring- 
ing us to them. 

You see, he is brought into the world presenting only the exterior image of 
a man. He is a living marble beneath which a material life circulates with 
blood. But his soul, breathing the divine emanation of the Creator, his intelli- 
gence sleeps enveloped in the shroud of a sleep of a living death; meanwhile, 
he grows, but deprived of hearing and speech and unable to acquire ideas by 
himself, he vegetates alone in a sphere of abjection and humility, scornfully 
excluded from the social banquet of life. He is unmoved in the midst of uni- 
versal motion and to the general nature of things. He rots in stupidity, and 
still continues in the bosom of the nation reputed to be the most liberal and the 
most Christian, a sort of public slave and imbecile from whom we flee; and 
there is not even a tender mother who does not do violence to her caresses and 
affection in order not to hurt the sight of the multitude by the spectacle of this 
infirmity ! 

Deaf Mutes and Reciprocally of Deaf Mutes with Regard to Soeiety- 

Meanwhile adolescence reaches him and with it imperious needs; it is 
then that without education the real nature of the deaf mute develops like vig- 
orous vegetation, and takes its bent according to the measure his passions de- 
velop. Do not flatter yourself that you can diminish his pride, bend his resist- 
ing will or overcome his habits. If you wish to calm the storms of his heait 
and prevent disorder, hasten to tear him away from the violence of his instincts 
and from the control of an imagination totally disordered; hasten to disclose 
to him human and divine laws with all the energy of moral authority," if you do 
not wish him to become a new misfortune for his family, a plague for society. 

Whether wicked or ignorant, he will excite fear, because we dread anyone 
who ignores the responsibility of his acts; weak and apathetic, his life will pass 
away unnoticed, as the fancy passes, under the derisive safeguard of his indif- 
ference and inexperience. 

And here notice, gentlemen, how in these later times the ill fortunes of 
the deaf mute is aggravated in the midst of us by the same fact of the conquest 
of civil and industrial liberty. 

Formerly, when he lived like other men under the regime of bondage, it 
was equality for him. But to-day, under the strong empire of laws, we enjoy 
the benefits of a liberty elevating anew the dignity of the people, even passing 
over the rustic roof, and giving to the artisan civil and political rights, whilst 
the deaf mute ever remains behind. Gentlemen, shall we suffer this? Shall 
we live in the midst of these numerous benefits without profiting from them ? 
No, gentlemen; on the day when bondage was abolished, society corrected the 
strict obligation to protect equally all its members, and equity demands that 
she make every effort to raise all to the enjoyment of that liberty. 

The eighteenth century closed in the midst of political convulsions. Two 
men at that time chanced to meet, endowed by Providence with an immense 
love for liberty. Both had received from Nature a tender and exalted soul, a 
rare sagacity, a genius equally active and persevering: one, however, was very 
affable, the other very serious; the former received in his school room, with 
modesty, embassadors and kings; the latter, though less honored, was much 
more proud of his glory. These were L'Abbe de Epee and L'Abbe Sicard. 
L'Abbe de Epee lived to pass his life as a river whose waters flow peacefully 
between the shores of happiness. The life of the Abbe Sicard was more 
stormy; he was violently snatched way by the Revolution from his adopted 
family; he was thrown into a dungeon, exiled. Such were the two men, the 
choice of God for the execution of His designs in favor of a class so long or- 
phaned. Without being aware of any of the efforts attempted before them, 
both took to the work with courage, and filled up in a few years the abyss 
which 5,000 years had hollowed out; they really created a new language for 
deaf mutes; moreover, the unfortunate mothers of these wretched beings whom 
Providence had visited so cruelly, believed that they had obtained everything; 
and pressing upon their disconsolate bosoms the infants who had not yet heard 
their dejected sighs, the parents mixed with their caresses a ray of hope, and 
had faith without temerity, that they would in time be consoled in the misfor- 
tune of their fertility. 

104 M. Henri Gents on 

How powerful are religion and society to preserve them, to support them, 
to stretch forth to them a generous hand ! To educate them is to win them 
for civilization; we may say more, for heaven. No other victory can be more 
beautiful, more noble and more durable. 

Let us continue, then, to gather these errant intellects, exiles and recluses 
even in the midst of society. They only notice the surfaces where they cannot 
be .reflected, no heart is able to understand them. It is only in the bosom of 
an institution as large in numbers and as flourishing as possible, that their spirit 
awakens and their heart fires itself, and that we succeed in restoring the spark 
of life, often slumbering under a cinder already cold and inactive. Let us 
hasten, then, to pour into the hearts of these unfortunates the fertile seeds of 

My personal opinion is that it is necessary to encourage the formation of 
Associations of Deaf Mutes wherever experience makes it necessary. 

The Chair: The discussion of the Social Status will close 
with a paper by Mr. Watzulik, representing the German section. 



[Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz.] 

" How are the deaf received in society ?" 

Intelligent deaf mutes are received without hesitation if certain conditions 
are complied with; but without exception they are given no voice or seat in any 
governing body. In society at large the intelligent deaf are certainly accorded 
the same reception as the hearing, but the less intelligent are ignored altogether 
and treated as inconvenient fellow-creatures. As a consequence they con- 
stantly seek solace in the company of the deaf or remain solitary. 

" To what extent do they mingle with the hearing ?" 

Answered above. 

" Are the adherents of any particular system (political?) favored, or have 
they any advantage over the adherents of any other systems ?" 

If this question relates to politics, I am in a position to say that of the great 
body of German deaf mutes about ten per cent, have some understanding of 
political questions, but their number is so small that they are incapable of ex- 
erting any appreciable influence upon public opinion. Very few of the deaf 
comprehend the spirit of the times, and conduct themselves liberally in the best 
sense of the word. No one is favored, not even he who is groping about in po- 
litical darkness. The great mass of the populace still regard the deaf as an 
insignificant appendage to society. 

"Are the deaf inclined to avoid society in general ?" 

Yes, provided they feel that they are slighted. But their own defective 
and incomplete education is the strongest reason why they shun society. 

If this is so, to what do you attribute the inclination and what is the rem- 
edy ? 

The only possible remedies are for the state to show greater interest in the 
deaf than heretofore; for the teachers to be more sympathetic; and for the 
trustees of all deaf mute associations to take steps to have delivered every 
Sunday, or every other week, popular lectures. A closer affiliation with society 
at large is absolutely necessary, if favorable results are to be obtained. In 
Germany two great movements are specially conspicuous; the movement in 
the interest of the military, and that in the interest of the church. Both these 
movements hinder the state doing more for the deaf than has been the case. 
Most teachers think they have done their duty when they have given their 
daily two or three hours of instruction. It never occurs to them to give lec- 
tures to pupils and graduates, with a view of making their entry into practical 
life less difficult, and of giving hints as to advantageous conduct in society. 

The next German rational deaf mute congress will undoubtedly exert 

106 Mr. A. M. Watzulik on 

itself in the direction indicated above to secure some amelioration in the lot of 
the deaf. 


There are very few among the deaf of Germany who, using their natural 
and acquired gifts to the utmost, are able to employ their talents in the most 
diverse directions. As citizens, these deaf mutes have won a most respectable 
position. Some are even known as heads of large industrial concerns. 

Others, who are only blessed with moderate capacity, can of course never 
go beyond the sphere of the ordinary citizen, and must remain subject to guar- 
dianship. This applies especially to those deaf mutes who belong to the labor- 
ing classes. 

But no deaf mute has risen so high as to hold, as citizen, seat and voice in 
some governing corporation. Therefore the only course left is to discuss pub- 
licly some burning question, or to arouse the attention of the public. But this 
has been very seldom done. 

But to secure at least some influence upon public opinion, the German 
deaf mutes have hit upon the happy plan of enforcing the necessary attention 
and consideration by means of petitions and articles addressed to high author- 
ities, parliaments and newspapers. 

Still, as long as the German deaf mutes have only a meager influence upon 
public opinion and the authorities, all such efforts are mostly unsuccessful. To 
open the way in this direction there was called into existence last year a Ger- 
man national deaf mute congress. And in fact the public has given some at- 
tention to the efforts; that is, the discussions of the congress. It is self-evident 
that the intelligent deaf are still active, and use every opportunity that offers 
to assert their rights as citizens in a manner still more marked. A not unim- 
portant factor in giving proper status to questions of citizenship are, without 
doubt, the lectures in associations and clubs. These are as yet a question of 
time. Much, therefore, yet remains to be done. 

Among hearing citizens themselves, intelligent deaf mutes are treated 
with respect and even some consideration; but still they meet very often with 
prejudice, so that most of them, in spite of their intelligence, have to contend 
with disheartening difficulties, and make but slow progress in the battle of life. 

The Chair: The programme, as scheduled for to-day, is 
completed, and we shall now adjourn till Thursday morning, when 
the second session will be opened at 9 o'clock. 


By 9 o'clock in the evening of Tuesday, July 20, a large num- 
ber of guests, who had been invited by the Pas-a-Pas Club of Chi- 
cago, had assembled in the observatory on the twenty-first floor of 
the Masonic Temple, in Chicago. After some short prelimina- 
ries, the company formed in procession and marched to the mag- 
nificent banquetting hall of the Temple, where covers were laid 
for four hundred. In addition to the flower of the American deaf 
world, there were present representatives from England, France, 
Ireland, Germany, Sweden and Canada — the common language of 
all on the occasion being that of signs. 

At each plate rested an engraved card, bearing the American 
emblem and a medalion of Columbus, and containing the 


Little Neck Clams. 

Consumme De L'Epee. 

Olives. Celery. Salted Almonds. 

Baked White Fish. Bechamel Sauce. 

Potato Croquettes. 
Sweet Breads a la Gallaudet. 
Asparagus. Kendall Green Sauce. 

Fillet of Beef a la Clerc. Mushrooms. 

World's Congress Punch. 

Broiled Spring Chicken Toast. French Peas. 

Lobster Salad a la British Empire. 

Parisienne Ice Cream. Assorted Cakes. 

Cheese. Bent's Crackers. 



Master of Ceremonies E. A. Hodgson. 

" From feast of tongue 

To feast of mind." 

The Pas-a-Pas Club, G. T. Dougherty. 

" Hands that the rod of empire might have swayed 

Here at our elbows stir the lemonade."- -Holmes. 

108 The Banquet. 

Pioneers and Benefactors, - - Henri Gaillard. 

" I am no orator, as Brutus is, but as you 

Know me all, a plain, blunt man." — Shakespeare. 
Our Foreign Brethren, - - Francis Maginn. 

" I know no north, no south, no east, no west." — Clay. 

Silent Brotherhood, . - - - ... A. G. Draper. 

" In faith and hope the world will disgrace, 

But all manhood's concern is charity." 

The Volapuk of the Deaf, - - - - G. W. Veditz. 

" And Thought leapt out to wed with Thought, 

Ere Thought could wed itself with Speech." — Tennyson. 

Our Schools and Colleges, - - E. M. Gallaudet. 

" That which they have done but earnest 

of the things that they shall do." — Scott. 

The Congress and American Association, - D. W. George. 

" Measures, not men, have always been my mark." — Mason, 

The Press, - J. L. Smith. 

The Press — The champion of individual rights, 
the mouthpiece of public opinion, the con- 
servator of national prosperity. 
The Ladies, A. L. Pach. 

" Without the smile from partial beauty won, 
O ! what were man — a world without a sun." — Campbell. 

Chicago's Pride, the Fair, R. P. McGregor. 

" Only the brave deserve the fair." 

"Goodnight! Goodnight! Parting is such sweet sorrow, 

That I shall say good night until it be good morrow." — Shakespeare. 

After the removal of the covers, Mr. Edwin A. Hodgson, the 
toastmaster, opened the speech making by reference to the cor- 
dial feeling existing between the deaf of all countries, and 
especially in America. He congratulated the people present 
upon the fact that the deaf education knows neither North and 
South nor East and West, and no matter from what section of the 
country the deaf hails he is nip-and-tuck with those present from 
the other parts. 

The toastmaster introduced George T. Dougherty, President 
of the Pas-a-Pas Club, who began by quoting: 

" Hands that round the empire might have swayed 
Here at our elbows stir their lemonade." 

Elaborating on the quotation, he maintained that club life pro- 
moted unity of purpose, maintenance of social intercourse, ad- 
vancement of mutual interest, and a conglomeration of all that 

The Banquet. 109 

tend to produce perfection, and helps to forward the reputation 
of the deaf as men and citizens, friends and helpers. 

Following in regular order, the other toasts were given and 
responded to in accordance with the programme; the flow of 
wit and eloquence continuing well into the early morning, when 
the gathering dispersed with a closing cheer for the Combined 
system of deaf mute education. 


Thursday, July 20, 1893. 

At ten minutes past nine o'clock, a. m., the large audience in 
attendance was called to order by President Dougherty, who in- 
vited Rev. Job Turner, of Virginia, to offer prayer. Upon its 
conclusion the regular programme of the day was opened. 

The President: We shall begin to-day's proceedings with 
the consideration of the question " Should the Deaf Marry the 
Deaf?" which will be opened with a paper by M. Jean Olivier, of 
Ajen, France. In his absence M. Genis will interpret it in signs. 



[Translated by Mr. T. F. Fox.] 

It is with the certainty of not being contradicted, that in replying yes to 
this question, I answer for the great majority of the deaf mute women of 

Yes, every deaf mute no matter of what country, condition or profession, 
able to support the happiness of a household and of a family, should, if he 
wishes to marry, seek in preference for a deaf mute woman agreeable to his 
affections, his character and his aspirations. 

To the present day in our fair France, but few have treated of this ques- 
tion, and it is not thought of, further than in some special statistics of 
professors of medicine, more or less worthy of notice. 

Ever since, for instance, the absurd error, that marriage between deaf 
mutes perpetuates their kind, has disappeared by degrees from among us, all 
those who incline to this feeling very often put themselves to trouble in seek- 
ing for that which comes to naught, save in the long run. 

This matter meets with much greater attention among male deaf mutes 
than among the female, and for a cause. 

It is in the instruction given to this end, instruction absolutely against na- 
ture, due the religeuses, who, throughout France, are almost their sole 

But how can we expect from these teachers, who, themselves, under a 
pretext of a vocation, to discuss at any length from without, on the subject 
unknown to them — the first of the duties that God has imposed upon man 

Should the Deaf Marry the Deaf. 1 1 1 

and woman? For them, earthly life is but the space of a night, after which 
they are. to rise to eternal day! With them the world is simply a side scene 
that leads to the realms of Satan! With them, moreover, beyond the refuge 
of single life, there is no salvation! 

Are they willing to instruct their pupils in other things which are a part of 
their proper life? No, much less to know their very beginning. Moreover, 
shall we dare to expect from them that which we desire, when they do not see 
that our sisters are weak creatures, useless to society? Indeed, far from dis- 
posing them to marry deaf mutes, they do all that is possible to give them an 
aversion for the only companions that God, in his all-powerful goodness, has 
reserved as our consolation in this world. 

It is also the outcome of this thoroughly mystic education, received by 
female deaf mutes in our establishments, that they are all devotion for the 
asylum, or to be closed up in the home of their parents, guarded from all deaf 
mute company, which they are led to dread as a serpent, and where they live 
and die in musty celibacy (moiseure celibatrice). 

Why, are there not here and there rich heiresses, young women with in- 
telligence and pleasing disposition, who would have made the supreme happi- 
ness of a household if they had been trained to that end? 

The war is already begun among us against these asylums, by the cham- 
pions of the young generation of silence. Some of them demand their radical 
suppression, others, less rigorous rules; it seems to me that the whole world will 
be in accord in obtaining simply a general reform and a rigorous survillance 
to begin in the first place with the instruction in the institutions, where we 
alike find the result and the cause. 

Many other obstacles present themselves to union between deaf mutes, 
especially among the poor: such as the lack of a good trade to assure a living; 
the difficulty of communication where isolation longs for company; the stupid 
prejudices of some parents, especially among the rich, who by usage are 
ashamed to marry their daughters or their sons to a poor workingman or work- 
ingwoman, no matter how intelligent or honorable they may be! 

Among French deaf mutes it is very rare to find cases of the transmission 
of deafness. I will even venture to affirm there are only two per cent., and 
still many are only from accidents common to all the world. In general, their 
children speak and hear, and, at the age when their like who hear and speak, 
can with difficulty stammer " papa," I have seen one of precocious intelligence 
express itself in signs to its mother, and I can affirm that all their children are 
of superior intelligence. 

In our country we see often enough, deaf men marrying hearing women, 
and hearing men marrying deaf women; in the first case the proportion does 
not exceed three per cent., and in the second two per cent. Still, such cases 
are nearly always exceptional, due to vicinity or from a common sympathy 
dating from childhood; but such alliances are means sought after on 
either side. 

The domestic life of deaf mute marriages, which are the result of a recip- 
rocal affection, glide along in touching harmony; while separations and 

112 M. Jean Olivier on 

divorces are not unknown among them, these are always only the result of a 
marriage of convenience; that is especially noticeable in mixed marriages. 

In the large cities marriage is easier for deaf mutes than in the rest of 
France, because there are greater numbers; they can meet oftener and learn 
each other's character, while those in the rest of the provinces find themselves 
considerably scattered about, and their meeting often depends on chance. 

Without wishing to force my opinions on that difficult and delicate ques- 
tion of the marriage of the deaf to the deaf, I would repeat that when each 
may be free to follow the sole inspiration of the heart, the opinion dominant 
in France is that all deaf mutes, whose position in means or whose moral and 
social situation permits them the happiness of a family, should, in preference, 
set his eyes on a deaf mute agreeable to his heart's desires; that only, in my 
opinion, will be real happiness when they give themselves to one another 
sincerely and without reservation. 

I do not wish to close without pointing out the erroneous theories of Prof. 
Bell; who would have a law passed preventing marriages between deaf mutes 
in order to prevent the creation of a race of deaf mutes. Nothing exist* to 
sustain the unrivalled fancies of such pretended savants, neither experience 
nor conclusive official statistics, while for us, the examples which we daily show 
them is the best possible contradiction. 

One word more; if it is permitted for me to offer a suggestion that in 
France, and in countries which find themselves in the same condition, it would 
be desirable to see the creation of secondary establishments for deaf mutes, 
where they may perfect their training and become familiar with the exigencies 
of modern life, towards which people everywhere are becoming inclined to pre- 
pare them, since up to this time, those who leave our institutions — leaving be- 
tween the ages of fourteen and eighteen years — have under the arm a cate- 
chism and a first year's history, as though these weapons were sufficient to pro- 
vide bread for the rest of their lives. 

The President: Mr. George, the representative of the Amer- 
ican section, will deliver the next paper, and, by request, Mr. Fox 
will read it orally. 



The great majority of the deaf answer this question in the affirmative. The 
large number of intermarriages among them speaks their sentiments in no un- 
certain tone. Latterly philosphers under the lead of Dr. Alexander Graham 
Bell, have questioned the wisdom of this predilection on the ground that there 
is a strong tendency in the deaf to transmit their deafness to their offspring, 
which, if unchecked, would result in a deaf variety of the human race. 

A small percentage of the children of deaf parents do inherit deafness; 
the cases are confined chiefly to the children of parents who were born deaf, 

Should the Deaf Marry the Deaf. 1 1 3 

and to families in which there is a general run of deafness. The deaf get 
enough observation of the results of marriages between the deaf to forecast 
to their own satisfaction the probable results of their own marriage. They ob- 
serve that the children of deaf parents, with very rare exceptions, are all able 
to hear and speak. In schools where large numbers of them are congregated 
they think it worthy of remark for the parents of one of their number to be 
deaf, while for two, three or four to have the same hearing parents is held 
to be comparatively common. There is in the Illinois Institution a whole fam- 
ily of three children, and another whole family of four, all of whom were born 
deaf. Their parents all hear perfectly, and were not related before marriage 
and they never had a single hearing child. Cases can readily be found in 
which deaf persons have married hearing persons and still have had deaf chil- 
dren. From this we infer that marrying hearing persons is no absolute safe- 
guard against the inheritance of deafness. Indeed it might be argued that if 
the tendency of the deaf to transmit deafness is so strong as some would have 
us believe, it were better for two deaf persons to marry each other and have 
one deaf child, than for them to marry two hearing persons and have two deaf 

The deaf have no more desire to see their children deaf than hearing par- 
ents, but should any of them happen to have a deaf child, they would know 
what to do with him. They would know where to find those schools which 
furnish that training of the head, the hand and the heart which will elevate 
them to a condition that is even better than that of the uneducated hearing 

But the question of the greatest importance to young people wishing to 
marry is whether they can live together happily and contentedly. When we 
look at the enormous number of divorces, desertions, separations and wife- 
beatings which occur among hearing people, we are appalled; but how many 
deaf people figure in these melancholy proceedings? To our credit be it said 
very, very few. If the deaf prefer to marry the deaf why should anybody in- 
terfere and force them to take their chances with the hearing when their deaf- 
ness is already standing as a wall of separation between them? The happiest 
pair will find in time that a change will come over love's young dream, and 
the cooings of courtship will give way to the mutterings of domestic strife. 
How will the wedded pair which heeds not the scriptural injunction, " Be ye 
not unequally yoked together," withstand the storm? 

Who will deny that, other things being equal, the hearing has a decided 
advantage over the deaf? Why will not the hearing person who marries the 
deaf, seek some compensating circumstance in the deaf to even up the inequal- 
ity? What will the deaf not have to sacrifice? While the advantage of the 
hearing person can be turned to the benefit of the deaf, it can just as readily 
be turned to his injury. 

Hearing persons are exceedingly hard to find who will not incline more to 
converse with hearing persons than with the deaf. This is true whether the latter 
be only hard of hearing or whether he be able to converse by means of speech, 
lip-reading, signs, finger-spelling or writing. This is true of the parents, broth- 

114 Mr. D. W. George on 

ers, sisters, the most intimate friends and even the hearing children of the 
deaf. This does not proceed from any lack of affection for the deaf on their 
part, for they minister to their physical wants in a thousand little ways. It is 
simply in obedience to an inexorable law of human nature which impels men 
to prefer that conversation which can be carried on with the least hindrance. 
This may be the explanation, but it does not fail to wound the feelings of the 
deaf, it reminds him of his deafness, it makes him long for something better. 
He knows that he is more than an animal that eats and drinks and sleeps. He 
longs for that communion of soul with soul so dear to the spiritual nature of 
man. Nowhere does he find this satisfaction so full and free as among those 
who are also deaf. As the hearing prefer speech as the easiest mode of com- 
munication for them, so the deaf prefer signs as the easiest for them. As the 
deaf are drawn together by natural laws the next and most natural thing for 
them is to marry one another. If they cannot get the full sympathy, that full com- 
munion from their own parents and children which their spiritual natures crave, 
why should they expect it from a hearing partner in the joys and sorrows of 

It is far from easy to find hearing persons willing to marry the deaf who 
are not their inferiors morally, socially or intellectually, or who do not seek the 
alliance from other motives than the love that is so dear to the human heart. 

It must be said, however, that some of the deaf have succeeded in finding 
hearing partners worthy of them and with whom they have lived happily and 
contentedly, but there is no lack of those who have awakened from dreams of 
wedded bliss to find themselves deserted or left lonely figureheads in the 
family, sitting in a corner pondering over " what might have been." 
"Es niochte kein Hund so /anger leben /" 

If the deaf should happen to grow tired of each other, it would not be so 
easy for them as for hea*ing persons to ignore their partners and look for social 
enjoyment in the company of neighbors. They are not so exposed to the tempta- 
tion to rush to the divorce court or to resort to desertion as a remedy for the 
ills of domestic life. Their common affliction draws them closer together. They 
feel more assured of each other's love. 

The conclusion of the whole matter is that no valid reason exists why the 
deaf should not marry the deaf if they prefer to do so. As between marrying 
the hearing and the deaf the matter can safely be left to the choice of the indi- 
vidual. Judging from the records the deaf seem to be more circumspect in 
making their choice than the average hearing couple. Hearing people marry 
whom they love best and the deaf are entitled to the same privilege. If the 
deaf love the deaf the best, why let them marry and be happy. The affection 
which the deaf almost universally have for one another is undoubtedly the 
work of God. " What therefore God hath joined together let not man put 

The President: Mr. George has favored us with an excellent 

paper. I shall ask him to further honor us by taking the chair. 

Mr. George: I have already occupied your time long enough 

Should the Deaf Marry the Deaf. 115 

and so shall proceed at once to business. The paper now in order 
is on " The Royal Association of the Deaf and its Work." As its 
author, Mr. Thomas Davidson, is unavoidably absent, it will be 
read orally by Mr. Frank Read, Jr., and translated into signs by 
Mr. Odebrecht. 


Gentlemen: It is necessary, in relating the outcome of the Royal Associ- 
ation in the aid of the deaf and dumb in London, to mention the precedent 
societies from which the association sprung. The first positively known society 
for the deaf and dumb in London was that which, commencing with regular 
services, was started under Mr. Geo. Crouch, Aldersgate street, City, in the 
year 1842. After several changes, and under various nominations, it at length 
settled under Mr. Matthew Burns in 1844, in Red Lion Square, called "The 
London Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Deaf and Dumb," 
where the management was entirely vested in a deaf mute committee; Mr. 
Burns being both honorary secretary and Biblical instructor, with Mr. John Jen- 
ning as his assistant. The society, being almost self-dependent and with but 
little public help or support, had no permanent situation, for in 1855 it had to 
move to Shaftesbury Hall, and in the end was amalgamated with the Royal 
Association a few years before the death of Mr. Burns in 1879, t0 whose affec- 
tionate memory a marble tablet has been placed in St. Saviour's church. Al- 
though Mr. J. Jenning continued for sometime to have congregation and an 
identical society of his own on the other side of the river Thames, these came 
also to an end at his death. Meanwhile, in 1854, the organization, now the 
present Royal Association, was established quite independently of the above 
societies, at Fitzroy Hall and then in the Polytechnic Institute, Regent street. 
This society proceeded by leading deaf gentlemen, namely, Messrs. D. Baker, 
C. Hazzard, Barry and others, in committee of management, and to which soon 
was afterwards introduced Mr. Arthur H. Bather, ofthe Admirality in 1856, and 
who eventually, in 1865, became its most inestimable honorary secretary, which 
he remained till his untimely death last year. He, Mr. Bather, proved to be the 
mainstay and was mainly instrumental in the foundation and maintenance of 
the Royal Association, which is, in reality, a standing memorial of his work. 
By his aid the public, including Lord Ebury, was brought to support and de- 
velope the work into a Church of England institute, with regular services on 
the finger and sign manipulations. Fortunately for the Association, a hearing 
missionary, Mr. Samuel Smith, was appointed in 1855, and proved so fitting for 
the work that he was sent to attend lectures at King's Gollege, and in the end 
was ordained by Dr. Tait, the Bishop of London, being thus the first es- 
pecially ordained minister for the deaf and dumb in England. By his advice 
subscriptions were appealed for building a church, and through the efforts of 
Lord Ebury the Duke of Westminster was also brought to take an interest in 
these affairs, and with great generosity presented a fine site (lasting sixty 

Association in Aid of the Deaf and Dumb in London. 117 

years) for the present church, lecture hall and adjoining vicarage in Oxford 
street. The foundation took place with great eclat in 1870 by the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, and was opened in 1873 with its senior chaplain, Rev. S. 
Smith, in residence, who remained till his death in 1883. The Association hav- 
ing now, with her Majesty's permission and patronage, affixed the title of "Roy- 
al," grew, prospered and extended its influence all over the metropolis, by 
planting six mission rooms and another church in various districts; augmented 
its clergy and missionaries — in person as follows: Firstly, Rev. \V. Stainer, 
who subsequently left for the Board schools, but since returned to act for Sun- 
day services; Rev. W. Sturdee, who was delegated for the South of London, 
and planted that other church of St. Barnabus at Deptford, but who has lately 
resigned and left the Association; Rev. C. Rhind, who succeeded Rev. S. 
Smith, and was himself succeeded at his death in 1888, by Rev. F. \V. G. Gil- 
by, who was ordained to become the chaplain with Rev. D. \V. Stainer, as sen- 
ior, in regard to age and previous service, although not fully affiliated in the 
association's service, which is to be regretted considering how few there are 
like Rev. W. Stainer's unequalled eloquence in the finger and sign manual, 
and in which the late Rev. S. Smith, for a hearing man, had come to such an 
unprecedent perfection and excellence. Mr. Raper is the forthcoming new 
minister to fill Mr. Sturdee's place. The Association had and has two valuable 
deaf missionaries in the persons of the late Mr. J. North, so long in its service 
and highly respected by all who knew him, and who died last year; Mr. J. P. 
Gloyn, an indefatigable and faithful worker, also long in the service, and hav- 
ing served long in the previous society under Mr. Burns; Mr. H. Broom, a hear- 
ing Sunday teacher who occasionally officiates at religious services and lectures. 
Besides all these officials there are and always have been some deaf assistant 
readers, such as the clergy and missionaries could recommend, in request, 
Messrs. Argent, Ayshford, Hersee, J. Gilby and others; and, lastly, it has lady 
visitors, the Misses Rhind, Cole and Manghan, without whose assistance the 
staff would not be satisfactorily filled. A proper work-seeker, also, has been 
recently appointed, and so, in conclusion, the various vocations for the Asso- 
ciation's purposes are nearly completed, and are sufficient for its high and 
noble avocation. The church of St. Saviours is a handsome building and a 
worthy monument of the first clergyman, Rev. S. Smith; and memorials to both 
these founders, Mr. Bather and Mr. Smith, are being prepared for placing 
within its sacred interior. 

Now with regard to the work of the Association, this essentially is the pro- 
viding of religious and secular instruction by the means of services and lec- 
tures, but it is also the visiting of the poor and sick deaf and dumb at their own 
homes, and although not much of a benevolent society, it does in a small way 
relieve such deaf as are deserving by gifts and loans of money. And lastly, 
this work consists of the buying of apprenticeships in part, and the encourage- 
ment of the early training of deaf and dumb children, preparatory to their ad- 
mission into educational institutions. Besides the services and lectures, the 
Association countenances many recreations among the deaf themselves, under 
its auspices; such as the gymnasium, introduced by Rev. F. W. Gilby; reading 

n8 Mr. Thomas Davidson on the Work of the Royal 

and chess clubs; debating society, and other amusements, including annual tea 
meetings, occasional soirees and excursions, all of which add so much to their 
happiness and welfare. I joined the committee in 1877, and although there are 
unfortunately few deaf members in the committee now in comparison to the 
large number of hearing members, the management, as regards the knowledge 
and needs of the community, is fairly brought within their cogitation. But if 
it were wished, I should prefer to see more of the deaf gentlemen of the edu- 
cated class brought in, as really only from such a body the real sentiments and 
the closest aspect of the wants and needs could be best understood in the com- 
mittee. As it is, the hearing portion have to rely on the reports of the clergy- 
men and missionaries. It is a drawback that there is at present no forthcom- 
ing deaf gentlemen who, having successfully passed university examination for 
ordination, could become clergymen always in readiness, and enabled by this 
means to come closer and in more intimate communication with the deaf than 
would be possible for any hearing minister to do. 

There have been complaints from the deaf against the Association providing 
sinecures chiefly for the hearing and for having only two deaf missionaries in 
its service, and now there is only one, W. Gloyn. This excluding the deaf 
from positions is, in my opinion, altogether a mistake, and has been the cause 
of some deaf communities leaving and forming into separate associations, such 
as the Plymouth Brethren and other identical formations from time to time, 
thus drawing away a great number and decreasing the attendance at the relig- 
ious services. If this Association had not the protection and support of the 
public, and its long list of annual subscriptions, it would have fallen through 
simply by this shutting out, by which it offended the aspirations of many devout 
and willing deaf wishing to become its missionaries and serving the association 
themselves. Although the hearing clergy and officials are of the utmost 
necessity for speaking, hearing and interpreting, they cannot get hold of their 
congregation to the extent that a deaf minister would, so there should be some- 
thing like an equal division. Gentlemen, you might ask me why the other 
precedent societies, mainly supported and composed of the, deaf, came to an 
end? The answer is that they failed from want of public support which the 
Royal Association has so auspiciously gained, and which I devoutly hope will 
retain for years. 

The Royal Association has a very able and valuable secretary, too,in the 
person of W. Thos. Cole, who had tuition under the late Rev. S. Smith, whose 
assistant he was when W. Smith was also secretary; and I am happy to state 
that \V. S. Bright Lucas was appointed honorary secretary conjointly with 
Canon Mansfield Owen. It is very difficult to hold together the deaf and dumb 
who, naturally enough considering their struggles in this hard world, are in- 
clined to be discontented and fault-finding; but on the whole I feel that the 
Royal Association is bestowing real benefit and consolation over all, and de- 
serves to be acknowledged in your distinguished congress with hearty praise 
and congratulations on its work, growth and prosperity. It is not equaled by 
other societies with similar object in any part of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

Our Duty Toward the Deaf. 1 19 

The Chair: There is a gentleman among us who, though not 
deaf, has done much good work among the deaf. I feel sure that 
you will be pleased to have a few words from the gentleman. I 
now introduce Father Lebreton. 

Rev. Father Lebreton: 


1. The deaf have been well instructed, and since Father De L'Epee 
smarted his work, many institutions have been erected in which good instruc- 
tion and a good training can be secured for them, thus giving them a chance 
to earn a decent living. 

2. The deaf is no longer an outcast, but a fellow-citizen, just as well as we 
are ourselves, and it is indeed very sad to hear yet, from time to time, calum- 
nies against the moral chacacter of the deaf. I know by my own experience 
that they are devoted and true. 

3. Society is not only obliged to take care of its deaf, by giving them a 
good education, but to see that their conscience be well trained and well 
formed. This is not only the work of the Institution but of the mission. Every 
parent has a perfect and sacred right to have their children brought up in the 
belief of their forefathers. Of course, the State Institution is undenominational, 
but the mission will help the Institution. This was fully realized by Mr. Crou- 
ter, of Philadelphia, and both Protestant and Catholic ministers acted in per- 
fect harmony. 

Therefore the mission should be helped, and wherever there is an institu- 
tion, the missionary should also be, as the best help. The fear of God is the 
beginning of wisdom. This fear alone should therefore be our motto. 

The Chair: We shall proceed to a consideration of " Pen- 
sions for Aged and Infirm Deaf and Dumb." The author, Mr. S. 
Bright Lucas, of London, is not present, so I shall rely on Father 
Lebreton to read it orally, and Mr. Odebrecht to translate it into 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

At no time was the system of life insurance more popular than it is at pres- 
ent. It has become a recognized maxim that to make no certain provision 
against the ravages of time and the snares of misfortune is to unduly provoke 
the worst mood of fate; and since, taking into regard the uncertainty of em- 
ployment, a considerable portion of the deaf and dumb population will never 
be able to lay by sufficient to maintain themselves in their old age, it has be- 
come essential to devise some means which will keep them from the work- 
houses when they grow too old an d infirm to earn the necessaries of life by 
their own physical exertions. Statesmen time and again have urged the im- 
portance of the establishment of a system of national insurance; little, how- 
ever, has been done toward effecting this object, and it has been left to one or 
two societies to attempt to provide some remedy for the semi-starvation which, 
as civilization is at present based, must always confront great numbers of peo- 
ple. It may be argued that the numerous insurance companies afford the 
means whereby the wolf may be kept from the door during old age. I readily 
grant that this may be the case with those in regular and adequately remuner- 
ative employment, but of those constituting this class it is not within my prov- 
ince here to speak. In this paper I shall deal only with the deaf and dumb, 
and I maintain that not only are hundreds of those who have lost the powers of 
speech and hearing unable to put aside money for use in the autumn of their 
lives, but I emphatically state that they experience all the world over intolera- 
ble difficulty in obtaining employment, even in their young and vigorous days. 
It was fifty-six years ago that one or two gentlemen, actuated by motives which 
will ever keep fresh the memory of their names in the minds of the deaf now 
and hereafter, resolved to use their efforts toward bettering the unfortunate 
condition in which the deaf and dumb were then placed. The result of this 
movement was the foundation some fifty-six years ago, by Messrs. Hamilton, 
Lowe and a few other gentlemen, of the Charitable and Provident Society, for 
granting pensions to the aged and infirm deaf and dumb. This society is still 
in existence, the management consisting of seven deaf and dumb and five 
hearing gentlemen. It will not appear egotistical on my part, I hope, if I say 
that I believe it is impossible to estimate in a few words the great benefit this 
society has proved to the poor deaf and dumb. Impartial, honest, unsectarian, 
the object of the society is to render pecuniary assistance to those members of 
the deaf and dumb community who are unable to keep body and soul together 
by their own endeavors. The scope of the society is necessarily limited, for 
its funds, though steadily increasing, are not great; but the committee, never- 

Pensions for Aged atid Infirm Deaf and Dicmb. 1 2 1 

theless, have on their books thirty persons to whom they allow pensions of £6 
each per annum. This list is augmented year by year as the exchequer of the 
society admits. It must not be thought, however, that the society is one which 
subsists entirely on the generosity of the general public, for this is not the case. 
An unwritten maxim of the society is that the deaf should strive to help them- 
selves, and with this end in view, together with a desire to promote thrift 
amongst the deaf, a strong appeal is made to the deaf and dumb, poor as well 
as rich, to contribute to the funds. The response and manifestations of sym- 
pathy are fairly satisfactory, and will become more so when it is clearly under- 
stood that the contributor who, through enfeebled health or other cause, is pre- 
cluded from pursuing his vocation, with the result that he sinks into poverty, 
will take precedence over a non-contributor in the considerations of the society. 
But on the other hand, I would state that it is not a sine qua non for applicants 
for pensions to have been at one period of their lives large contributors to the 
society. We do not expect that, for we well know the monetary difficulties 
under which, through force of circumstances, many of our deaf and dumb 
brethren almost chronically suffer. Those who can afford a few shillings a 
year are urged to support an association supported solely for their welfare; the 
cases of those in need of pensions who, through poverty, have been unable to 
be contributors to the society, are investigated and duly decided on their 
merits; and it is a rare instance, indeed, when there are sufficient funds at our 
disposal, that the name of the applicant is not added to the list of pensioners. 
In discussing the claims of the deaf for assistance, it is necessary in these days 
to recognize the scarcity of work. No matter how much we may and do look 
forward to the time when the deaf and dumb will compete with equal facility 
with men in possession of their powers of. hearing and speaking, there is no 
denying that the deaf at this moment are placed at an appalling disadvantage 
when battling for existence with hearing men. The physically weak will 
always go to the wall until some ameliorations in the consciences of large 
employers of labor is effected. At present a deaf and dumb person, no matter 
how expert and industrious a workman he may be, no matter how hard he 
strives, frequently finds himself, even in trie m'dst of vacancies waiting to be 
filled, totally debarred from obtaining any employment, simply through the 
rooted, stupid and uncharitable objection that exists in some quarters to em- 
ploying deaf people, and thereby having to be responsible for the safety of 
their person. We have to fight all this soulless obstinacy, all the fallacies, all 
the petty jealousies that have descended to us from a past age. And if we 
cannot provide a remedy, if we have no means of immediately eradicating what 
is a serious blot on our civilization, we can at least render the burdens— that is 
to say, the load that well nigh breaks the back of many a deaf and dumb man 
—a little less crushing. The object, then, of the Charitable and Provident 
Society for the Deaf and Dumb is to help those who cannot help themselves. 
It is a kind of life insurance company, with the difference that it demands no 

The Chair: A few lines on this subject have been sent by- 
Mr. Weiner, of Norway, and will be filed. 




It is already stated that the Society of Christiania have in their possession 
a legacy amounting to $1,600 the yieldings of which are to be granted as pen- 
sions to old and infirm deaf men and women. Until the fund reaches 
the amount of $6,000, the greater part of the interest is to be added to 
the principal. Besides in special cases, the Society grants aid out of their 
own means, as far as these will allow. The efforts for coming to the aid of 
helpless deaf are, however, still in their outset, and the Society is busy in col- 
lecting means for a general assistance fund. 

The Chair: " Trades and Occupations" is now in order. The 
first paper will be by Mr. Smith, who will deliver it in signs while 
Prof. Draper reads it orally. 




Utility is the test of value. The manufactured article cannot be judged 
by its appearance in the show window. It must be put to the test of practical 
use, and thus only can its value and the reputation of the manufacturer be es- 

The same principle applies to education. The graduates of schools and 
colleges are not to be rated according to their oration on commencement day 
or the diplomas they receive. To correctly gauge their ability we must follow 
them in their after career, and observe how they act their part in the drama of 

Therefore when we wish to pass judgment as to the excellence of the Am- 
erican system of teaching the deaf, it is not to the schools themselves that we 
must look, but the graduates that have gone forth from their doors. 

It is. but three-quarters of a century since the first school for the deaf was 
Established in America. During those years some 25,000 deaf persons have 
received instruction, deducting those still at school. What has become of 
these 25,000? How have they borne themselves as members of the commun- 
ity and citizens of the commonwealth? What return have they made to the 

Trades a?id Occupations of the Deaf ih America. 


State for its care of them? These are questions that we must answer in order 
to best demonstrate the utility of educating the deaf at the public expense. 

From whatever standpoint we look at the matter, the result cannot but be 
gratifying to every friend of the deaf. Even a superficial study of the subject 
will bring out an array of facts that may well fill us with proud satisfaction. 

In order to better fit the deaf for their unequal struggle in the busy world, 
the early educators established industrial education in connection with the in- 
tellectual. In the schools of the United States and Canada today, the pupils 
receive instruction in the following trades and occupations. (See Annals, Jan., 


Art. Embroidery. 

Baking. Engineering. 

Basket-making. Farming. 

Blacksmithing. Floriculture. 

Bookbinding. Gardening. 

Broommaking. Glazing. 

Cabinetmaking. Housework. 

Carpentry. Knitting. 

Chairmaking. Mattress-making. 

Cooking. Moulding. 

Clay modeling. Machine work. 

Coopery. Painting. 

China painting. Plate engraving. 

Dressmaking. Photography. 

The list numbers forty-two. In selecting these trades preference has 
been given to such as are considered best adapted to the deaf, and as other 
circumstances permitted. From an educational point of view hearing is the 
most important of senses. It is natural, therefore, to consider that deafness 
greatly restricts one in the choice of an occupation. The field is further limited 
by lack of facilities. State legislatures are not always so generous as we could 
wish, and boards of directors are not always complaisant. 

Thus the deaf, while at school, have offered them those forty-two occu- 
pations to choose from. Nature, by depriving them of the sense of hearing, 
and man, by withholding more liberal advantages, seem to have erected a bar- 
rier about the deaf that declares: 

" Hitherto shalt thou come; but no further." 

And how have they acquiesced in this seeming restriction? Do they ac- 
cept it as their fate? NO. Rising superior to their misfortunes, with the 
spirit that animates the soldier fighting against heavy odds, they have cast 
aside the barrier and have reached out on all sides, invading fields of industry 
where one would hardly expect to find them. 

Complete statistics of the various occupations followed by the educated 
deaf have not been obtained, but sufficient are given to demonstrate their abil- 
ity to cope successfully in the world with their hearing brothers. As an offset 
to the forty-two trades and occupations taught at school, there is here pre- 













Wood working. 

Use of tools. 


Mr. J. L. Smith on 

sented a list of 253 pursued by the deaf in real life. Instead of giving the 
name of the trade or occupation, one representative of each is selected. 


Architect's draughtsman. 




Boiler maker. 


Brick maker. 

Book binder. 

Boss engraver. 

Baby carriage maker. 


Book agent. 


Book packer. 

Basket maker. 

Belt maker. 



Boat builder. 

Brass moulder. 

Brass worker. 




Book stitcher. 

Bank clerk. 

Contractor and builder. 

•Cutter (men's clothing). 



Coal weigher at mine. 


Cotton planter. 

Corset maker. 




Deputy recorder. 

Dealer in fancy paper. 

Drug clerk. 








Box maker. 


Clerk in City Government. 

Clerk in manufactory. 

County clerk. 



Cabinet maker. 

Cook and confetioner. 

Cane seater. 

Car carpenter. 

Carriage maker. 

Coal miner. 

Contractor's clerk. 

Commission house clerk. 

Cloth sponger. 


Chair maker. 

Clock maker. 

Clock case maker. 


Cutter in shoe shop. 


Carriage painter. 

Cartridge maker. 

Casket maker. 

College professor. 

City Treasurer. 

Dancing master. 

Editor and publisher daily paper. 

Editor weekly paper. 

Editorial writer. 



Electrical instrument maker. 

Enameler of jewelry. 


Expert in finishing lenses. 



Trades and Occupations of the Deaf in America. 


Farm laborer. 

Fruit grower. 


Foreman in printing office. 

Foreman in shoe factory. 


Furniture varnisher. 



Foreman in warehouse. 

Flour sacker. 

Furniture dealer. 

Glass stainer. 


Gold Rouger. 

Hardwood finisher. 


Horse dealer. 

Insurance agent. 

Insurance clerk. 


Iron piler. 

Ice dealer. 

Ivory carver. 




Justice of the Peace. 

Kitchen man. 





Leather goods worker. 


Last maker. 

Lime deliverer. 


Lithograph press feeder. 

Lamp trimmer. 




Poultry raiser. 

Proprietor and manager of nurseries. 

Proprietor of job printing office. 

Fruit seller. 

Gold miner. 

Grocery clerk. 


Glass cutter. 


Gymnasium instructor. 


Government clerk. 


House and sign painter. 



Hair braider. 



Matron of school. 

Merchant (dry goods). 


Merchant tailor. 


Mill hand. 


Marble bed rubber. 




Monument sculptor. 


Mail carrier. 

Mercantile clerk. 

Nut cutter. 

Nail sorter. 

Nail maker. 

Notary public. 

Oil pumper. 

Organ case maker. 


Orange grower. 



Postal clerk. 


Real estate dealer. 

Rattan worker. 


Mr. J. L. Smith on 

Pattern maker. 

Pad maker. 



Pants maker. 

Paper mill packer. 

Piano polisher. 

Pail maker. 

Paper ruler. 

Patent lawyer. 


Picture frame worker. 

Plow maker. 

Pocket book maker. 



Piano maker. 


Saw mill owner and operator. 

Sash and blind maker. 

Shoe dealer. 

Shuttle maker. 

Spool turner. 

Stair builder. 

Stone cutter. 


State botanist. 

Shipping clerk. 

Stock raiser. 

Silver polisher. 


Tabacco handler. 

Tobacco manufacturer. 

Wood sorter. 

Wood engraver. 

Railroad employee. 


Rubber stamp maker. 

Rule maker. 


Rope maker. 

Superintendent of schools. 

Supervisor of schools. 

Saw mill employee. 



Salve manufacturer. 

Sugar maker. 

Shirt cutter. 

Silk weaver. 

Silver chaser. 

Starter on horse car line. 


Steamboat clerk. 



Trunk maker. 



Tool maker. 


Upholsterer and decorator. 



Wood turner. 

Wood carver. 




Wire drawer. 


Complete and accurate returns from all parts of the country would no 
doubt increase this list to 300, or even more. Farming leads all other occupa- 
tions in the number of its adherents. Following this comes shoemaking (in- 
cluding factory work), carpentering and cabinet making, and printing. The 
other occupations have fewer followers. 

What stronger commentary than this list is needed as to the ability of the 
deaf to act well their part in the world, if they are only giv^n the birthright of 
every American child — a free education? Cast your eye over the long array 
of 253 occupations pursued by the deaf people of America! Literature, sci- 
ence, art, religion, education, law, finance, manufacture, — all have their repre- 

Trades and Oceupatians of the Deaf in America. 127 

sentatives among the deaf. The United States Supreme Court opens its doors 
to one, the Paris Salon to another; we find some molding popular opinion with 
the editorial pen, or occupying positions of public trust, to which they were 
elected by their fellow-citizens. Some have attained eminence as specialists in 
various branches of science. Others, by merit alone, have arisen to the posi- 
tions of foremen in departments of manufactures, while hundreds are highly 
valued as master workmen in various handicrafts. They render allegiance to 
King Coal in the Alleghenies, to King Cotton in the Sunny South land; to King 
Corn in the fertile central section; they round up their herds on the Great 
Plains, their axe is heard in the pineries, and in the El Dorado of the West 
.they penetrate the bosom of Mother Earth for treasures of gold and silver. 

From every hand comes the testimony that in the industrial world the deaf 
stand shoulder to shoulder with their hearing brothers, receiving equal com- 
pensation and equal consideration. Nay, in many cases their services are 
rated at a special value. 

Comment has sometimes been made that so many of the deaf fail to follow 
the trade learned at school, and the fact is used to cast reproach upon the effi- 
ciency of the industrial training there given. Is there room for any other 
feeling than pride that the deaf, limited by education to the choice of forty- 
three occupations, have worked their way, by force of character and determi- 
nation, into 253? So far from feeling any shame, our schools have every 
reason to glory in the fact that while they have been able to offer so little in a 
material way, they have imparted to their pupils the spirit and character to 
achieve much for themselves. And just there is where the great utility of our 
American system comes in. The lessons learned in the school room and the 
shop are of less importance to the child's future than the spirit of progress, of 
application, of industry, that is instilled in the pupils by the very atmosphere of 
the school— the spirit that led one young man, of very shoulder 
saw and sawbuck and earn his living thus, rather than be a burden upon his 
friends or the community. All honor to him ! We are proud of those among us who 
have gained distinction in the higher walks of life. But fully as worthy are 
they who, with but one talent, have improved it to the utmost, and have at- 
tained an honorable, though humble position in the ranks of the vast army of 
bread winners. One would have to seek far to find an educated deaf person in 
a prison or an almshouse. No class of the community can to-day show greater 
evidences of progress than the deaf, none are more industrious, none more 
self-respecting and independent, and none put into practice to a greater ex- 
tent the Master's command, 

" Bear ye one another's burdens." 

The Congress of the Deaf that to-day occupies so conspicuous a place be- 
fore the eyes of the world, has well earned the distinction which it is accorded. 
As a class and as individuals we have every reason to be proud of our achieve- 
ments. Not the pride of arrogance, but the honest pride of those who, heavily 
handicapped by nature, and still further by popular skepticism and popular 
misconception, have vindicated their manhood and won recognition in all 
paths of useful industry. 

128 Mr. J. L. Smith on 

But the best has not yet been attained. The future, eloquent with promise, 
lies before us. The onward progress of our western civilization will ever open 
new fields of industry. Fresh triumphs, nobler achievements await us. Let 
this gathering, this interchange of thought and sentiment, yonder grand exhi- 
bition of the world's best in mind and matter, be an inspiration to us to dim 
the lustre of the past and present by the brighter glory of our future. Men my 
brothers, men the workers, 

Ever reaping something new; 
That which they have done but earnest 
Of the thing that they shall do. 
The Chair : The views of our English cousins on this sub- 
ject have been presented in a paper by Mr. Charles Bromhead, of 
Lincoln, England. To this is annexed an exhaustive review of 
the subject from a British standpoint by those famous teachers 
Dr. Buxton, of Manchester, and Rev. Dr. Stainer, of London. 
Unfortunately time presses and we shall be obliged to content 
ourselves with reading the papers in the proceedings. I shall 
call now upon M. Henri Gaillard to speak for the French section. 



I regret that owing to the reports of the census taken in 1891 in Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland referring to the occupations not yet being published, I am not 
able to give the occupations of the deaf taken in 1891; but I append a set of 
tables reprinted from ths Census (1881) Reports for England, Scotland and 
Ireland, which I have extracted from the Appendix to Ihe Report of the Royal 
Commissioners on the Blind, the Deaf and Dumb, etc., published in 1889. ^ n 
England and Wales the greatest numbers in any one occupation were : 

Agricultural Laborers, Farm Servants, Cottagers 482 

Shoe, Bootmakers, Dealers 526 

Milliners, Dressmakers, Stay Makers 558 

Tailors 419 

General Laborers 368 

Cotton, Cotton Goods Manufacturers 191 

Carpenters, Joiners 137 

The persons returned by property, rank, etc., and not by special occupa- 
tion, including all children under five years of age, amounted to 3,230 males 
and 4,408 females. 

The occupations for which deaf-mutes show preference, or which they find 
most suitable to their condition, are naturally such as can be followed by indi- 
viduals independently, and do not require frequent communication with their 
fellow workers. Agricultural or general labor, shoemaking and tailoring, are 
the chief occupations of the men, while dressmaking and sewing, dQmestic ser- 
vice and charing, washing and, in Lancashire, work in cotton mills, form the 
main occupations of the women. 

In Scotland the occupations with the largest numbers were : 

Tailors 95 

Milliners, Dressmakers, Stay makers (all females) 76 

Shoe, Bootmakers, Dealers (all males) 67 

General Laborers 73 

Persons returned by Property; Rank, etc, or of no Occupation, 91 males; 
370 females. 

In Ireland the largest numbers were : 

Boot and Shoemakers , 105 

Farmers 284 

Laborers 501 

Seamstresses and Shirt makers 108 

Servants, 192 males; 263 females. 

Deaf gentlemen have distinguished themselves in the Civil Service of this 

130 Mr. C. J. Bromhead on 

country, of whom a conspicuous example was the late Mr. A. H. Bather, who 
rose to the position of chief clerk, retiring on a pension on attaining the pre- 
scribed age. It was understood that but for his deafness he would have been 
appointed Accountant General of the Admiralty. The appointment to clerk- 
ships under her majesty's government are now given after a competitive exam- 
ination, so that this service has become so much more difficult to enter than it 
used to be. There is but one deaf clergyman of the Church of England (or- 
dained as such), and I have met with a deaf Nonconformist doing good ser- 
vice; but as societies employing such have to provide persons competent to 
interpret at services, meetings and in law and police courts, also to help the deaf 
to find work and in other ways, a large proportion of hearing persons is re- 
quired for this work. In art deaf persons have done good work; some have 
passed through the Schools of the Royal Academy and had their pictures ex- 
hibited at the annual exhibition, also at those in the Royal Institute (water 

This year there are only two deaf artists whose pictures have been accepted 
by the Royal Academy for exhibition, W. H. Trood, who shows three pictures 
of dogs, and Kenneth MacKenzie, who exhibits two landscapes. In minor 
matters many deaf show great aptitude in artistic work, and I would strongly 
urge that in every school drawing should be taught for that training of the 
hand and eye which is of great value to all workers. The capability of draw- 
ing and showing on paper what a work is intended to be, is of great import- 
ance in these days. A workman, unable to understand a drawing from which 
he is to work, is incapable of competing with one who can carry it out. The 
actual work of learning a trade, etc., can only be done after the school course, 
and it is most desirable that the deaf should learn in the same schools, shops, 
etc., as other workers, being treated in just the same way as far as possible. 
Setting up for themselves is seldom wise; but they are most likely to succeed in 
partnership, particularly if they have similar interests with their hearing partners 
by being related in the same way. 

The trades taught in schools hitherto have been very few. Boys have 
been taught slojd-work, tinkering, carpentering, gardening, etc., and the girls 
cooking, domestic work, dressmaking, knitting, lace-making, laundry-work, 
millinery, sewing, etc. But as a general rule there is no industrial department 
in the institutions. It is only of late years that the necessity for technical instruc 
tion in schools has come to be recognized. 

It is not likely that this will supersede workshop training, but it will pre- 
pare for and facilitate it. It is not practicable to have any handicraft taught 
at school, and it will often happen that it is more convenient to go to another 
kind of work than that which has been learnt. In the Stainer Home, London, 
founded by the Rev. Dr. Stainer, slojd, drawing, clay-modeling, cobbling, tailor- 
ing and carving are taught to boys, and Dr. Stainer has sent some fine speci- 
mens of their work to the World's Fair. Laundry work and needle work are 
taught to the girls. 

At the Old Trafford Institution, Manchester, there is also an industrial de- 
partment properly organized and efficiently managed; slojd is regularly and 

The Deaf Mute at Work in Great Britain and Ireland. 131 

systematically carried on there by properly trained teachers. In the Female 
Catholic Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, St. Mary's, Cabra, Dublin, there 
is efficient and praiseworthy work done in the industrial training which I 
describe in the words of the superioress: " During the school term the chil- 
dren get a careful course of training in domestic work, laundry work, sewing, 
knitting and dressmaking. At the completion of the term we provide situa- 
tions for those whose parents are unable to do so (the great majority in our 
poor country). Besides the School Department we have an Industrial De- 
partment. Its object is to supply with occupations poor homeless girls, pre- 
vented by age, physical or mental infirmity from being able to make a liveli- 
hood in the world. 

" The industries carried on are (1) Spinning a.n& Weaving. These poor 
girls manufacture all the materials used by the inmates — some thousands of 
yards woven annually. 

" (2) Boot Binding. All boots and shoes are made on the premises by the 
girls of this department. 

" (3) Lace Making. This is an industry for which some of our girls dis- 
play a special aptitude. They have taken the highest place in a public com- 
petition for the last three years, and have been awarded on each occasion a 
silver medal by the Royal Dublin Society. The girls of our institution have 
sent some beautiful pieces of lace to the Chicago Exhibition. 

" Thus we employ those poor desolate creatures and save them from the 
miserable alternative — the workhouse." 

I believe attempts or beginnings of industrial training have been made at 
Glasgow, Liverpool and Doncaster; but no results have yet come up to those 
places I have just alluded to. I do not think it would be practicable to estab- 
lish a technical school solely for the deaf, and after their school course and 
such preparatory industrial training as they have had, they should attend the 
ordinary science and art classes and other technical schools. 

So far as I know, skilled workmen generally get the same wages as their 
hearing fellow workers; but unskilled often have difficulty in finding employ- 
ment and have to take what they can get, sometimes work of a description to 
which they are not accustomed. Since the passing of the "employers' liability 
act," there have been complaints that in many works, warehouses and mills, 
where machinery is used, employment has been refused to deaf workers on 
account of their infirmity. These should be inquired into, and the attention of 
the board of trade called to this unintended effect of the act. 

All these matters will no doubt receive due attention from the masters of 
institutions and the societies who interest themselves in the welfare of the deaf. 
The great object is or should be to place the deaf in a position to take their 
places in the world and work for themselves like other people. 


* The two papers which follow Mr. Bromhead's are in the nature of ap- 
pendices to the same. The literal arrangements refer to the points considered 
as arranged by the Committee on programme.— Editor. 

132 Mr. C.J. Bromhead on 

I. These vary with the capacity of the individual and especially, with the 
industrial character and needs of each locality. In Liverpool the occupations 
chosen are either general (i. e. usual in all large towns) or those specially re- 
lated, more or less remotely with shipping. In Manchester and its district— 
with the cotton manufacture and export. In Yorkshire— woolen; except at 
Sheffield, where, as in Buckingham and District, hardware and iron work open 
out the largest opportunities for employment. Elsewhere, lads and men find 
employment in the mines. I have known a case (and sometimes it is a not un- 
common case in this connection) where a boy on leaving school went to a 
trade common in his neighborhood and learned it. Then he removed to Liver- 
pool, soon afterward, and left his old occupation; went to sea as stoker or 
" Coal Trimmer," settled and married there and got on well ; was, ultimately, 
lost at sea. 

B. The reports of the various employments adopted, and the numbers 
emyloyed in them, are (from Census of 1881) contained in Appendix 19 to 
Report of the Royal Commission, pp. 244-257. Vol. II. The returns for 1 891 
are not yet published. 

C. To learn trades out of school— -in the same workshops as other workers 
— is most desirable. The sound principle is to treat the deaf, as far as possible, 
as if they were not deaf, and so assimilate them and their position as far as can 
be done to that of the hearing. Do nothing to accentuate their deafness, but 
do everything you can to lift them out of it. 

D. " Setting up for themselves," is not promising. They seldom succeed 
unless with a partner or partners. Deaf persons in partnership are sometimes 
at a loss, and are sometimes (no doubt) taken advantage of. They do some- 
times succeed, if in partnership with the hearing, when united by a common 
interest, as members of the same family — brothers, or otherwise related. 

E. The results in the earlier days of deaf mute education, in this country, 
were discouragingly bad, and nearly all such attempts were very soon given 
up. Of late years, since technical education has come more to the front, the 
results have been more favorable, but I do not anticipate that such teaching 
will ever be carried much farther in our schools than to teach the ready use of 
tools, success in the early and elementary stages of the trade, and some faculty 
of handicraft, which will put an end to awkwardness and nervousness. In- 
stead of beginning how to learn, the pupil will leave school prepared to begin 
at once to learn his trade if it is the one he has been already learning at school. 
Some boys, however, have no opportunity of going on in the craft they have 
learned at school and are obliged to adopt another — and others have got tired 
pf it and will not keep to it. 

F. Trades have never been taught in the Institutions I have been con- 
nected with. I have always upheld and practiced the principle — The Schools 
for Educition and Education in the Schools, Trades afterwards and outside. 
But I see that a change has come and is coming fast. What has been the 
rule hitherto (and in my judgment the best for the times) will be changed. 
Education and industry will be taught together! Difficulties will arise and 

The Deaf Mute at Work in Great Britain and Ireland. 133 

the newer plans will require modification from time to time, but they will cer- 
tainly take hold and largely mould the education of the future. 

G. The trades should be chiefly imitative. 

H. As a fact, many do abandon their trades — sometimes they cannot help 
it — but I do not think the proportion could possibly be ascertained with any 
degree of accuracy. 

I. J. I have no qualifications from experience for answering these ques- 
tions satisfactorily. 

K. Mr. Cunliffe's answers appended, are based on a fuller knowledge of 
these points than I possess. I think Trades Unions' influence is a powerful 
factor as regards the admission or exclusion of the deaf from certain trades, 
and as to the rate of wages. Deaf persons are obliged to take less to get em- 
ployment in many cases. 

L. These matters will doubtless claim and receive the attention they re- 
quire as the occasions for considering them arise, from those who are called to 
the management of the Institutions and work of the future. 

David Buxton, P. H. D., F. R. S. L. 
Hon. Sec. and Past V. President of the Conference of Head 
Masters, etc., etc.; Secretary Manchester Adult Deaf 
and Dumb Institution. 

June 7, 1893. 

A. Joiner, cabinet-maker, wood-carver, stone mason or carver, boot- 
maker, clogger, metal-burnishers, tailor, compositors or printers, book-binder, 
letter sorter, etc., (hand work) for men. 

B. Joining, cabinet-making, wood carving, tailoring, book binding jobbing, 
in printing works or warehouses or mills, for men. Dressmaking, millinery, 
stay-making, metal burnishing, etc., for women. 

C. Mostly apprenticed from 1 to 5 years after leaving school. 

D. No, comparatively few, but are never successful, except to a certain 

E. Slojd-work, tinkering, joining, for boys. 

Card making, serving, Kindergarten work, cooking, etc., for girls, 

F. Depends upon their intellect and abilities, and capabilities. 

G. Cabinet-making, joining, tailoring, boot-making, letter type writing 
for boys. Dressmaking, and cutting, cooking, laundry work, etc., for girls. 

H. Too early yet for the technical education, only introduced into the 
schools a few years ago. 

I. The school authorities are doing their best for the pupils. 

J. The matter should be left to the principals and authorities of the 
schools to decide upon. 

K. The skilled workman generally gets the same wages as their hearing 
fellow workmen, and the unskilled, uncertain wages; and have to seek other 
employments contrary to their own trades. Since the Employer's Liability 
Act was passed, many of the deaf work people will not be admitted into the 

1 34 Mr. C. J. Bromhead on 

works, warehouses, or mills, where there are machinery in, on account of their 
deafness — a most deplorable mistake. 

L. Great things could be done if the Principals and Masters of the 
schools with the assistance of the Adult Deaf and Dumb Society officials, or 
the parents of the children would see to them themselves. 

These replies have been placed in my hands by Mr. E. K. Cunliffe, who 
has permitted me to use his name and to forward his answers along with my 
own. D. Buxton. 

Manchester, June 7, 1893. 


In looking through the points to be considered at the Chicago Exposition, 
the first that strikes me is — 

" e." What trades are taught in our schools, etc. ? 

My answer would be: "none," for I do not consider the short time that can 
be devoted to manual work during the school period of children's education is 
sufficient to teach a trade, especially as in this country pupils are rarely kept 
at school after they are sixteen, and more frequently leave at fourteen years of 
age. I find that the idea generally associated with the teaching of trades is 
that those so taught become self-supporting; whereas the truth is that this is 
not attempted in any of our institutions, and, in my opinion, could only be ef- 
fected in a school or institution established solely for the purpose, as an indus- 
trial or technical school. 

The School Board for London, in the seventeen day schools under my 
direction, provides school instruction only for the boys; the girls have in addi- 
tion, in a very few cases only, training in cookery and laundry work, and needle 
work for a larger number. In my opinion, these domestic occupations would 
be better taught out of school hours, so as not to intrench upon the very limited 
hours allotted for school instruction, amounting to barely twenty-four hours a 
week. In the " Stainer Homes for Deaf and Dumb Children," which contain 
about two hundred children, varying in age from four to sixteen years, all the 
big boys are taught the use of tools and the elementary principles of various 
trades; that is to say that one boy may be taught to mend his clothes, to repair 
his shoes, to make a box, to draw a design, to carve a lion, to mould a vase, and 
to make a tin pot, but need not necessarily follow any one of these occupations; 
therefore I say that they are not taught trades, and should not be expected to 
be self-supporting. Trades can only properly be taught where they are carried 
out in all their branches by competent workmen in their respective depart- 
ments. I will now pass on to point " i." 

I consider the training received in my "homes" should be supplemented 
by practical work for four years, at least, in ordinary workshops where compe- 
tent tradesmen are employed. This may be done by apprenticeship or other- 
wise before the age of seventeen years is attained. 

"j." It will be gathered from my answer to question " i " that I do not 
consider that a technical school for the deaf apart from the hearing is desirable. 

"k." I believe that deaf workmen do not stand on an equality with their 
five-sensed fellows, but are, with some exceptions, " discriminated against," on 

The Deaf Mute at Work in Great Britain and Ireland. 135 

account of their deafness, and I do not think that a special technical school 
would tend to remedy this, as the more they are separated from, the less they 
are capable of assimilating with those who have all their faculties. 

" 1." The industrial training of the deaf generally would, in my opinion, 
be greatly improved by a judicious division of the hours of instruction during 
the latter portion of the educational period (say from the age of twelve to six- 
teen) between school instruction and manual occupation. In short, I would 
suggest what is known in this country as a system of " half-timers.'' 

" m." As an encouragement to those who show special aptness for any 
trade or branch of trade, sets of superior tools should at an early stage be gratu- 
itously provided, and also pocket money in proportion to the effort made and 
the result produced in each case. 


The qnestion of technical training has not escaped the serious considera- 
tion of the committee, and the supporters of the institution will be gratified to 
learn that a workshop has been erected to enable the boys to learn the Sloyd 
System of Carpentry under efficient teachers. 

A considerable outlay on this account has been incurred, the workshop, 
benches, tools, etc., having cost over .£335. The committee will be very 
thankful for special donations toward this expenditure. The work done by the 
boys is not only a pleasant pastime, but may, it is hoped, be helpful to them 
when they leave the institution. 

The girls are carefully taught plain cooking by the Matron. Some are 
selected to take part in the domestic duties generally, and every effort is made 
to make all of them good needle-workers. 

The following tables, showing the occupations of the males and females 
returned as deaf and dumb, are compiled from the 1881 Census Reports for 
England, Scotland and Ireland: 

Occupations. Male. Female 


1. Civil Service (officers and clerks) 1 1 

Civil Service (messengers, etc.) 2 

2. Soldier and Non-Commissioned Officer 1 

3. Minister, Priest or other religious bodies 1 

Missionary, Scripture Reader, Itinerant Preacher 8 1 

Church, Chapel, Cemetery Officer, Servant 2 

Law Clerk and others connected with the law 2 

Dentist 3 

Subordinate Medical Service 3 

Schoolmaster i 

Teachers, Professor, Lecturer 2 12 

Civil Engineer 2 

Land, House, Ship Surveyor 1 

Painter (Artist) 24 1 

1 36 Mr. C. J. Bromhead on 

Occupations. Male. Female 

Engraver (Artist) 23 

Sculptor 5 

Architect 1 

Art Student 1 

Photographer 1 

Art, Music, Theatre Service 3 

Billiard, Cricket and other games service I 


4. Domestic Coachman, Groom 1 

Domestic Gardener 37 1 

Domestic Indoor Servant 18 315 

Inn, Hotel, Servant 7 2 

Office Keeper (not Government) 1 

Charwoman 74 

Washing, and bathing service 3 158 

Hospital and Institution Service 3 

Others engaged in service 11 


5. Broker, Agent, Factor 2 

Accountant 2 

Commercial Traveler 4 

Commercial Clerk 20 

6. Other Railway Officials and Servants 2 

Cabman, Flyman, Coachman (not domestic) 1 

Carm., Carr., Carter Hauler 9 

Bargeman, Lighterman, Waterman 9 

Seaman (Merchant Service) 5 

Harbor, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse Service 13 

Warehouseman (not Manchester) 7 1 

Meter, Weigher 1 

Messsenger, Porter, Watchman (neither Railway nor Govt.) 28 


7. Farmer, Grazier 37 2 

Farmer's, Grazier's Son, Grandson, Brother, Nephew 8 

Farm Bailiff 3 

Agricultural Laborer, Farm Servant, Cottager 463 19 

Shepherd 4 

Woodman 4 

Nurseryman, Seedsman, Florist I ; 

Gardener (not domestic) 10 1 

8. Groom, Horse Keeper, Horse Breaker 13 

Veterinary Sugeon, Farrier 2 

Drover 3 

Game Keeper 2 

Dog, Bird, Animal Keeper, Dealer 1 

The Deaf Mute at Work in Great Britain a?id Ireland. 137 

Occupations. Male. Female 

Vermin Destroyer 1 

Fisherman 10 


9. Publisher, Bookseller, Librarian 1 

Bookbinder 40 22 

Printer 55 1 

Newspaper Agent, News Room Keeper 2 

Lithographer, Lithographic Printer 26 

Map and Print Colorer, Seller 4 

10. Engine and Machine Maker , 7 1 

Fitter and Turner (Engine and Machine] 26 

Boiler Maker 9 

Spinning and Weaving Machine Maker 6 I 

Agricultural Machine and Implement Maker 6 

Tool Maker, Dealer 4 

Cutter, Scissors Maker , 8 1 

File Maker , 6 

Saw Maker 1 

Needle Maker 1 1 

Steel Pen Maker I 1 

Domestic Implement Maker 1 

Watch Maker, Clock Maker 11 

Philosophical Instrument Maker, Optician 1 

Electrical Apparatus Maker 3 

Weighing and Measuring Apparatus Maker 2 

Gunsmith, Gun Mannfacturer 1 

Musical Instrument Maker, Dealer 3 

Die, Seal, Coin, Medal Maker 4 

Toy Maker, Dealer. 1 

11. Builder 7 

Carpenter, Joiner 137 

Bricklayer 41 

Mason 61 

Plasterer, Whitewasher 7 

Paper Hanger 1 

Plumber 1 

Painter, Glazier 85 

Cabinet Maker, Upholsterer 75 7 

French Polisher 21 1 

Furniture Broker, Dealer 2 

Locksmith, Bellhanger, Gas 1 

Gas Fitter 1 

House and Shop Fittings Maker, Dealer 5 

Funeral Furniture Maker, Undertaker 1 

Wood Carver 22 

138 Mr. C.J. Bromhead on 

Occupations. Male. Female 

Carver, Gilder 12 

Animal, Bird, etc., Preserver, Naturalist 1 

Artificial Flower Maker 1 I 

12. Coachmaker 12 

Wheelwright 15 

Others 4 

Saddler, Harness, Whip Maker 43 

13. Ship, Boat, Barge Builder 8 

Shipwright, Ship Carpenter (ashore) 4 

Mast, Yard, Oar, Block Maker 4 

Sail Maker 6 

14. Dye, Paint Manufacturer 3 1 

Fusee, Fireworks, Explosive Article Manufacturer 1 1 

Manufacturing Chemist 2 

Alkali Manufacturer 1 

15. Tobacco Manufacturer, Tobacconist 7 5 

Tobacco Pipe, Snuff Box, etc., Maker 1 

16. Innkeeper, Hotel Keeper, Publican 5 

Malsterer I 

Brewer 5 

Beerseller, Ale, Porter, Cider Dealer 1 

Cellarman 3 

Wine and Spirit Merchant, Agent 1 

Milkseller, Dairyman 6 

Butcher, Meat Salesman 17 I 

Provision Curer, Dealer 1 

Corn, Flour, Seed Merchant, Dealer 1 

Corn Miller 9 

Baker 19 

Confectioner, Pastry Cook 4 I 

Green Grocer, Fruiterer 4 1 

Mustard. Vinegar, Spice, Pickle Maker, Dealer 1 

Grocer, Tea, Coffee, Chocolate, Maker, Dealer 3 3 

Ginger Beer, Mineral Water, Manufacturer, Dealer 1 2 

17. Woolstapler 1 

Woolen Cloth Manufacturer 32 15 

Worsted, Stuff Manufacturer 9 16 

Flannel Manufacturer 1 

Blanket Manufacturer 3 

Fuller 1 

Silk, Silk Goods Manufacturer 6 12 

Silk Dyer, Printer 1 

Ribbon Manufacturer 2 

Cotton, Cotton Goods Manufacture 57 134 

Cotton, Calico, Warehouseman, Dealer 3 

The Deaf Mute at Work in Great Britain and Ireland. 139 

Occupations. Male. Female 

Cotton, Galico Printer, Dyer, Bleacher 3 

Flax, Linen Manufacturer, Dealer 5 7 

Lace Manufacturer, Dealer 4 23 

Fustian Manufacturer, Dealer 1 4 

Tape Manufacturer, Dealer 3 

Hemp, Jute, Cocoa, Fibre Manufacturer 2 

Rope, Twine, Cord, Maker, Dealer 2 

Mat Maker, Seller 3 

Net Maker 1 

Sacking, Sack, Bag Maker, Dealer 

Weaver (undefined) 2 

Dyer, Printer, Scourer, Bleacher, Calenderer (undefined) ... 7 

Factory Hand (Textile, undefined) 6 

Carpet, Rug Manufacturer 7 

Draper, Linen Draper, Mercer 

Fancy Coods (Textile) Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 3 2 

Trimming Maker, Dealer 1 2 

Others 1 

18. Hatter, Hat Manufacturer (not straw) 7 

Straw Hat, Bonnet Plait Manufacturer 23 

Tailor 344 75 

Milliner, Dressmaker, Stay Maker 1 557 

Shawl Manufacturer 2 

Shirtmaker, Seamstress 2 97 

Hosiery, Manufacturer 4 8 

Hosier, Haberdasher 1 2 

Glover, Glove Maker 2 12 

Button Maker, Dealer 3 3 

Boot, Shoe, Boot Maker, Dealer 5°7 '9 

Patten, Clog, Maker 23 

Wig Maker, Hair Dresser 10 

Umbrella, Parasol, Stick Maker, Dealer 2 

Accoutrement Maker J 

19. Tallow Chandler, Candle Grease Manufacturer 1 

Soap Boiler Maker 2 

Manure Manufacturer : 

Bone, Horn, Tortoise Shell, Worker, Dealer 2 

Furrier, Skinner : 

Tanner, Fellmonger 7 

Currier 8 1 

Leather Goods, Portmanteaus, Bag, Strap, etc., Maker, Dl'r 4 1 

Hair, Bristle, Worker, Dealer 1 

Brush, Broom Maker I0 

Quill, Feather, Dresser, Dealer : 

20. Oil Miller, Oil Cake Maker, Dealer 4 



140 Mr. C.J. Bromhead on 

Occupations. Aiales. Female 

Japanner 3 

Water Proof Goods, Maker, Dealer 2 

Willow, Cane, Rush, Worker, Dealer, Basket Maker 29 1 

Thatcher I 

Timber, Wood Merchant, Dealer 6 

Sawyer 13 

Lath, Wooden Fence, Hurdle Maker 1 

Wood Turner, Box Maker 18 2 

Cooper, Hoop Maker, Binder 23 

Cork, Bark, Cutter, Worker, Dealer 1 

Paper Manufacturer 1 4 

Envelope Maker 1 

Stationer, Law Stationer 4 

Card, Pattern, Card Maker 1 

Paper Stainer 1 

Paper Box, Paper Bag Maker 5 8 

Ticket, Label Writer 2 

Others 1 

21. Coal Miner 71 I 

Ironstone Miner 1 

Copper Miner I 

Tin Miner 1 1 

Lead Miner 4 1 

Miner in other or undefined minerals 12 

Coal Merchant, Dealer 3 

Coal Heaver 6 

Coke, Charcoal, Peat Cutter, Burner, Dealer 2 

Gas Works Service 7 

Stone Quarrier 14 

Stone Cutter, Dresser, Dealer 4 

Slate Quarrier 1 

Slate Worker, Dealer '. I 

Clay, Sand, Gravel, Chalk Laborer, Dealer I 

Plasterer, Cement Manufacturer I 

Brick, Tile Maker, Burner, Dealer 22 2 

Pavior I 

Road Laborer 9 

Platelayer 3 

Railway Laborer, Navy 3 

Others I 

Eathenware, China, Porcelain Manufacturer 22 9 

Glass Manufacturer 29 

Salt Maker, Dealer 2 

Water Works Service 1 

Goldsmith, Silversmith, Jeweler 11 1 

The Deaf Mute at Work in Great Britain and Ireland. 141 

Occupations. Male. Female 

Gold, Silver Beater, 1 

Others I 

Blacksmith 55 

Nail Manufacturer 6 3 

Anchor, Chain Manufacturer 5 

Other Iron and Steel Manufactures 65 

Ironmonger, Hardware Dealer, Merchant 1 

Copper, Copper Goods, Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer 3 

Tin, Tin Plate, Tin Goods, Manufacturer, Worker, Dealer.. 14 1 

Metal Refiner, Worker, Turner, Dealer 3 

Brass, Bronze, Manufacture, Brazier 18 

Metal Burnisher, Lacquerer 1 2 

Wire Maker, Worker, Weaver, Drawer 5 1 

Bolt, Nut, Rivet, Screw, Staple Maker 8 

Others.. 2 1 

22. General Shopkeeper, Dealer 4 

Pawnbroker 2 

Costermonger, Huckster, Street Seller 14 

Manufacturer, Manager, Superintendent (undefined) 1 

General Laborer 360 2 

Engine Driver, Stoker, Fireman (neither Railway, Marine 

nor Agricultural) 11 

Artisan, Mechanic (undefined) 50 

Apprentice (undefined) 5 1 

Factory Laborer (undefined) n 

Machinist, Machine Worker (undefined) 1 5 

23. Chimney Sweep, Soot Merchant 1 

Scavenger, Crossing Sweeper 3 

Rag Gatherer, Dealer 2 


24. Persons returned by property, rank, etc., and not by special 

occupation, including all children under 5 years of age 3,280 4408 

Total 7,ioi 6,173 


) yrs. 
























Under Above rp,. + „i 

20 yrs. 20 yrs. ±otal 

Total 456 693 1149 


I. Professional 17 15 32 

II. Domestic 5 5 

III. Commercial 2 12 14 

IV. Agricultural 10 97 107 

V. Industrial 66 490 556 

VI. Unoccupied and Non-Productive 361 74 435 


Class I. 

3. Professional Occupations 17 15 32 16 8 24 

Class II. 

4. Domestic Officers and Services 5 5 2 74 76 

Class III. 

5. Commercial Occupations 1 8 9 1 1 

6. Conveyance 1 4 5 

Class IV. 

7. Agriculture 7 86 93 

8. About Animals and Fisheries 3 11 14 

Class V. 

9. Books, Prints and Maps 7 39 46 

10. Machines and Implements 23 23 

11. Houses, Furniture and Decorations. . 9 69 78 

12. Carriages and Harness 123 

13. Ships and Boats 2 11 13 

15. Tobacco and Pipes i 1 2 

16. Food and Lodging 2 21 23 

17. Textile Fabrics 6 33 39 

18. Dress 22 135 157 

19. Animal Substances 2 13 15 

20. Vegetable Substances 3 14 17 

21. Mineral Substances 7 54 61 

22. General or Unspecified Commodities. 4 75 79 

Class VI. 

24. Without Specified Occupations 17 74 91 36 334 370 






























The Deaf Mute Work in Scotland. 143 

Scholars and Children of No Stated 

Occupations 344 344 278 278 

order 3. 

Missionary, Scripture Reader, Itiner- 
ant Preacher 1 1 

Church, Chapel, Cemetery, Official, 

Servant 1 1 

Writer to the Signet, Solicitor 1 

Schoolmaster,Schoolmistress 1 1 .... 5 5 

Teacher, Professor, Lecturer, Tutor, 

Governess 2 2 

Student 13 3 16 15 1 16 

Painter (Artist) 3 3 

Engraver (Artist) 4 5 9 

Art Student 1 1 

order 4. 

Domestic Indoor Servant 4 4 2 58 60 

Office Keeper (not Government) 1 1 

Charwoman 4 4 

Washing and Bathing Service 12 12 

order 5. 

Broker, Agent, Factor 1 1 

Commercial Clerk, Bookkeeper 1 7 8 .... 1 1 

order 6. 

Other Railway Officials and Servants 1 1 

Carrier, Carter, Vanman 1 1 2 

Harbor, Dock, Wharf, Lighthouse, 

Service 2 2 

order 7. 

Farmer, Grazier 11 1 1 

Farmer's, Grazier's, Son, Grandson, 

Brother, Nephew 5 J 9 24 

Agricultural Laborer, Farm Servant.. 1 41 42 4 34 38 

Shepherd 2 2 

Forester, Wood Laborer 1 5 6 

Nurseryman, Seedsman, Florist 1 1 

Gardener (not Domestic) 7 7 

order 8. 
Huntsman, Horsekeeper, Groom, 

Breaker 1 1 

Fisherman, Fisherwoman 3 10 13 2 2 

order 9. 

Bookbinder 4 17 21 . . . . 1 1 

Printer 1 H 15 

Lithographer, Lithographic Printer . . 2 8 10 


Mr. C. J. Bromhead on 

ORDER 10. 

i. Engine and Machine Maker 2 

Fitter and Turner, (Engine and Ma- 
chine) 5 

Boiler Maker 9 

Spinning and Weaving Machine 

Maker 1 

2. Cutter and Scissors Maker 1 

7. Type Cutter, Founder 2 

Die, Seal, Coin, Medal Maker 3 

8. Fishing Rod, Tackle Maker 

ORDER 11. 

1. Carpenter, Joiner 2 17 

Bricklayer 2 

Mason, Marble Worker, Polisher 12 

Mason's, Bricklayer's Laborer 5 

Plasterer 1 2 

Painter, Paperhanger, Glazier 9 

2. Cabinetmaker, Upholsterer 4 10 

French Polisher 2 

3. Wood Carver 2 7 

Carver and Gilder 3 

ORDER 12. 

1. Coachmaker 2 

2. Saddler, Harness, Whip Maker 1 .... 

order 13. 

1. Shipbuilder 1 7 

Shipwright, Ship Carpenter, (Ashore) 1 

Boat, Barge Builder I 

2. Sailmaker 1 2 

order 15. 

1. Tobacco Manufacturer, Tobacconist 1 

Tobacco, Pipe, Snuff- Box Maker 1 .... 

order 16. 

1. Hotel Keeper, Inn Keeper 1 

2. Malster 3 

Brewer 1 

3. Butcher, Meat Salesman 4 

Poulterer, Game Dealer 1 

Miller (Flour, Oatmeal, etc.) . 2 

Baker 2 8 

Confectioner, Pastrycook 

Grocer, Tea, Coffee, etc., Dealer 1 

order 17. 

1. Woolen Cloth Manufacturer 1 1 

Wool, Woolen Dyer, Printer 1 














T 1 

1 2 3 

I I 2 

1 4 5 

The Deaf Mute Work in Scotland. 



Woolen Stuff, Wincey, Tartan Manu- 

Worsted . Manufacturer 

Silk, Satin, Silk Velvet Manufacturer. 

Cotton Manufacturer 

Cotton, Calico Printer, Dyer, Bleacher 

Flax and Linen Manufacturer, Dealer 

Muslin Embroiderer 

Jute Manufacturer 

Rope, Twine, Cord Maker. Dealer.. . . 

Sacking, Sack, Bag Maker, Dealer . . . 

Weaver (Undefined) 

Dyer, Scourer, Bleacher, Calenderer 

Factory Hand (Textile) (Uudefined). . 

Carpet and Rug Manufacturer 

Knitter (Undefined) 

Trimming Maker, Dealer 


order 18. 

Woolen Bonnet Maker 

Tailor 17 

Milliner, Dress Maker, Staymaker 

Shawl Manufacturer 

Shirtmaker, Seamstress 

Hosiery Manufacturer 

Shoe, Bootmaker, Dealer 5 

Hair Dresser, Wig Maker 

Umbrella.Parasol.Stick Maker, Dealer 

order 19. 

Skinner, Furrier 

Tanner 1 

Currier 1 

Portmanteau, Bag, Leather Goods 

Maker, Dealer 

Brush and Broom Maker 

order 20. 

Floor, Cloth, Oil Cloth Manufacturer 

India Rubber, Gutta Percha, Manu- 
facturer, Dealer 


Timber, Wood, Merchant, Dealer 


Wood Turner 1 

Box Maker 1 

Cooper, Hoop Maker, Binder 1 


































Mr. C. J. Bromhead on 

4. Paper Manufacturer 

Envelope Maker 

Ticket, Label Writer 

order 21. 

1 . Coal Miner 

Ironstone Miner 

2. Gas Works Service 

3. Stone Quarrier 

Stone Merchant, Cutter, Dresser 

Road Laborer 

4. Glass Manufacturer 

Earthenware, China, Glass Dealer . . . 

8. Iron Manufacturer 


10. Tinsmith, Whitesmith, Tin-Worker 


12. Brass, Bronze Manufacturer, Brazier. 
White Metal, Plated Ware Maker, 


order 22. 

1. General Shopkeeper, Dealer 

Hawker, Pedlar, Street Seller 

2. General Laborer 

Engine Driver, Stoker, Fireman (not 

Railway or Marine) 

Artisan, Mechanic (Undefined) 

Factory Laborer (Undefined) 

Machinist, Machine Worker (Unde- 

order 24. 
1. Persons returned by Property, Rank, 

etc., or of no occupation 

order 25. 

1. Scholars 187 

Children of No Stated Occupation 157 


























3 3 

63 67 

2 2 

3 3 

4 4 

74 9 1 36 334 37° 




Persons having Stated Occupations. 




Social Position. 



.H a 


o» a 



■* a 



to a 

a a 
oo ft 





« *■* 

r-i a 



= S 
« a 

- B 




co a 

«J «] 

00 ft 






































































Factory Worker (Wind'r, 
Reeler, Spin'r, Mill Wr 






























Glazier. Pa'tr, Pap'r Hr. 
Hairdresser, Wigmaker 








" 6 






































Saddler, Harness Maker 










" 2 














Slater Tiler 



Tailor, Tailoress 














































148 Mr. Henri Gaillard on 

Note: — In the original list for Scotland, there are columns showing the 
occupations of the blind as well as the deaf and dumb. I have omitted the 
occupations for which blind only were returned. In the Irish list there are 
columns showing the deaf children of persons following foregoing occupations; 
I have also omitted these and the occupations not returned for the deaf. 

The Chair: We shall now have a paper presented my M. 
Gaillard, of the French section. 



[Translated by Mr. A. G. Draper.] 
Gentlemen : 

If I come before you to speak of this both humble and lofty question, im- 
portant chiefly because it concerns the ability to earn daily bread, and hence 
to live the lives of free men dependent upon themselves alone — it is because I 
am one of those who live more by manual than by mental labor, and can there- 
fore venture upon the subject with knowledge. 

My relations in the world of labor, especially in that where the deaf labor, 
are certainly more numerous than those which I have in the political, literary 
and artistic world. Moreover, I have visited all the humble places where poor 
men suffer, the shops and manufactories where men with opinions toil, and 
the meetings where they pour out their complaints, alas too often just; I have 
seen the sad social diseases, the underserved deprivations, and above all I 
have seen that the deaf mute is in the midst of those troubles and suffers from 

Therefore more than ever I think that I had good reasons when, at a ban- 
quet of the deaf in 1889, I said, approved by unanimous applause, that France 
is to-day the last country in Europe in the matter of the social life that she 
offers to the deaf and dumb. 

Since then, facts have not given me the least contradiction. The causes 
of this cruel and lamentable situation are many. There is first the bad organ- 
ization of the trades workshops in the schools, the defects in the appliances, 
the neglect in which the young deaf apprentices are often left during their 
apprenticeship, the mediocrity of the practical instruction given, and the ab- 
sence of theoretical instruction; and more than all the fewness of the trades 
taught, trades for the most part less desirable because of the numbers that 
know them, and that have been invaded by females and by machinery in the 
shops of the world. There still remains the difficulty of getting employers to 

The Deaf Mute in France at Work. 149 

accept deaf workmen, so that they often work at their own homes on account 
of the prejudices against them. 

In general all the deaf in France are capable of working at all the occu- 
pations which do not demand hearing. But for that it is necessary that they 
have requisite qualities — quickness, manual dexterity, power of the arms and 
of the body, intelligence, attention, knowledge of the language and of book- 
keeping. And it is necessary that these capacities, latent or revealed, should 
be trained by the master for the best interests of the pupil. Unhappily this is 
what seldom happens. In nearly all schools for the deaf there are two, four, 
sometimes eight shops where the teacher himself, if he knows a little, teaches to 
the pupils the first principle of an art, its most elementary facts and leaves them 
to advance alone as well as they can. In other more prominent schools, as 
for example the National Institution in the rue St. Jacques, the instruction is 
given by the foremen of the shop, specially appointed for that purpose; and 
who for the most part, it is necessary to say, even though they are very devoted, 
do not vary the manner of their process, consisting in doing and doing again the 
same thing before the pupils, to escape the trouble of giving full explanations 
which they cannot give by the pure oral method. And, sad statement, these 
foremen are ignorant or indifferent to all effective progress in their arts, and 
cannot profit their pupils by the same; who are thus destined, on leaving 
school to be at a constant disadvantage beside their hearing comrades, unless 
indeed the young mute ceases to rely upon his apprenticeship and gives more 
years to retrieving the time wasted by his careless teachers. 

We see that in order that the mute should be really worthy of his intellect- 
ual regeneration, the work of Michel de l'Epee, and of his social rehabilitation, 
accomplished by the great French Revolution; it is necessary, that having all 
the rights and accepting all the duties of free citizens, he should be able to 
reach a fair place in society, to profit by his own labor and never be classed in 
the list of the assisted, in the horrid category of the useless and the 

The deaf mute lofes labor, and has a profound dislike of idleness, which 
weighs him down with ennui, and of dissipation which weakens his forces; 
what he wishes is to enjoy his life. He prefers those callings that are well 
paid, and he has reason, for he wishes justice. He would have his part in 
human joys, and as those joys are not accessible save to those who earn much, 
he wishes a calling that will enable him to be in the number of the privileged 
ones. Those who are truly solicitious for the happiness of the deaf mute, for 
his happiness here below, and not for his problematic happiness in a world 
unknown, have the duty of giving him an occupation that will assure him the 
realization of his hopes. They also have the duty of aiding the young deaf 
mute to acquire good manners, which will serve to arm him more surely for the 
battle of life, and to conquer for himself the right to enter into the felicities of 
the family. One disinherited by nature ought not also to be deprived of educa- 

Give them, then, good, well-paid trades with the greatest zeal; in a word, 
do all you can with their quickened intelligence to lift them out of the realms 

1 50 Mr. Henri Gaillard on 

of ignorance, by patient efforts. And, in order not to choose blindly, not to 
impose trades condemned irremedially to degradation by approaching condi- 
tions, make your plans after one observation, so that the adult deaf mutes 
may continue actual workers. 

There are few statistics in regard to the deaf mute population of France; it 
is estimated at 35,000 persons. Those who belong to wealthy families either 
have no occupation or pursue the fine arts, as painting and sculpture, in which 
they obtain great and well deserved success. 

The deaf mutes who earn the most, who have steady and well-paid trades, 
are those who have had an apprenticeship outside the schools, among the 
hearing, either in shops or-trade schools; where they have acquired the partic- 
ular skill of hand necessary to work, and have formed relations with their 
hearing companions. Those who have had their apprenticeship in the schools, 
with few exceptions, are far from reaching the superiority of the former, of 
having the chance of a good trade, and of possessing the energy, habits and 
knowledge of the rights of the workman, which the former have. Also, the 
needy count themselves chiefly among the latter. Their incapacity renders 
them little kept by their employers, or kept on condition that they content 
themselves with small pay. They pass from shop to shop; are obliged to take, 
often at an advanced age, some other trade; or to fall into the comradeship of 
the deaf mute peddlers of manual alphabets and knick-knacks, little walking 
merchants — brave folks for the most part, very courageous, going about on 
foot along the great roads of France, and practicing, nominally, one of the 
more honorable callings. Sometimes, again, a poor trade is carried on by a 
lot of hearing persons out of other employment, and the master, if he has not a 
good heart, if he is full of prejudice, will refuse the deaf mute. 

One admirable thing to do, which would greatly assist the deaf mute, 
would be to teach him an artistic calling, which few hearing persons know, 
which would render him in a way indispensible, find him patrons, and always 
yield good pay for excellent work. To arrive at this result, instruction in de- 
signing, especially industrial designing, ought to hold* a prominent place in 
schools for the deaf. In the last years of study, in the case of those well fitted, 
they ought to advance step by step with the instruction given by the teacher, 
even without actual labor in the studio. At the end of his studies, his progress 
being good in the branch he has chosen, the pupil should take a place in a studio 
outside his school, or in a professional school of the hearing. It is there, there 
only, that he will succeed in learning the secrets of his art, make his name 
known and impress it upon those who may employ him. 

The creation of professional schools in schools for the deaf mute is useless 
in the highest degree. Their suppression would be a great benefit. The Pre- 
fect of the Department of the Seine makes every year, inquiry among the 
young men of 20 to 21 years of age, exempt from military service on account 
of deafness, in order to find out whether the instruction that has been given 
them in the schools has profitted them so that they can earn their own living. 
Now, nearly all the replies show that either these young deaf mutes do not 
know their trades well, or had need to complete their apprenticeship, or, as is 

The Deaf Mute in Fra?ice at Work. 


true of the greater number, were obliged to change and take up an'essentially 
local occupation which supported their own region. 

Below is given a list of arts and occupations for which a number of deaf 
mutes have fitted themselves. The researches that I have made in Paris and 
in the Departments, permit me to fix the number for each 100 deaf mutes. 
When one goes over this list and pays attention to the trades taught in the 
schools he will be quickly convinced that it is the best to take account of the 
condition of the parents of the deaf mute, of the occupation followed in his 
neighborhood, and of his tastes and capacities, in order to make of him a good 
workman in every sense of the word. 

Teachers of Deaf Mutes 3. 

Artists, painters 5.5 

Artists, sculptors 7.5 

Modelers 2.5 

Bakers 14 

Geometricians I 

Tailors I 

Bookbinders, Stitchers 5. 

Glovers 7.5 

Stumpers, ornamental 5 

Opticians 4 

Engravers, stone 1.5 

Cutters, stone 2 

Packers 6. 

Curriers 5 

Marblers 1. 

Hosiers 7. 

Hosiers, makers of 1. 

Turners, wood 1.2 

Lacemakers 8 

Merchants 2. 

Saddlers , 


Decorators 1 . 


Military equipments, workers in. . . , 


Watermen 3. 

Basketmakers 7. 

Enamelers 1.5 

Clothmakers 7. 

Tissuemakers 7. 

Cloth and wool workers 7. 

Sheet iron workers . .7.5 

Coopers 2.5 

Butchers 4 

Drivers of beasts 1.2 

Sellers of beasts 1 

Tilemakers 1.5 

Glass workers 4. 

Wagon and machine workers or re- 
pairers 5 

Makers of small wares 5 

Watchmakers 1 

Silverers 3. 

Cooks 1 . 

Coppersmiths 4. 

Scourers 1 . 

Crockery makers 3. 

Painters on crockery 5 

Spinners 7. 

Founders 1.5 

Chasers 2. 

Rollers 5 . 

Gasfitters 1 

Tinners 5.5 

Stampers 6 

Wool sorters 7. 

Nightwatchmen 5 Wool pressers and driers 1.5 

Lamp makers 5 

Cistern makers 5 

Locksmiths 1.5 

Wine makers 3 

Wine sellers 1 -2 

Meal sellers 4- 

Morocco workers 2.5 

Pasteboard makers 4. 

Stationers 4. 

Pressmen 2. 

Cutters, metal 5. 

Cutters, wood 1. 


Mr. Henri Gaillard on 

Millers 3. 

Porters 2.5 

Laborers 9.9 

Domestics 3. 

Drivers 5 

Clerks, private 1.5 

Clerks, public 5 

Accountants 2 

Photographing 3. 

Jewelry working 2.5 

Silversmithing 3 

Gravers on copper 2 

Lithographing 6. 

Designers, furniture 2 

" cloth, flowers 1.5 

" artistic 5 

" industrial 2 

Sculptors on wood 5.5 

Furniture makers 6. 

Workers in porcelain 5 

Potters 3. 

Refiners, textile 1.5 

Wooden shoe makers 9.9 

Cutters, leather 5. 

Cutters, cloth 1.5 

Salt provision workers 1.5 

Choppers, meat 4 

Soap makers 1 .2 

Tobacco workers 1 

Tinters of engravings 3. 

Dressers of skins 1.5 

Bon-bon makers 2 

Pastry makers 1.5 

Paper makers 4.5 

Watch and clock makers 5. 

Wheelwrights 2.5 

Farriers 1.2 

Shoemakers 9.9 

Diggers 4- 

Plumbers 2. 

Compositors 9.9 

Carpenters 8. 

Tanners 3. 

Brazers 3. 

Button makers 5 

Rubber workers 5 

Farmers, owners 7. 

Farmers, cultivators 9.9 

Horticulturists 3. 

Gardners 9.9 

Forgers, metal 4. 

Engine makers 2. 

Wall painters 6. 

Hewers 4. 

Distillers 2. 

Washers 4.5 

Gold beaters 5 

Leather beaters 3.5 

Butter makers 1.5 

Frame makers 2. 

Behold now the trades taught in the schools. 

Agriculture, Gardening, Printing, Lithographing, Carpentry, Engraving 
on wood, Shoemaking, Bookbinding and Tailoring. 

They are very few. True, and when one reflects that the scholastic popu- 
lation of deaf mutes is about 3,500, he is grieved that a large number should be 
forced to choose between these occupations, of which the most part are insig- 
nificant, do not yield more than will buy a morsel of bread, are subject to fre- 
quent financial crises, and destined to disappear sooner or later before 
machinery and the inferior work done by females and immigrants. Among 
these trades I will mention printing, wood carving, engraving and to some ex- 
tent lithographing. Competition brings the inevitable result of lowering 
wages; the most common trades, employing the most workmen, are most sub- 
ject to this competition; even if the deaf-mute knows them well he will be ex- 
posed to all their fluctuations, frequent changes, and to the impossibility of 
finding a vacant place among so many available hearing persons out of work. 
Moreover, a trade like printing is in process of leaving the cities more and 

The Deaf Mute in France at Work. 1 53 

more, and taking its place in the country, where the lower price of land admits 
the erection of large establishments in which women only, or almost only, are 
employed; and these places develop wonderfully, taking work from the print- 
ing offices of the cities, principally from those of Paris. Hence, when there is 
a stoppage of work it is often the deaf mute who is dismissed, and you see the 
inequality of his condition, especially if it is to him at all impossible to leave 
his native place. Nothing remains for him save to enter one of the little offices 
which do the small jobs of the city, circulars, cards, announcements, etc.; but 
there still the applications for employment are more numerous than the vacan- 
cies. What is more serious, the deaf mute leaving the shop of his school is 
ignorant of artistic work, those schools generally carrying to a printer appren- 
tices whom he is glad to get to set up lines.and do nothing else.and for that he pays 
them the least possible. This using of the deaf-mute apprentices, this disdain 
of his future, is found also in certain provincial schools. 

There are no more than three trades — cultivating, gardening and shoemak- 
ing — which should reasonably be taught in all the schools, for those who live in 
the country. With those trades they will have nothing to fear, so long as they 
have average intelligence and no bad habits,- and are averse to moving about 
from place to place, as, to their credit, rural deaf mutes usually are. , 

But for those who live in the cities I will not cease to repeat that it is bet- 
ter not to teach them any trade, but only to put them into shops of manual 
labor, if the school can support such, as at the National institution at Paris, an 
arrangement that does the greatest honor to its director, M. Javal. The great 
advantage of manual labor shops is to give the pupil an agreeable change in 
the practice of the arts of carpentry, modeling, sculpture, etc., to make them 
skillful with their limbs, quick in judgment and attention — to develop 
them in all that goes to make excellent workmen, and lead them to be able 
to choose finally the trade best suited to them. One or two hours per day 
ought to be given to these manual exercises without prejudice to instruction in 
designing which we again insist. 

During the whole time the teachers should have all the leisure necessary 
to plan well the instruction of the pupil, to help him on toward his indentures 
and his certificate in study. When he obtains it and is able to understand his 
native language, by speech if able, and by writing if not, it will be about time 
for him to quit school and be placed at apprenticeship in his own locality, near 
his parents, but still under the patronage of his school, which should pay the 
small expense of his apprenticeship and furnish him with his first tools. The 
amount saved by suppressing the trades school would be available for these 
new needs. 

In the country schools the maintenance of schools of gardening and gen- 
eral cultivating of land, the care of animals and dairying are the only oc- 
cupations necessary to be taught. Only they should be taught thoroughly, 
accompanied by short and useful theoretical teaching, and the most usual ap- 
plications of science to agriculture, as well as the laws affecting agriculture, 
rents, engagement of workmen, etc. For it ought to be said that many deaf 
mutes are the sons of proprietors, and if they do not know all about agriculture 

154 Mf- Henri Gaillaird on 

they will be disinherited of the happiness of their parents and become simply 
laborers in the fields. 

There are not a few deaf mutes established in business in France — en- 
gravers, watch and clock makers, engravers on wood, chemists and farmers. 
They manage their affairs alone, or with the help of their hearing wives or chil- 
dren, and they do well, but it is not to the schools that they owe this good for- 
tune. To cite all these courageous deaf mutes would be difficult, but I will 
give a few names: Senns, hose-maker; DeMeserman, nurseryman; Borigeol, 
spinner; Turc, silk-maker; Koechlin, builder, and an ingenious mechanic; Ra- 
oul Cagny, Ludovic de Tessieres, Ph. de Barjean, de Chastellux, Emile Fortin, 
Jules and Henri Gosme, etc., agricultural proprietors; Victor Thierry and G. 
Cavmillon, watch and clock makers; Godard-Desmaret, manufacturer; Auguste 
Colas, designer, etc. 

The pay of every able de'af-mute is always equal to that of hearing persons 
of the same ability; there does not then exist the distinction made by em- 
ployers between their deaf and hearing workmen, when, if the first are inferior 
to their companions, or timid, or ignorant of their rights, the employers feel 
authorized to pay them as little as to them seems good, without regard to their 
protestations. The deaf mutes who fall most easily into this catalogue of 
clients of mercy are those who come from the school shops, a fact following 
upon the other fact, that those schools never fit themselves to the life of the 
world, never give the ruggedness of spirit necessary in the cotemporary strug- 
gle of life. 

As to the female deaf mutes, a like inferiority is shown when they leave 
the schools, where they are members generally of a lay congregation directed 
by ecclesiastics. There they are taught no trade — they are prepared for the 
higher life — for the life in heaven rather than for that here below. In certain 
schools they are indeed taught some occupation, usually the lowest work of 
women — sewing, repairing, washing, embroidery, a little cooking, but never are 
they taught so as to make them proficient in these labors, However, in the 
large towns there are some female deaf mutes following trades and living 
thereby. Here again we see that these are not the trades taught them at 
school; the number is as before for each ioo : 

Compositors 5. Spinners 2.5 

Florists 3. Corset makers 1. 

Seamstresses 9.9 Maid servants 6.5 

Dressmakers 2 Machine tenders '2 

Lace repairers 4 Armorers' assistants 1 • 

Piecers 9.9 Perfumers 4 

Household servants 7. Preserve makers 3.5 

Milliners 1 Shoe stitchers 4- 

Bleachers 5. Bandage makers 1. 

Tapestry workers 2 Feather workers 2.5 

Embroiderers 1.4 Fan makers 5 

Laundresses 5. Reflector makers 5 

Necktie makers 2.5 Wreath makers 3- 

Stitchers 3. Parisian notion makers 6. 

The Deaf Mute in Fraiice at Work. 155 

The large number of female compositors attracts notice. It was the act of 
M. M. Firmin-Oidot to begin the practice of putting this excellent trade into 
their hands. He has founded at Mesnie-sur-1'Estree, department de l'Eure, 
a small shop lent by the religious orders where twenty-five female deaf mutes 
learn the art of printing. They can stay as long as they choose. They are 
paid at least 3 francs per day, from which their daily expenses are deducted, 
and the remainder is placed in a savings bank to serve them as a fund when 
they finish their apprenticeship or get married. They often get situations in 
Paris offices. 

A female deaf mute having great knowledge of the business, Mile. 
Pauline Sorg, teaches them. This work of M. Firmin-Oidot has attracted no- 
tice. The Society of Encouragement of Benefaction awarded him, in 1892, the 
d'Aboville prize, of the value of 3,000 francs, instituted in honor of those man- 
ufacturers who concern themselves in assisting, by teaching them how to labor, 
infirm persons, or those not supposed to be incapable of all elevation. It was 
no doubt merited; but what M. Firmin-Oidot has done the schools also do, with 
less zeal, perhaps, and with a less valuable stock of tools, but with the same 
intention of making good workmen. 

There should be, also, in order to help deaf mutes find some employment, 
a point where they may meet for that purpose. If the societies for the employ- 
ment, education and assistance swarm, there is still for the deaf mute a deplor- 
able lack of them. The schools themselves, at least the official schools, neglect 
to place their students outside. When the deaf mute has finished his course 
of study, a term of seven or eight years, the schools consider their work done, 
which is truly cruel and might well make one desire the complete suppression 
of schools for deaf mutes, in order to leave them in the exquisite happiness of 
ignorance, for where is the good of giving them instruction and education if, 
sooner or later, through social indifference to them, that instruction and edu- 
cation serve only to show them that their condition will remain inferior? that 
all their efforts as well as those of the teachers, are unproductive? — that they 
are the most irremediably condemned men in the Universe? 

The great men in letters, art, politics, science and industry, who in France 
interest themselves in the good cause of deaf mutes are legion; they could as- 
sociate themselves with some of the ablest of the deaf mutes, and the founda- 
tion of an employment society for the deaf would be^ laid. While the hearing 
promote their influence and desires, the deaf mutes could look out for and 
recommend those of their number having need of employment. At need this 
society could put itself in relation to the labor market of its locality, with other 
societies of laborers, and with bureaus of municipal works. It could even con- 
sist of a committee having functions with the school, and composed of some 
leading persons of the place. 

The government ought also, more than private persons, to aid in the ele- 
vation of the deaf mutes through their labor, by opening to them largely the 
doors of establishments under its control. It is truly surprising that the gov- 
ernment printing office at Paris has up to this day received no more than a score 
of deaf mutes, of whom three are now there. It is also truly regretable that 

1 56 Mr. Henri Gaillaird on 

the City of Paris is obstinately opposed to deaf mutes when they ask for em- 
ployment suited to their capacities. Happily, I have hopes that at Paris this 
ostracisim will soon cease, for the deaf mutes have resolute defenders in the 
municipal councils of the glorious city; among those who dessie that the deaf 
mute profit like his hearing companion by steady and fairly paid labor, are, 
MM. Faillet, Blondel, Weber, Muzet, Thuvillier, Petrot, etc. 

Apropos to the entrance of deaf mutes into the public offices, I am astonished 
that no account has been taken of a proposition of M. Eugene Pereire, a worthy 
decendant of the illustrious Rodriguez Pereire, one of the earliest instructors of 
deaf mutes. M. Eugene Pereire founded a school for the deaf at Paris and is 
president of the consulting. commission of the National Institution. He sug- 
gested at a meeting of the Commission a step which all intelligent deaf mutes 
would rejoice at, namely, the formation of a special class to teach them book- 
keeping, registry, commercial correspondence, the care of manuscripts — all 
that would fit them to enter the public offices. It is sad to see certain deaf 
mutes endowed with great abilities obliged to take up with manual occupation 
in which they seldom prosper, and where, in consequence, they vegetate for- 
ever, while, if they had the chance of doing broader work, they would reach a 
rank worthy of their great attainments. 

In concluding, gentlemen, this study, already very long, and yet superficial 
and necessarily incomplete, I have the duty to say that for a question so very 
important and difficult there are yet no more than three resolutions to place 
before the Congress. They are: 

The delegates of the deaf mutes of the principal civilized nations, assem- 
bled in Congress at Chicago in July, 1893, consider that, in order to know the 
best trades to enable deaf mutes to live the lives of freemen, it is necessary to 
be acquainted with those trades oneself and to know those who practice them; 
and considering that the deaf mutes themselves are better fitted than ar>y one 
else to offer profitable suggestions in this direction, they do, therefore, pray, 

First, that as to all questions concerning the careers, professions and 
trades suited to the deaf mutes, there should be appointed by the proper au- 
thority in each nation, a commission composed of equal numbers of deaf 
mutes and hearing persons possessing the necessary qualifications. 

Secoid, that the state and the municipalities give full access to their offices 
and establishments to deaf mutes endowed with the capacities needed therein; 

Third, that societies te assist deaf mutes in obtaining work be established 
in all localities where the need of them may be felt. Henri Gaillard. 

The Chair: The German Section will now present a paper 
on the same subject by Mr. Watzulik. 


(Translated by Mr. G. W. Veditz). 

Mention the different trades, professions and arts to which the deaf of your 
country are known to devote themselves. 
I. Typesetting. 11. Tailoring. 

Lithrography. 12. Shoemaking. 

Wood engraving. 13. Cabinet making. 

Painting. 14. Saddlery. 

Sculpture. 15. Official. 

Engraving. 16. Day labor. 

Photography. 17. Cigarmaking. 

Mechanics. 18. Factory hands. 

Draughting. 19. Seamstresses. 

Bookbinding. 20. Servant girls, etc. 

Which trades, arts or professions are most popular or suitable for the deaf 
of your country? (This may be ascertained if the number employed in each 
is given, or failing this, state from your own observation.) 

1. Painting. 4. Drawing. 

2. Lithographing. 5 Engraving. 

3. Wood engraving. 6. Sculpture. 
7. Goldsmithing. 

Where do they learn their trades? In school or out? 

Out of schools like hearing apprentices. In some schools there is, how- 
ever, a course in handicraft to which capable pupils only are admitted. 

Do they often leave one trade for another? What circumstances in this 
connection are specially noteworthy? 


What occupations are taught the deaf in your schools? 

Pruning, cabinetmaking, shoemaking, drawing. 

Are they well taught? 


What occupations should be taught? 

Painting, drawing, sculpture, pedagogy. 

How do the trades taught in your schools compare with the number of 
pupils? (This will be difficult to ascertain unless you have abundant statisti- 
cal material at command. You might be able to form an approximately cor- 
rect estimate by inquiry in your own immediate neighborhood.) 

In the schools where handicraft is taught, there are annually on an average 

158 Mr. A. M. Watzulik on 

ten pupils who leave school apparently prepared for practical life. The num- 
ber of skilled deaf mutes depends on the number of pupils in the schools. In 
most schools manual instruction is given by only one teacher. Many schools 
have no such arrangements, so that the pupils might as well be expected to go 
out into the world altogether unable to support themselves. As I have no sta- 
tistics I presume that the statements above are only approximately correct. 

The Chair: We now proceed to " The Deaf «as Teachers." 
M. Joaquin Ligot, of France, was to open the discussion, and in 
his absence his paper will be read by his colleague, M. Chazal. 



[Translated by Mr. D. W. George.] 
Gentlemen and Dear Brothers : 

Chosen to address the great Congress at Chicago, composed of the most ill- 
ustrious deaf mutes assembled from all parts of the globe,I would have declined 
this perilous honor if I had consulted my meagre ability alone. But, since the 
ruling impulse of my life has been to assist my brothers in misfortune, and 
remembering that the word " impossible " has no place in the French language, 
I venture to enter the lists. I shall count myself truly fortunate if I am not 
found too unequal to the task! On the other hand the subject on which I am 
asked to speak is sufficiently familiar to me, since the best years of my life 
have been passed in teaching the deaf. 

I see no reason why deaf teachers should be barred out. On the contrary 
there is everything to be said in their favor. I shall state some of the reasons 
in their behalf. I think with Abbe Rieff el, one of our best friends and one of 
the hearing persons who knows us best, that it is a pity that the deaf are no 
longer employed as teachers in our schools. 

In the first place the presence of deaf teachers is a powerful stimulus to 
the pupils. They are, so to speak, permanent and eloquent examples which 
the children study to imitate. Some one whose name I do not recall, once 
stood contemplating the picture of a great painter, when all at once he felt 
himself lighted up by the sacred fire — the desire to render himself illustrious 
with the palette, and he exclaimed with enthusiasm; "And I also, I shall be a 
painter." In fact, he did become a celebrated painter! The sight of a deaf 
teacher produces the same impression upon the pupils. " Since," say they, "my 
teacher has succeeded by his labor in qualifying himself for a career so honor- 
able and respectable, why should not I also succeed as well? Oh! Yes, I also, I 
shall be a teacher." After all it is well, it is perfeclty just to hold out the pro- 
fession as an inducement for the most meritorious of their pupils. The suc- 
cess of the schools would be enhanced thereby. 

I do not seek to detract from the merits of the hearing teachers. I have 
known some excellent ones among them, whose devotion was equalled by their 
skill. But it is certain that the deaf teachers are more assiduous with their 
pupils, preferring their company to all other diversions, and that they are more 
zealous, having the welfare of their young brothers more at heart. They man- 
ifest a more fraternal interest in them than even their own brethren of no 
matter what congregation. 

160 Mr. Joaquin Ligot on The Deaf as 

Then, as God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb, so they know how more 
intelligently to place themselves at the door of the understanding of their pu- 
pils. With what a delicate hand do they know how to free it from darkness 
and let the light shine down upon it! How wisely do they grade their lessons! 
With what care do they remove from the pathway of their pupils every stone 
of stumbling, every difficulty. They model themselves, so to speak, after the 
mother, who, to accustom the little child to walk by himself, lets him go for a 
moment, steps back a few paces and then with out-stretched arms coaxes him 
to rejoin her. The baby, embarassed and hesitating at first, ventures at last to 
toddle forward and throw himself into his mother's arms! 

Here is one instance of this among a thousand. Sometimes some hearing 
teachers of no mean ability, seeing my lessons written on the blackboard to be 
explained, found them so luminous in simplicity and clearness, they were, to 
use their own expression, so dainty, that they asked me to lend them my copy 
books, with permission to copy from them. Is not this an involuntary confes- 
sion that they were less skillful than the deaf teachers? At least, it is an im- 
plicit admission that deaf teachers are not to be sneered at. 

In a word, in the fulfillment of their humble and laborious mission the deaf 
teachers make little noise and do much good. Are the hearing teachers 
entitled to a compliment of this kind? Every one knows the answer to this. 

Gentlemen and dear brothers, if I were to give the names of the most 
widely known deaf teachers, and who are the most distinguished for the ser- 
vice they have rendered to the cause of education of the deaf, through their 
literary labors, what a brilliant galaxy would present itself before our eyes! 
Why not do so? Ah! yes, that we may have some of them, I shall be brief. 

First here is Etienne de Fay, according to all accounts a remarkable deaf 
person, mathematician, scholar, architect, painter! He started a class of deaf 
pupils at Amiens. Although he was a predecessor of Abbe de l'Epee by sev- 
eral years, he taught by the same means, by signs. And his successes attracted 
enough attention to raise up the two famous Rodrigues Pereire. 

Here, again, is Massieu, the most brilliant pupil of Abbe Sicard, so well 
known by his ingenious reply to questions; it is he who so aptly defined grat- 
itude as the memory of the heart. He also devoted himself with energy to the 
education of the deaf. For them he founded the little school at Lille and that 
at Arras. He made his mark as teacher with courage. Learn from him how 
much more painful were the efforts of the first pioneers. 

Laurent Clerc, another pupil of Abbe Sicard, stands as the rival of Massieu 
in the temple of fame. It is for you, gentlemen and dear brothers of the 
United States, to sound his praises; since at great risk and peril, he went forth 
to plant the method of Abbe de l'Epee in your beautiful country. He belongs 
more to you than to us, as he consecrated his life to you, and his ashes are 
resting in your midst. But, what am I saying? His eulogy is already pro- 
nounced. The sweat of his brow has not fallen upon an ungrateful soil. The 
numerous schools for the deaf that have arisen throughout the length and 
breadth of your vast country, from which brilliant scholars unceasingly go 
forth; the courageons and intelligent initiative which you have taken in open- 

Teachers and Teaching as a Profession for the Deaf. 161 

ing this magnificent congress in Chicago, tells me enough. This is the most 
glorious eulogy of Clerc; you are his crown, a brighter crown than that which 
adorns the brow of the triumphant warrior. 

Next come Allibert, Lenois, Chambellan, Pelissier, our national poet, 
Torenter, director and founder of the institution at Lyons. High above these 
five incomparable teachers of whom we are always justly proud, shines the 
name of Berthier, Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, the first deaf person to 
receive this decoration, certainly the most remarkable deaf person who has ap- 
peared since the time of Abbe de l'Epee. He was as remarkable for his vast 
erudition as for his classic diction, for his skill as a teacher and for his devo- 
tion to the deaf. Who does not know his beautiful biography of Abbe de 
l'Epee? To him is due the establishment of the Societe Universelle <T Assis- 
tance for the deaf, now called Association Amicale, of which the general secre- 
tary is my distinguished friend Henri Gaillard. 

These six athletes by their valuable practical treatises on the education of 
the deaf carried the method of Abbe de l'Epee to its zenith of glory. With 
their trained hands they fashioned several generations of cultured minds more 
or less distinguished, all able to make their own way through he affairs of 

After these, whom I willingly would call the giants of the profession, rival- 
ing whom it were much the best to follow the glorious pathway which they 
trod, appear Dusuzeau, Bachelor of Science; Theobald, Publicist, in Paris; 
Richardin and Miss Ackerman, at Nancy; Benjamin, worthy colaborer of For- 
estier, at Lyons; Doward, at Marseille; Balestie at Rodez; Simon at Roen; 
Cheroude at Caen, and many others whom I am sorry not to know. All were 
laboring with energy under the mantle of Abbe de l'Epee, when the pure oral 
system stepped in to so rudely cut short their honorable career. Gentlemen 
and dear brothers, I have already stated it in the Gazette des Sourdes-Muets; 
allow me to repeat it here, that these people have acted towards them just like 
bandits, carbine in hand, demanding your money or your life. They have said 
to them: " Get out of the way, or I will put you out; the sign method is a poor 
old woman, all used up; she has had her day. Ours will leave her far in the 
rear; you have nothing more to do here." How unscrupulous, how unparalleled! 
Nothing has stopped them — these bandits — neither the great number of 
deaf teachers who have been successful during the last one hundred years, 
nor the zeal and devotion of which they have given proof in their positions, 
nor even the incalculable good that they have done. 

But here are twenty years during which the pure oral system has been in 
existence; has it produced any better results than the sign method? By no 
means; the education of the deaf is more harassed with difficulties than ever, 
and it has taken a step backward; that procession of incomparable deaf 
scholars seems to have come to a close. In our turn we have a right to say to 
these knaves: " You have fooled us and everybody else in promising us won- 
ders, you have not kept your promises, there is no common-sense in your 
method, begone! Let the combined method come back to our schools with our 
beloved and zealous deaf teachers." 

1 62 Mr. Joaquin Ligot o?i The Deaf as 

If we have always had admirable deaf teachers using the method of Abbe 
de l'Epee, deaf teachers have not been wanting who have displayed an ability 
to teach by the means of speech alone; such as, for instance, Dubois and his 
best pupil, Louis Capon, Officer of the Academy. This latter founded an 
establishment at Elbeuf, his native town, with the aid of his wife and daughter. 
He uses with advantage the method of his teacher, the oral method. All the 
citizens of Elbeuf speak of his work in terms of highest praise. 

I would reproach myself, if I were to pass by in silence, Miss Laronny, a 
lady deaf from birth, of unusual intelligence and scholarship. Without means 
she undertook to found a school at Oleron (lower Byrnees) and she succeeded. 
To be equal to her post, although no longer young, she undertook to teach her 
pupils to speak and she succeeded in that too. Now a score of children of 
both sexes press under her motherly wings and fare well. I say motherly, I 
do not withdraw this word. She is a real mother to her children. Oh, with 
what tender care does she surround them! What zeal does she not put forth 
to instruct them. Her institution is visibly prosperous and this is no more 
than right. All the people of the place praise it in the highest degree. 

And to declare, after all this, deaf persons incapable of teaching, what 
monstrosity! What ingratitude! Have the hearing and the speaking a 
monopoly of all devotion to duty and of all capability? 

Gentlemen and dear brothers, I have too long held your indulgent atten- 
tion. I will conclude in laying down my resolutions which, if you find right, 
you will do well to adopt. 

We, deaf mutes of all nations, of all tongues, assembled in Congress in 
Chicago to the number of 400. 

Whereas, The presence of deaf teachers is a powerful stimulus to the 

Whereas, Deaf teachers have been successful since the time of Abbe de 
l'Epee, have all acquitted themselves with the greatest credit in their career, 
and they are qualified to do as much good, if not more, than the hearing and 

Whereas, The pure oral method has not furnished the results which 
were expected, and it is less adapted than the other method to develop in the 
pupil the individual initiative which puts them in condition to gain for them- 
selves a social position; 

Resolved, That the combined method should be again substituted for the 
pure oral method, and that the deaf be again employed as teachers in the 

The Chair: These resolutions will be attended to later. The 
American side of this subject will now be presented by Mr. 
McGregor, in signs, and read orally by Rev. Ur. Gallaudet. 



From the very inception of deaf-mute education in this country, the pe- 
culiar fitness of the deaf for the position of teachers has been recognized. 

The first deaf teacher of the dumb in America was Laurent Clerc, a 
Frenchman brought over by the Rev. Thos. H. Gallaudet, the founder of the 
first school for the deaf, as an assistant. Mr. Clerc enjoys the unique distinc- 
tion of being the only deaf mute ever imported under contract to instruct the 
deaf. In these days he would be excluded by the " contract-labor law," but 
happily we have no need now to import such teachers, as we are able to sup- 
ply the world with the best educated and most accomplished deaf teachers to 
be found anywhere. 

Indeed, there are some who think we enjoy an elegant superfluity of deaf 
teachers, andthat it is about time to get rid of them as fast as possible. There 
are even persons claiming to be friends of the deaf who look askance at the 
deaf teacher, and regard him as the stumbling block in the way of the advance- 
ment of the deaf (of themselves, most likely) in these days! 

The pioneer deaf teachers were not very well educated, although some of 
them were men of great natural abilities and force of character. This was 
owing to the limited time allowed them in which to finish their education — 
three, five and seven years being the limit — and to the idea then prevailing, 
now fortunately dispelled, that the deaf could advance only so far and no 

The standard of deaf-mute education then was very low, but the deaf 
teachers were usually far above the average of their class, and although they 
could not, except in very rare and exceptional cases, compare favorably in 
intellectual training with the average hearing teacher, their ability to do good 
work in certain grades was acknowledged; but they were paid only about half 
the salaries accorded the hearing teachers. 

In those early days great care was taken to employ only men (hearing) of 
great intellectual or literary attainments in the work of educating the deaf; the 
theory holding that it required great learning, much acumen and almost phe- 
nomenal philosophical insight to penetrate the hidden recesses of the deaf- 
mute mind, and drag it forth into the light; hence the deaf teacher was used 
only in a sort of menial capacity to smooth the road for the " Professor " and 
perform the rougher part of the work. 

The hearing and the deaf teacher occupied about the same relative posi- 
tion as th* plumber and his helper, and enjoyed about the same relative pay. 
You may, however, have observed that very often the " helper " does all the 
work, while the plumber does all the looking on and takes the credit if the job 
is a good one, but throws a.l the blame upon the helper if it is bad. 

164 Mr. Robert P. McGregor on 

Within the last twenty-five or thirty years, while the average hearing 
teacher has not advanced any in intellectual attainments (indeed, it would be 
difficult to do so) over his compeers of the first period of our history, the deaf 
teacher has been making steady strides forward and upward, until to-day he 
stands on a. perfect level with his hearing contemporaries in literary and scien- 
tific attainments. 

In 1853, at the Third Convention of the Instructors of the Deaf of the U. 
S., held at Columbus, Ohio, in discussing the vexed question of salaries, Dr. I. 
L. Puet, of New York, gave expression to the following: 

" So soon as the education of the deaf could be carried to such a degree of 
perfection that they could perform the same services as instructors as their 
hearing and speaking colleagues, and be equally safe guides in the acquisition 
of idiomatic English, all disparity in salaries would cease to exist.'' 

That was forty years ago. 

To-day, and for many a long day, that " degree of perfection " has been 
reached. Has the prediction in regard to salaries been verified? 

Except as to two or three schools in our broad land, I am compelled to 
answer, no ! 

Now the contention is not that the " degree of perfection " lies in the way, 
but the " law of supply and demand! " 

Then the idea of a deaf teacher carrying a class beyond the third or fourth 
year was ridiculed. Now we see the deaf teacher in many of our schools oc- 
cupying the very highest positions, and putting the finishing touches to an 
education that was formerly thought to be far beyond his own reach. 

But salaries remain proportionately the same. 

The " helper " has become a master plumber, but his wages are still those 
of a "helper." 

The editors of nearly all our institution papers are deaf teachers, and if 
you will look over the volumes of the histories of the institutions of this coun- 
try, recently issued by the Volta Bureau, you will discover that a great many 
of them have the names of deaf teachers attached to them as their authors and 
compilers; and, furthermore, you will discover that they compare favorably 
with those written by hearing teachers or superintendents. In fact, you will 
not be able to distinguish which were written by the hearing if you are not ac- 
quainted with the names of the authors. 

Formerly the deaf teacher was not considered competent to expound the 
Scriptures or to " lecture " to the pupils, and that was given as one reason why 
he should not receive the same salary as the hearing teacher. Now he is ex- 
pected to and does perform his full share, and often more too, of such work. 
Yet he does not get his full share of the salary ! 

With increased erudition, intellectual ability and capacity for superior 
work, has there come increased appreciation of the deaf teacher? 

To a certain extent, yes; for that is all that has prevented his total extinc- 
tion, but not to the extent that we wish or have a right to expect. 

At present, in order to hold his own, the deaf teacher must be not only the 
equal of his hearing contemporary in mental training, tact, skill, morals, versa- 

Deaf Teachers. 165 

tility and physical adaptation to the work, but also, in some of these qualities, 
his superior, in order to overcome the supposed handicap of his deafness. 

This is not right, to be sure, and it is a blot upon the profession for which 
we are not responsible, but there are a great many things in this world which 
are not just right. The deaf teacher must take things as he finds them, and 
do the best he can to meet the unjust conditions imposed upon him. 

In 1857 there were 115 teachers of the deaf in this country, 47 or 40.1 per 
cent, of whom were deaf. In 1870 the proportion was the same, but in 1880 it 
had fallen to 31. 1 per cent." At present there are 706 teachers, 166 or 23.5 per 
cent, of whom are deaf. 

Thus we are confronted with the fact that while the deaf teacher has been 
steadily advancing upward, the demand for his services has as steadily been 
lowering in an inverse ratio. 

The Oralist, whose particular antipathy is the deaf teacher, will, no doubt, 
rub his hands in glee at this favorable showing for his side, but I have no hesi- 
tation in saying that it will be a sad day for the deaf of America and the world 
at large when the deaf teacher is entirely eliminated as a factor in the educa- 
tion of the deaf, for that end will only be reached when the blessed system 
that has elevated the deaf of this country to their present exalted standard 
has been swept from existence by the pure oral method, which is responsible 
for the low intellectual condition of the deaf of Germany, Austria and Italy, 
and which is fast dragging them down to a similar condition in France. 

Let us most earnestly pray God that this consummation may be forever 

It is my deliberate opinion, and the opinion of 99-100 of the educated deaf, 
that no greater calamity can befall future generations of the deaf of this coun- 
try than that the pure oral method should supersede or displace the combined 
system. I say this although I am what is called a semi-mute, and do not un- 
derrate the vulue of speech for the deaf. I speak not for myself alone, but for 
the great majority of the deaf, both from experience and observation. 

It is the unanimous opinion of all the deaf whom I have interviewed upon 
the subject, and I have questioned hundreds of them, that they have derived 
more real benefit from the instructions of their deaf teachers than from those 
of their hearing ones. 

There be those who will say that this does not prove anything; that the 
deaf are no judges of what is good for them, thereby stultifying their own work ; 
but if the deaf cannot judge, who can? 

It may be truthfully said that there are none who have the true interests of 
the deaf more at heart than the deaf teacher himself, and the reason why he 
can and does do better work is his thorough knowledge of deaf children, his 
own experience in overcoming the difficulties that all deaf children have to 
encounter, his sympathy with them and his patience, inborn from his own ex- 

The hearing teacher is as necessary in a school for the deaf as the deaf 
teacher. The one has some advantages that the other does not possess, and 
the other is graced with advantages that counterbalance his defects. The one 

1 66 Mr. Robert T. McGregor on 

is the complement of the other, and no school for the deaf is complete in its 
equipment that is supplied with only one or the other. 

Each should receive the same recognition, be accorded the same honor, 
and be paid the same salary for work in the same grade. 

The Chair: According to the programme, Mr. W. L. Hill, of 
Massachusets, is now in order, but as he is not present and has 
sent no paper, we shall pass on to the consideration of " Business 
Opportunities Open to the Deaf," on which Mr. Palmer will dis- 
cuss in signs, and Rev. Mr. Chamberlain, of New York, will read 


We may know what business opportunities are open to the deaf by ascer- 
taining their present occupations and degree of success. Inadequate as my 
effort was to arrive at the full truth, my investigation discloses an encouraging 
view of the capability of deaf persons in the following business occupations: 

Abstractor of Titles 


Advertising agent: newspaper, pam- 
phlet, etc. 


Bookkeeper or accountant. 

Cashier: bank, store, etc. 

Clerks: bank, railroad, government, 
life insurance, store, etc. 

Cigar manufacturer and proprietor. 


Commercial travelers: in some lines. 

Coal dealer. 

Contractor: building, etc. 

Corporation secretary or treasurer. 


County and political offices: register 

of deeds, postmaster, etc. 
Electrotyper (proprietor). 

Fire insurance agent. 
Fruit raiser or grove proprietor. 

Hotel proprietor or manager. 

Inventor or patentee. 

Iron and steel dealer. 


Life insurance agent. 

Livery stable. 

Loan speculator or negotiator. 

Lumber dealer and contractor. 

Manager of newspaper. 

Manufacturers: many kinds. 

Mercantile business: some branches. 

Mills: flour, saw, planing, etc. 



Publisher: book, newspaper, job. 


Real-estate dealer. 
Restaurant proprietor. 
Steamboat captain. 
Stock raiser or ranchman. 
Subscription book publisher or agent. 
Traveling penman. 

Undertaker (assistant). 

In nearly all the above kinds of business, the success of deaf persons have 
been manifested as an earnest of their ability. Deaf persons have plain sail- 
ing in many lines. If they have uphill work in certain avocations on account 
of their deafness, their firmness and capability often achieve success. " Of 
suffrance comes ease." I did not have time to investigate some business open- 
ings for the deaf. But the occupations in the above list are of such variety 
that it is plain that deaf persons can engage in almost any kind of business in 
spite of their deafness. If only a few deaf persons have pursued certain occu- 
pations, it is because the deaf mute class forms a very small part of the popu- 

Others have been asked to read papers on trades and professions, but in 
this connection it may be said that, as shown in the above list of occupations, 

1 68 Mr. L. A. Palmer on 

many deaf persons having been apprenticed in industrial training, are in bus- 
iness for themselves in the respective trades they learned. Also, many deaf 
persons, though not in strictly business occupatious, have shown large business 
capacity in their professions, such as lawyers, principals of deaf and dumb 
schools, etc. 

If deafness is a disadvantage, it is not an insuperable obstacle in the path 
of success. Coupled with it, the decision to accomplish something is often made, 
especially when a deaf person is compelled to make a living, or becomes 
aroused with an ambition to be a peer of anybody. Some one has truly said,"So 
few men are earnest that earnestness is their mark of distinction." As the great 
mass of people are not generally strenuous, deaf people ought, by energy, to 
make considerable headway among them. If time did not forbid I would gladly 
refer to the successful careers of some notable deaf persons, who have been in 
business occupations of a very high character, such as county registers (one in 
a populous city), a steamboat captain for thirty years on the Mississippi, bank 
cashiers, real estate dealers, several corporation secretaries and treasurers, 

A greater number of deaf men are engaged in farming than in any other 
kind of employment; naturally so, because the agricultural class of people — 
the " bone and sinew"- — forms a majority of a nation's population. In this 
calling deaf men are more on an even footing with hearing men than in any 
other. This is fortunate for them, considering the good returns of farm work 
and the cheap living. Vegetable or fruit raising, poultry, apiary, or anything 
incident to a country home, often pays a diligent deaf person handsomely. It 
appears that many deaf persons are steady and content on their farms. As a 
rule, deaf persons should work on their father's farms which they may subse- 
quently possess, instead of going to towns. Many deaf young men fail to get 
employment in the trades they have learned. Then they may well try their 
hands at farming, where cheap labor and cheap living harmoniz*. Certain 
owners of fine truck farms, vineyards, orange groves, etc., are deaf people. 

Among first-class bookkeepers may be found a few deaf persons. The 
surprise is that there are not more of them. Perhaps many deaf persons think 
they carinot take a course at a business school where hearing pupils are taught. 
In this they are mistaken. A few educated deaf persons have graduated 
easily from a hearing business school, and others doubtless can do so. Or, they 
can get and study by themselves, books on the science of accounts, commercial 
paper and its ethics, business forms and law, commercial calculations, etc. 
Single entry bookkeeping will be sufficient for keeping a few personal and 
cash accounts, but the theory and practice of double entry ought to be well 
understood in those kinds of business which involve extended and complicated 
transactions. A bookkeeper has good opportunities of advancement in busi- 
ness if he is on the lookout. He may finally become a head bookkeeper, 
cashier, manager, commercial traveler, or an interested partner, etc. Also, a 
knowledge of bookkeeping will enable anybody to keep an accurate account of 
his income and out go, and often makes him successful, or saves him loss, in 
any business undertaking. Every person engaging in business should possess 

Business Opportunities Open to the Deaf. 169 

such knowledge so that he can keep books or verify the work of any book- 
keeper he employs. It is true deaf persons cannot fill some bookkeeper's 
positions, but hearing is not absolutely required in many such positions. If 
they are good penmen, they will likely get a chance to become bookkeepers. 
Bookkeeping is the key to experience in almost any kind of business. 

A few deaf men have been commercial travelers or drummers. Some of 
them seem to have met with good success. Many deaf persons are successful 
book agents in their travels. Deaf drummers may pursue nearly the same 
method in canvassing as deaf book agents do; so it seems they can succeed as 
well in some cases. Of course a high grade of intelligence is required 
for this occupation, but in these days many deaf persons are as intelligent as 
hearing drummers. Some of them can speak and write quite well, or use 
printed circulars and ready-written sheets which jobbers or retailers can read, 
and these will often do as much good as any amount of " talk." Perhaps it 
may be best for deaf persons to sell but one article like many hearing drum- 
mers, instead of a full line of goods. 

One or two deaf men, to my knowledge, have done well as newspaper 
advertising agents. One may begin soliciting advertisements on commission 
for a weekly paper, and as he makes business acquaintances in person or 
through correspondence, he will likely get good pay. Many hearing persons 
have become managers or proprietors of newspapers by being first adver- 
tising agents. This applies also to deaf persons, as my experience confirms. 

A few bright deaf persons have been in the fire and life insurance business, 
and met reasonable success. Perhaps too much argument is sometimes 
required in life insurance for deaf solicitors to do much good, but pluck has 
told happily in some cases. Two or more deaf persons get on very well in fire 
iasurance. One of them says that the best way for an intelligent deaf person 
who wishes to enter that field is to go into some large agency as a clerk, learn 
the business, and then if he is in love with it, have a hearing and speaking 
partner; if he can do so, buy out a party having a good run of business, etc. 

Deaf persons are naturally thinkers; the reason is simply deafness. Then 
it is no wonder that many of them have made curious and useful inventions. 
Some have become patentees. It is said that the sale of a patent car-coupler 
is bringing one of them a good sum. Some deaf persons are now studying 
electricity as a specialty, and, it is hoped, will reap something by their inven- 
tions in that boundless domain of discovery. It is said that the greatest in- 
ventor of the day is benefited by his partial deafness. 

Deaf persons have been engaged in manufacturing and mercantile busi- 
ness. There is much risk in these kinds of business. Of course, the utmost 
care is required to prevent failure, but as some instances show, deaf persons 
who thoroughly understand business principles and apply them in those direc- 
tions, have as much reason for success as almost anybody. 

Comment cannot now be made on other occupations in the above list. 
Fanning has just been spoken of, because it is the best and easiest occupation 
for a great many deaf bread-winners. A few other occupations have been 
mentioned at length, because it seems rather unusual for deaf persons to be 

170 Mr. L. A. Palmer on 

engaged in them. Still a few other occupations in the list are seemingly im- 
possible to deaf people, but as proved by known instances, success is possible 
to them in almost any occupation mentioned. The best way for a deaf person to 
succeed is to be as much as possible like hearing people. Their successful 
methods ought to be imitated closely. Also, original ideas should be conceived 
which, at a stage of experiment, seem to promise good when fully carried out 
A few words may be said as to the choice of a business occupation. " Our 
wishes are presentiments of our capacities; " this is sometimes a good guide in 
selecting an avocation. A deaf person should certainly study different occu- 
pations in order to find out his aptitude. He will often find it well to take ad- 
vice with business men, both deaf and hearing, as to his business capacity and 
prospect of success in the different kinds of business pursued by them. Every- 
body knows more than anybody. It has sometimes proved beneficial to a deaf 
man to be associated with his father or relative in the conduct of his business. 
In cases of this kind an excellent opportunity to be master of a bustness is af- 
forded by the kindness of kin. Sometimes a deaf person cannot fix upon any 
occupation. The proclivity of a man is not always manifest until he has tried 
something. The suggestion contained in the oft-said words, " I will do any- 
thing, I will try anything," may be well taken by those who will take subordi- 
nate positions before entering any particular business. If but low wages can 
be had at first, it should not discourage any one that intends to work. Such a one 
can expect better pay with experience according as his merit produces a good 
effect. The training given in successive promotion from a low to a high posi- 
tion will likely be helpful to anybody when he embarks in some calling ol his 
choice. Often circumstances alone lead one into a particular line of business. 
A deaf person should study his situation with all the light he can get and de- 
cide accordingly. 

The importance of adhering to the occupation which one has deliberately 
chosen cannot be gainsaid. " Stick to it and win." If a deaf person does not 
lose money, he ought not to make a change in business from mere discourage- 
ment or a dislike of his occupation. A fair trial should be made before any 
change. "A rolling stone gathers no moss." However, one may err egie- 
giously in the choice of his calling and be compelled to abandon it, and choose 
anew as a necessity. Besides one's own reason, the best counsel should be 
taken from sensible friends before making any change in calling. 

It is not the province of this paper to give maxims as rules of success in 
life. Pointers as to thrift, industry, etc., may be obtained from " Self Help,'' 
" The Successful Merchant," and other books. But the peculiar condition of 
the deaf suggests several things which will now be briefly said, showing how a 
deaf person may be fitted out in a business career. (1) Good school or college 
education is more important to deaf than hearing persons, as an aid to their 
business training. (2) In business deaf persons ought to overcome their pe- 
culiar shyness and use their endeavor. (3) Deaf persons should appreciate 
the commercial value of cordiality, which often covers any lack of ease in their 
communication with the hearing, and which, also often precludes any thought 
of their deafness as an element of pity. (4) A reputation for integrity, the 

Business Opportunities Open to the Deaf. 1 7 1 

foundation of all legitimate business success, is peerless to deaf persons, as by 
their inability or difficulty in speech, they sometimes fail to explain away strange 
or shadowy acts. (5) Deaf persons often must work harder and more patiently 
than hearing persons in the same business. 

It is always necessary for a deaf person to set out with capital. Some one 
says, " Some succeed by great talent, some by high connections, some by mir- 
acle, but the majority by commencing without a shilling." The greater num- 
ber of failures is not among men of limited means, but among men of limited 
knowledge. Any one who would be conversant with any kind of business 
must climb from the foot to the top of the ladder. In nearly all cases large 
capital is only needed in a business which has grown in its volume. Deaf per- 
sons should always gain experience by being in the employ of others. If they 
have no money to invest, they can remember that many who have capital to 
back enterprises are ready to appreciate merit and join experienced men. 

As to the hard times prevailing in this and other countries, it is true that 
more than a bare living can hardly be made now in many lines of business. 
Of course, any investment of money should in these days be made only after 
consideration of all conditions in the question of success, or perhaps none 
should be made until the financial stringency is relieved. " There is small 
choice between rotten apples." 

The ability of speaking well, which some "semi-mutes" possess, no doubt 
helps them in business. About fifty per cent, of the educated deaf cannot 
speak at all. But it may be said that to communicate well in any other way, 
i. e., by pencil and tablet or the manual alphabet, is better than to speak poorly. 
In fact, education often makes good the inability or imperfection in speech, 
and this is attested by some well known instances of " congenial mutes," who 
by energy have achieved complete success in high avocations. 

It is easy to understand that well educated deaf persons enjoy being in- 
dependent in business. On account of their deafness, they are glad to be free 
from any uneasiness which, if in subordinate positions, they would feel about 
their work being satisfactory to employers. Many deaf persons who have 
learned trades may well branch out for themselxes in business. Some of them 
may possibly succeed, for the reasons given above, and then they are as free 
as the American flag. If they fail, they have their trades to fall back upon. 
It may be said that deaf business men, who are independent, correct more mis- 
conceptions of the public about the deaf, than those deaf in almost any other 
walk of life. " Business makes men." Owen Feltham says : " That man is 
but the lower part of the world that is not brought up to business and its 

By state and national aid in the way of education, the natural talent of 
deaf persons has become apparent in trades, professions and business. May 
the public ever appreciate the true worth of the deaf mute class, and encour- 
age its progress in the path of happiness and prosperity. 

Mr. George: I shall now invite Mr. Hodgeson to take the 
chair for the remainder of the session. 

172 Mr. L. A. Palmer on 

Mr. Hodgeson (taking the chair): I appreciate the honor of 
presiding over such a representative body of the educated deaf 
assembled together from all parts of the civilized world. I am 
sure the meetings of the Congress of the Deaf will exert a 
strong influence upon matters relating to the education of the 
deaf, and feel confident that no body of men could be more capa- 
ble of discussing educational topics than that assembled here to- 
day. The opinions of the deaf had for many years been ignored, 
and on certain occasions their capability to form an opinion on 
the merits of educational methods had been openly denied. But 
the papers read at this congress were destined to be read the 
world over, and on the wisdom of an unprejudiced public the deaf 
can confidently rely. We shall now proceed to business. The 
concluding paper on the Industrial and Professional topic will be 
presented by its auther, whom I will now introduce in the person 
of Mr. Gaillard. 



[Translated by Mr. T. F. Fox.] 
Gentlemen : 

If I have requested the Committee on Programme of the Congress 
to place this paper with the special papers, it is for the purpose of ob- 
taning a unanimous expression of your approbation for a series of important 
resolutions, and to obtain from the lights of the Congress practical information 
upon the manner of applying, or of making use of these resolutions. 

But in order to better show the importance of propositions I believe good 
and useful, not for you, gentlemen, but for the hearing world which looks at us, 
which appreciates our work, in showing the deaf mute world almost in its en- 
tirety as it has been, as it is, and as it will be. 

I need not recount its miserable existence in the stagnation of vilensss and 
ignorance, in the depth of its social low estate, before the coming of men of 
genius, who undertook its deliverance; the greatest of all these, the most gen- 
erous and most modest, should be greeted as the equal of a Columbus, for he 
discovered a new world. 

This man, you all know and can contemplate his features, affable and 
sweet like his soul, in the bust that M. Felix Plessis has presented to you. 

He is Abbe de l'Epee. 

Since the day of this great Frenchman and of his followers of all nations; 
since the time of Heinicke, that great German rival and admirer of Abbe de 
l'Epee; and since the time of Gallaudet, that grand American, we can say that 
the deaf mute world, in spite of prejudices and in spite of obstacles accumu- 
lated by envy, has impressed itself upon the attention of all. 

Here more particularly, among you, dear brothers of the United States of 
America, the existence of this new world shines in all its brightness. Your 
wonderful and powerful organizations, your numerous papers, frequent and 
independent, the social rank which you have been able to attain, and this 
splendid and important congress organized for our good, all these prove that 
you really are free citizens in a free country, and that if you have the free 
disposal of your rights you have also the liberty to defend them. 

And the labors of the Congress show that in Germany, in Austria, in Eng- 
land, in Sweden and Norway, in France, and I go beyond that, in Switzerland, 
the deaf mute world each day takes its place toward the sun. 

There are not few, and I ascertain with regret, among the Latin nations, 
Italy and Spain, the Musselman's nation and of the Greek religion, where we 

174 Mr. Henri Gaillard on a Reviezv of the Contemporary 

do not find any vestige of emancipation in the deaf-mute world. Perhaps a 
day will come to remove the torpor of the deaf mutes of those countries. 

But, gentlemen, I desire to have you see, that in France, since the Inter- 
national Congress in Paris in 1889, when you were able for the most part to 
ascertain that the social condition of the deaf mute was not very brilliant, that 
the deaf showed a culpable indifference to all that concerned the amelioration 
of their condition, a great change has been effected. 

This change is the work of the new generation of Silent French and 
especially of the Gazette des Sourds-Muets. 

Nevertheless, deaf mutes in France go more and more into the hearing 
world, entering, if they are of superior education, into the most polished circles 
and clubs; or, if they belong to the people, they join political committees, 
obtaining also earnest protection. For those who are citizens, their relations 
are very amiable and courteous. All, without distinction of class, attend all 
fetes, they are present everywhere, they protest more and more of their condi- 
tion as deaf mutes in order to make a breach in the deep rooted prejudice in 
France to their consideration. The deaf mute artists daily compete with hear- 
ing artists, either in the Ecoles des Beaux Arts, or in the Exposition des Beaux 
Arts, and very often win weighty recompense. 

And now that pantomime is reviving in France, there are deaf mutes 
endowed with real mimic qualities, beautiful and clear of gesture, supple and 
flexible of body, who intend to enter the theatre. Prejudices obstinately strong 
rose against them, but our deaf-mute mimics continued incessably to give 
assault to these prejudices. They even claim the right to be soldiers, to serve 
their country in the time of war, as letter carriers and ambulance attendants. 
Those who are expert in games of sport, swimming, running, shooting, 
bicycling, take part in such contests among the hearing. Others go still 
further, they dare to enter journalism, high literature, drama or romance. To 
those who fear that they will be vanquished, they reply that the loss of hearing 
brings greater observation to the silent and meditative study of life, to the 
reasoning analysis of passions, and gives greater flight to the imagination and 
refines the sense of devination. Up to this time their efforts have not won 
success, but they are aware that success comes only to those who labor in 
knowing expectation. 

An Exposition by deaf-mute artists has been held at the extremity of the 
Champ des Mars. Another has been organized this month of July at the 
Palais de F Industrie. Two of the greatest French deaf-mute artists, MM. 
Rene Princeteam and Paul Chappin, are encouraging the expositions by their 
courageous connection with them. On this subject, gentlemen, permit me to 
inform you that one of the French members of this Congress, M. Felix Plessis, 
hopes that an exposition by deaf mutes of different nations may be held from 
time to time. This, I consider a very useful idea for the purpose of showing 
the progress accomplished by our little world. 

But there is one thing due to a great hearing friend of deaf mutes, and 
which I hope you will notice and recommend; it is the deaf mutes' Musee Uni- 
versel erected by M. Theopile Denis, Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, for- 

Deaf Mute World — Cotisequences Which Flow From it. 175 

merly Chief of Bureau to the Minister of the Interior, author of numerous 
remarkable works on deaf mutes. 

All the leading deaf-mute artists bring their most important works to this 
museum, and not only the French artists, but foreign artists also, for they are 
included in Paris. This cradle of the universal regeneration of deaf mutes 
was worthy to possess the conservatory of all that the deaf mutes of the world 
produced of the greatest beauty and remarkably useful. It is thought that 
Paris would make brilliant the crown of glory of the deaf-mute world. 

I wish you then, my dear American friends, and those of other nations, to 
agree to bring to our museum the splendid things you have made and with 
which you may not find it inconvenient to part. 

In participating in the glory of this exhibit, you will contribute in showing 
your pride, alike of your respective countries and your works, and that you all 
think for her and her welfare. 

In the meantime, it will not be necessary for you to give up the idea of 
establishing in your own countries other exhibitions for deaf mutes. The 
initiative of Paris calls for numerous examples, and that in the interest of the 
deaf mutes of the whole world, and fix the purpose of putting a final end to 

As long as they exist, deaf mutes will have pain to live, and in all their 
efforts to be freed from the injustice of their condition, for the purpose of 
proving their mental vitality; they must strike at the surrounding hostility, at 
the stupid misconceptions, that is to say, at the fear of the new which is char- 
acteristic of the races of the old world. 

Do you wish a proof of this nonsense and error producing " misconcep- 
tions" about the deaf mutes? Do you wish even two of them? I am much 
pleased to give you those which have been furnished me, the first by an 
Italian teacher of deaf mutes, M. Molfino, and the second by a royal German 
counsellor, M. Renz, lately deceased, who formed himself a pinnacle of deaf 
mutes, occupying in it all his life. Both have made allusion to the deaf mute 
Congress, that is to say, to these manifestations which affirms our very high 
existence in the world of thought and liberty. 

Speaking of the International Congress of Deaf Mutes at Paris in 1889, M. 
Molfino likened us to invalids, and asked how long shall they examine 
invalids on the nature of remedies which are proper for them. 

Referring to the National Congress of German Deaf Mutes, held at Han- 
over in 1892, M. Renz ironically ridiculed our German brothers: "These unfor- 
tunates, the most unhappy of unfortunates,' said he; "argued on their 

I see from here, gentlemen, your revengeful indignation, your evident 
desire to nail down or pillor such individuals, and in the meantime I would say 
to you that there is only one thing they deserve; the pity which is given to 
those without sense. 

Victor Hugo wrote to a deaf-mute poet, Pelessier: " What matters the 
deafness of the ear when the intellect hears; the only deafness, the real deaf- 
ness, the incurable deafness, is that of the mind!" 

176 Mr. Henri Gaillard on A Review of the Contemporary 

The genial poet was right. If to-day or the day after, all the inhabitants 
of the earth were to become deaf, if there remained only a few who could hear, 
absolutely incapable by paralysis of the hands and arms of expressing their 
thoughts by gestures, you would see if the world did not show itself worser, 
that humanity would make slow progress towards the best and the right, and 
that the infirm would then be the paralysed hearing people compelled to under- 
stand each other by speech. 

However, would that the rest of us did not hear the cruelty of the nick- 
name, infirm as they would make us. 

Infirm we are not. In order to be infirm in the true sense of the word it is 
necessary to be deprived of a limb, be bandy-legged, one-armed, crippled, 
blind or blind of one eye. Now there are infirm deaf mutes, for there are deaf 
mutes who are blind, blind of one eye, one-armed and cripples. 

Other deaf mutes should not properly be spoken of as infirm. The loss of 
hearing has put them in an inferior condition and that is all. 

" By being disinherited of one sense, we are not disinherited of intelligence. 
We think, then we are;" I wrote in 1887. 

Well! gentlemen, it is necessary that we should prove what we are, that in 
doing this we should not recoil before anything, if we wish to claim very late, 
our share of happiness in future society. 

It is necessary that we loudly demand our rights as deaf mutes to speak 
for deaf mutes. 

The City of Paris, in voting a grant to two delegates of the Paris deaf 
mutes to your Congress, has publicly recognized this right. I suggest to you, 
gentlemen, to thank, with the French delegates, the municipal council of the 
capital of France, and to vote with unanimous acclamation. 

And I ask that you be willing to take into consideration the plans of the 
following resolutions: 

The International Congress of Deaf Mutes at Chicago, considering: 

That the work of the emancipation of deaf mutes, commenced by the 
hearing, can through the progress made by the deaf-mute world be completed 
and finished by the deaf themselves; express their desire: 

1st. That every nation recognize for its deaf mutes the right to be 
employed in assisting other deaf mutes, their subjects; 

2nd. That in order to render this right more efficacious, there should be 
established in every state, a national commission of deaf mutes, in which may 
sit deaf mutes, specially elected by their brothers; while one-half of the mem- 
bers, hearing and speaking, shall be chosen by the superior administartion. 

The Congress equally: 

Pledges the deaf mutes of different nations mutually to aid and co-operate 
for the purpose of reciprocally succeeding among those claiming them chiefs, 
and this through the medium of the silent press, and by their principal asso- 
ciations or committees in every country. 

The Chair: We shall now proceed to the consideration of 

" The State of Deaf-Mute Education." Mr. G. W. Veditz will 

present the American side in signs, while Mr. T. F. Fox reads it 




The optimist will find it a very pleasant task to review the condition of 
deaf-mute education in America, and, aside from partisan proclivities, the pes- 
simist, like Othello, would find his occupation gone, were he to essay a similar 
undertaking. By " partisan proclivities " I refer to the two rival camps into 
which the profession of educating the deaf has split in this country; the pure 
oralists, to whom, as to Goethe's Faust, la Parole is the first manifestation of 
the creative quintessence, and the combattant for the combined system, whose 
watchword is " the greatest good to the greatest number." 

I must confess that I am not free from these "partisan proclivities " myself,. 
otherwise I would not be an American; but my task is not to review the merits 
of rival methods, but rather the condition and results of deaf-mute education 

Referring to the last tabular statement of American schools for the deaf,, 
published in the January, 1893, issue of the Annuals, we find that the total 
number of deaf mute schools in this country and Canada is eighty-seven, eighty 
being in the United States. Of those in the United States, sixty-two are pub- 
lic schools, that is are supported by the respective States and Territories in 
which they are located. The remaining eighteen are classed as denominational 
and private schools. 

The amount appropriated for the public schools during the last fiscal year 
ranged from $110,829 received by the New York Institution, and $550 appro- 
priated for the Wasau, Wisconsin, Day School, and aggregated, for fifty-one 
schools from which returns were received, $1,564,688. The amount received 
by each school is of course proportionate to its size and the wealth of the State, 
all the States being generally quite liberal in the support accorded. The de- 
nominational and private schools depend upon tuition fees and voluntary con- 
tributions, and their revenue is therefore a variable quantity. 

The value of the real estate owned by the fifty-two schools aggregated, in 
round numbers, $10,430,000, Pennsylvania, the wealthiest, being credited with 
a round million, and ten others owning between $350,000 and $750,000 each. 
These figures will serve to demonstrate that our American commonwealths 
are not governed by a niggardly policy in the support of their special schools, 
but provide comfortable and Adequate buildings, grounds and other facilities. 

The total number of pupils under instruction during the school year was 
9,264; 8,865 in the public and 399 in the private and denominational schools. 
The number attending Canadian schools was 780, giving a total for eighty- 
seven schools of 10,044. These pupils, besides being taken through a course 
of study that fitted graduates for admission to the National Deaf-Mute College 
also received instruction in various mechanical occupations, the chief trades 

178 Mr. George W. Veditz on 

taught being printing, shoemaking, carpentry, cabinet making and tailoring- 
Thirty-eight other industries are included in the list, so that in a great majority 
of the schools the range of choice is so great that each pupil can be taught the 
trade for which he is best fitted by inclination and natural capacity. The value 
•of these mechanical departments is demonstrated by the fact that by far the 
larger number of adult deaf receive good wages and make a comparatively 
comfortable living at skilled handicrafts, and that there are very few who are 
non-supporting and have become a burden in the community. 

As I noted at the beginning of this paper, there are two great and widely 
distinct methods of instruction in vogue — the combined system and the pure 
oral method. To these should be added the manual method and the manual 
alphabet method. The number of schools in which the manual method is ob- 
served is seven, and the number of pupils taught seventy-two. Most of these 
schools, as may be guessed from the small number of pupils taught, are day 
schools or private and denominational schools. The sign language, the manual 
alphabet, and writing are the chief means used in instruction. Articulation 
and lip-reading have no place on the programme, either as a means or an end. 

The manual method is employed in but two schools, the Western New 
York (where it originated) and the Notre Dame school, at Cincinnati, Ohio; 
152 pupils receiving instruction in the former and eight in the latter. As may 
be inferred from the name of the method, the manual alphabet is made the 
principal medium of instruction, though speech and speech-reading are given 
great importance, all the pupils receiving training in these branches. 

The oral method will need no definition. Its tenets and purposes are too 
well known to require mention. The sign language is rigorously banned with 
candle, book and bell, and wherever its cloven foot dares to show itself, exor- 
cism more or less severe is called into service. This is what the leading 
schools following the method profess, but nevertheless the strange fact remains 
that on leaving school their graduates are generally a great deal more profi- 
cient in the use of gestures than in that of their speech apparatus. 

Twenty schools follow this method, and of the eighteen denominational 
and private schools, eleven are found in its ranks. Seven hundred and sev- 
enty-six pupils received instruction on the 15th of November, 1892. Trades 
and mechanical occupations were taught in but eight of these schools. 

We now come to the' great, distinctly American system of instruction in 
vogue both in this country and Canada — the combined system. The great 
motto of this system is " the greatest good to the greatest number," and its 
great beauty is that it can and does adjust itself to all sorts and conditions of 
mental capacities, from the poor child verging close on imbecility to spirits 
burning with celestial fire. It recognizes the value and importance of speech 
and lip reading and gives them a due place on its programme, but it does not 
bow the head and bend the knee in fanatic devotion to its clairns. The man- 
ual method is accorded equal rank and recognition, the sign language flourish- 
ing like a green bay tree, and out of school hours pupils can indulge them- 
selves in its use without restriction, and without dread of a warning " don't." 

This system obtains in fifty-eight of the eighty-seven American schools. 

The State of Deaf Mute Educatio?i in America. 179 

The number of pupils in attendance November 15th, 1892, was 7,620. Of these 
pupils 3,238 were taught speech and speech reading, and 908 were taught 
wholly by the oral method. I have no doubt that by far the great majority of 
the deaf men and women present at this Congress owe allegiance and filial 
gratitude to this system. 

Seven hundred and six teachers are employed in the eighty schools in the 
United States, and seventy-five in Canada. Of these 781 teacher, 479 are 
women and 302 men. The articulation teachers number 324. It is a signifi- 
cant fact that by far the greater number of these articulation teachers are 
women. The deaf teachers number 181, or about 23 per cent, of the whole. 
If the articulation schools are left out, where their employment is necessarily 
out of the question, the percentage is increased to 27. If all articulation teach- 
ers are left out of the computation, the proportion is 39 per cent., or a little less 
than two deaf to three hearing teachers. I believe that, so far as numbers go, 
deaf teachers are steadily holding their own, notwithstanding the fact that a 
prejudice is cropping out against them in unexpected quarters, as instanced 
by the very original report and recommendations of the Honorable William 
Rhinelander Stewart, advocating the removal of all deaf teachers employed in 
the New York schools, some time last spring. But such statements coming 
from suGh sources, and so utterly ridiculous and unsubstantiated by evidence, 
are calculated rather to strengthen than undermine the cause of really de- 
serving and capable deaf teachers, and they can easily afford to serenely 
ignore such attacks. 

I believe that notwithstanding the encroachments made by'articulation and 
pure oralism, the proportion of deaf to hearing teachers is very likely to remain 
about the same. Even before the introduction of articulation into this country 
the ratio was never more than one to two. I doubt that it will ever become 
greater, nor would a consistent adherent of the combined system desire such 
an increase. 

I am not prepared to discuss in detail the question of salaries. In many 
schools there is a marked discrepancy between the pay received by deaf and 
that received by hearing teachers. In others no such difference exists, deaf 
teachers getting even better compensation than their hearing colleagues, as I 
think is the case in Ohio and Minnesota. Where there is discrimination, 
the removal rests with the teachers themselves. It'is my candid opinion that 
truly capable, efficient and deserving teachers who do not hide their light under 
a bushel, rarely have reason to complain of the salaries they receive, for the 
heads of our schools are quick to recognize their valne, and do not hesitate to 
offer them sufficient inducements to stay. 

Referring again to the question of methods, it may be said that the pure 
oral is distinctively aggressive, and the combined system on the defensive. 
The former is demanding and the latter making concessions, but it cannot be 
said that in thus giving greater prominence to speech and lip-reading, the 
combined system has lost any of its distinctive features nor have any proselytes 
been made among the schools in which for the last quarter of a century it has 
been followed. The decision whether one method or the other is to be ob- 

180 Mr. George W. Veditz on 

served rests with the superintendent and governing board of each school, but 
if the question were left to the deaf themselves to decide, there is little doubt 
as to what the result would be. The petition presented last year to the Kaiser 
by eight hundred of the most prominent deaf mutes of Germany is a signifi- 
cant pointer in this matter. 

Summing up, I believe I may say without fear of contradiction, that not- 
withstanding the divergent and conflicting views held by the advocates of dif- 
fering methods, the state of deaf-mute education in America is such that in 
this, as in so many other matters, we lead the world. With flourishing and 
well conducted schools, no matter what the method, in every State; with liberal 
financial support and endowment in land and buildings; with compulsory edu- 
cation laws; with earnest and progressive teachers; with finely equipped in- 
dustrial departments; with an attendance outranking that of any other coun- 
try; with the only collegiate institution for the deaf in the world; and lastly, 
with the preponderance of the best method, and the prevalence of that price- 
less heritage of the deaf, of that medium through which this Congress is holding 
its proceedings — the language of signs — the result could not be otherwise. 

The Chair: The paper that follows will be read by M. Gaill- 
ard for the author, who is not present. 

French Committee of Participation in the International Con- 
gress of Deaf Mutes in Chicago. 



[Translated by Mr. D. W. George.] 

Before entering upon this grave subject confided to my modest intellect- 
ual co-operation, I would like to introduce myself a little, that is to explain by 
what force of circumstances I am constrained by devotion to my brothers in 
misfortune to accept this difficult and responsible task. 

I was previously obliged to decline the honor of expressing my impartial 
views concerning the associations of the deaf in France, for the simple reason 
that I would necessarily have been brought to set forth my own humble but 
faithful and disinterested labors — a thing that is wholly repugnant to my 
nature — preferring, however, to let this devolve upon those who more directly 
and more sensibly experience the beneficient results. 

In presence of an entirely different subject, or, as my gallant and ingenius 
friend, M. Gaillard, has more aptly remarked, a subject on which my experi- 
ence, my tastes and my impartiality, are very much at ease, I repeat that my 
conscience and my judgment command me imperiously to take up this intel- 
lectual tournament, seeing that there will have been nearly thirty years during 
which I have made myself familiar with the manifold duties of the special 
instruction of the deaf. 

I said at the commencement that it was a difficult task, for there is no 
instruction in France so bothersome as that of the deaf. Everyone wishes to 
express an opinion, to pnt forth a theory, while they leave out practice a little 
too much. In order to state my meaning more precisely, allow me to make a 
comparison based upon experience in industrial training in the production of 
texile fabrics at Elbeuf, my native town. So from from training the learners 
by theory they have constant recourse to practice. They have all the instru- 
ments in operation on the spot before their eyes, they have recourse to all the 
operations involved in the manufacture of the cloth; in that way they certainly 
make a more direct impression upon the understanding and the mind; while 
if they were to employ theory alone, there would always be groping hesitation, 
uncertainty and the results would evidently be very much less satisfactory. 
Well! with still greater reason when it relates to the deaf who only learn by 
SIGHT and never by hearing, there is, and always will be, an immense advan- 
tage by adopting the same processes which I have just indicated. The teacher, 
if he is intelligent, conscientious and liberal, will not have to preoccupy him- 
self with the theories of others; this would be a loss of time and incur vexation 
to himself, so much the more as he only teaches him really well whom he knows 
and understands well himself. Shut up in his class-room with his pupils, he 

1 82 Mr. Louis Capon o?i 

will easily study the temperament, the degree of intelligence and aptitude of 
each, without forgetting his character and favorite propensity. His attention 
will bear almost exclusively upon all that which surrounds the pupils, as well 
as all the circumstances that strike their vision, and he will make daily use of 
them by having them repeat sometimes by spoken word, and sometimes in 
writing, beginning with very short sentences; in this way the deaf will easily 
and gradually come to understand, by intuition, the art of writing correctly 
according to the rules of grammar. This is to simplify, as it were, this intri- 
cate instruction. As one may observe the teacher makes use of no other text 
book than his own mind, seeing that he has to do with constant translating in 
the form of dictation excersise the thing that the pupils are witnesses of every 
day — actions, ceremonies, accidents, incidents, emotions, surprises, the weather, 
politeness, impoliteness, etc., etc. 

Proceeding in this manner always interests the pupils in the highest degree, 
and awakens their attention without ceasing. It is in some measure to teach 
them while amusing them. When the mind is contented, one learns doubly 
and with the best will, while by means of harshness one loses almost all of the 
fruits of an excessively strenuous labor; for nothing is more true than that 
blows stupify those who receive them, and vilify them who give them. There 
is, then, no advantage on either side. 

I come, necessarily, to a grave and delicate matter, that which relates to 
the complete suppression, by the Government, of the semi-mute and the deaf- 
mute teachers in the national institutions. From my own knowledge the 
repeated observations of a career of twenty-eight years as a teacher, I must 
tell the truth and nothing but the truth; they have committed, involuntarily 
it may be, I prefer to think so, an unfortunate blunder and a poignant act 
of injustice. I am a living proof of it. If, in the beginning, I had received the 
slightest impression that I was more harmful than helpful, I would have 
quit right then and there in the interest of my brothers in misfortune. But, by 
whom have I been trained and educated? By a semi-mute teacher, M. Benja- 
man Dubois, to whom I send a most affectionate and grateful rememberance; 
and also by the deaf-mute teachers, MM. Ferdinand Berthier and Alphonso 
Lenoir, I address to them likewise, there on high where their admirable and 
grand devotion has justly gained a crowning recompense, the expression of my 
filial and eternal gratitude. 

I should here declare most emphatically, for the honor of their memory, 
especially that of our immortal benefactor, the Abbe de l'Epee, that the sign 
language conjoined with speech, so far from inflicting injury in any manner 
whatsoever, is calculated to develope more rapidly and more surely the intel- 
ligence of the poor deaf mute. God, in his infinite mercy, has made him a gift 
of another kind of living language; as that which they teach in the lyceumsof 
the government, that is, to speak English, one needs to learn English, and if 
one succeeds, one is more advanced and better educated since one would 
know two languages. It is the same in regard to the sign language. No one 
should seek to cause such a benefit to disappear for this would be more like 
criticising nature than returning thanks. Hearing people themselves employ, 

The State of Deaf Mute Education in France. 183. 

without doubt, this sign language very often in conversation with one another. 
An educated deaf mute can easily divine what they are saying by simply 
watching the movement of their hands ?md the play of their features. The 
cause of their invouluntary sign is their inability to find the proper word or 
the proper expression equivalent to the description of a thing. Orators and 
preachers make a multitude of signs and thereby render their ideas still more 
effective. Therefore, I repeat in the most conscientious manner, that in ex- 
plaining by this means the meaning of words and phrases which one teaches 
through speech, the results will be more promptly satisfying, and the reasoning 
power will have a great deal more of clearness; otherwise, it will produce a 
veritable Tower of Babel among the deaf mutes, and this unjust and unmerited 
evil will bring on a most marked decadence. 

When a deaf mute, who has any taste for speech, is in condition to pro- 
nounce everything with the sense of all the significations, he will insensibly 
drop the use of signs and he will seek no more assistance from them than do 
the hearing and speaking in the same circumstances, but he will retain the 
immense and charitable advantage of being able to converse with his brothers 
in misfortune by means of his two languages. Those who do not use the 
same language, but who, however, find need to have intercourse with one 
another, have recourse to this same means; with still greater reason, there- 
fore, it would be cruel and inhuman to seek to paralize this touching and nec- 
essary spirit among the deaf. 

Without assistance from anyone, not even from my worthy spouse, who, 
really, did not begin to second me until 1883, at the time of the removal of my 
school from Caudebeck-les-Elbeuf to Elbeuf, I undertook, in 1871, the training 
and special instruction of a young deaf-mute lady by word of mouth, for seven 
consecutive years. The results attained by the vibratory and reciprocal touch 
astonished all Elbeuf and especially the family of the young lady. Nature, by 
a strange freak of destiny, seems disposed to put all the treasures of the ear 
before the eyes of the deaf speaking teacher and his pupils. By a mechanic- 
ism of artificial speech, based upon the movements of the lips and the teeth, 
they understood one another marvellously well. By means of the vibratory 
and reciprocal touch, they assured themselves readily of the desired degree of 

I have taught in this manner for twenty-eight years in the sight of the 
whole world. However, since 1884, at the heels of an official visit of an 
inspector general, whose courage, if not his principles, commands my respect, 
they have not consented to recognize the ability of a deaf-speaking man to 
teach by the oral method. So far from being discouraged, I confess that I 
began anew with greater energy than ever, and now, in the face of irrefutable 
evidence, what are they able to belittle? Everywhere the hearing and speak- 
ing teacher himself, in spite of his great knowledge and his great experience, 
often writhes in the midst of painful and tenacious difficulties; the more so 
since it is not the hearing but the eyesight alone that perceives. Even when 
his demonstrations are most skillful, his pupil cannot do any more if he is not 
in possession of the true principles of artificial speech, since the thing to do is 

1 84 Mr. Louis Capon on 

— I shall not cease repeating it — to go to the eyes and not to the ears. More- 
over, as the first deputy-mayor of Elbeuf publicly remarked at a distribution 
of prizes in 1889, the deaf -speaking teacher troubles himself but little to know 
the principles of mechanical anatomy of the vocal organs on which his exer- 
cises rest, he puts them to practice with a remarkable dexterity; he has, by the 
community of his infirmity, a special aptitude which enables him to ascertain 
by the vision and the touch, the exact position of the tongue, of the lips and the 
nature of the sounds to be uttered. The recollection of the immense difficul- 
ties which he was obliged to pass through produces, so to speak, a living pic- 
ture upon his countenance, which renders the reproduction more direct and 
effective. No one can throw doubts upon his statement which was inspired by 
the honorable mayor of Elbeuf himself, and that in full knowledge of the facts 
since I have commenced, continued and finished, with the most honest success, 
without the co-operation of any one, the education through speech of this young 
deaf-mute daughter of his brother-in-law. 

The community of infirmity gives a mysterious and powerful influence. It 
is the secret of nature. A striking evidence of it may be found among the 
blind, especially the Braille school of which the founder and the teachers as 
well are blind. 

In the public institutions of learning, such as the lyceums, the " personnel" 
is always chosen from the competent body engaged in teaching; they are 
mutually acquainted with each other. Why is it otherwise with the deaf? 
They always look outside of the body for teachers totally devoid of training for 
the position, and precious few, it may be said, ever come, even after long and 
laborious effort, to appreciate and understand the real feelings of the deaf. 

Ah! if the government had been able to comprehend and encourage all 
this, the actual condition of the deaf would be far more bright and prosper- 
ous. They would find themselves, so to speak, in their true element! In 
short, it would be doing them simple justice in facilitating their access to 
careers which relate so closely to the general interests of their brothers in 
misfortune. Then, those who show any aptitude for speech would be taught 
by deaf-speakiug teachers alongside of those in full possession of their senses, 
and in place of expecting a rivalry carried on in bad spirit, one would feel 
the urgent necessity of fraternal feelings and joint responsibility. One would 
make double strides in effectiveness and experience. 

As for deaf mutes being recognized as totally incapable, from various 
causes, of learning speech, the deaf-mute teachers would evidently be better 
qualified to take charge of their training and education; or else, from motives 
scarcely honest or benevolent, it would be consenting to make them still more 

I began by saying that I would like to introduce myself a little before un- 
dertaking the redoubtable task of upholding the sacred cause of the deaf, but 
perceive, to my great embarassment, that I have devoted myself to this intro- 
duction to such an extent that I have been beginning almost at the point at 
which I should be ending. I return, then, to the essential points of this study. 

According to statistics furnished by the courtesy of the Minister of the 

The State of Deaf Mute Education in France. 185 

Interior in 1887 (I can not draw from other statistics of more recent date), there 
are 69 institutions in France, containing 3,719 pupils. Excepting the three 
institutions belonging to the government, nearly all of the other boarding 
schools are supported by public charity, with the assistance of the departments 
for the scholarship of indigent pupils. It is absolutely impossible for me to 
give information concerning the financial condition of every one of them. The 
only means to elevate our dignity of manhood would be the enactment of a 
definitive law, requiring the same conditions and according the same advan- 
tages, as to primary schools, with a special institution in Paris to allow pupils 
reported to be fortunately endowed in intellectual qualities, and having partic- 
ular inclinations to pursue a higher course, with the object of preparing for a 
professorship, or to fit them for other careers, more or less important and com- 
patible with their infirmity. At least, being compulsorily studious by nature, 
they can render substantial service. 

I am convinced that the government will obtain, under this plan, the most 
brilliant results, and will recognize at last, for our dignity of manhood, the true 
rank that we have held by right for already so long a time. Since 1881, I had 
confided the anguishes of my soul to the lamented M. Lucien Dautresme, at 
first deputy from Elbeuf, and later Minister of Commerce and Senator. He 
was a man of uncompromising integrity, never varying from a right principle. 
This had attracted the warm friendship of M. Jules Ferry, then Minister of 
Public Instruction. At the close of an animated address of M. L. Dautresme 
to him, concerning my honest convictions, M. Jules Ferry issued an order, 
dated June 19, 1882, appointing for the minister of Public Instruction, a com- 
mission charged with preparing a scheme of regulations relative to the 
instruction of deaf mute children. I was not unaware that he had been 
influenced by my pressing solicitations, and induced to transfer the deaf-mute 
schools to the department of Public Instruction. We were about to obtain a 
beginning of satisfaction, as this was the first step of preliminary action; but to 
our great misfortune, we had reckoned without regard to the proverb, " Man 
proposes, God disposes." Just at that moment that I was summoned by a dis- 
patch from the Inspector of the Academy at Roen, Minister Jules Ferry was 
overthrown, apropos of that unlucky Tonquin difficulty; and the order was, I 
do not know why, recalled by his successor. I was invited to come at govern- 
ment expense and confer with the commission. Since that fateful day some- 
thing heavy has been resting upon my heart. It has nothing to do with my 
miserable self, but with the future of my brothers in misfortune. I have lacked 
opportunity to impress upon the Minister directly, the earnest indignation with 
which we all repudiate the persistence, so humiliating to us, which the author- 
ities manifest to classify in the division of alms houses, the deaf with found- 
lings, lunatics, idiots, beggars, vagabonds, etc. Confronted with unanswerable 
arguments, the Minister would, I doubt not, have, of his own accord, assigned 
to our people their rightful position in the human family, which has been 
denied them so many long years. My brilliant and sympathetic brother deaf 
mute Henri Gaillard had already made the same plea in 1889. To this may be 
added that the State owes intellectual bread and equal fostering care to all 
of its children alike without distinction. 

1 86 Mr. Louis Capon on 

Since the time of our immortal Abbe de l'Epee, what wondrous changes 
for the better have been wrought. That which was once merely an experiment 
has become an established fact, an undisputed possibility; only the results 
become less and less brilliant every time the well settled foundation is changed 
without good reason. Well! since it is no longer necessary to present proof of 
the regular, progressive and definitive education of the deaf, an education 
which frequently extends far beyond that of the primary schools, why persist 
in leaving them to the direction of a ministry so profoundly galling and humil- 
iating to our inmost feelings? Really, one would conclude that the object was 
to further the interests of the high functionaries, without the slightest regard 
for our own, which are a hundredfold more sacred and worthy of consideration 
when it is known that there are about 30,000 of us in France. Let no one see here 
anything more than a cry of distress, and not at all a sentiment of ingratitude 
toward the government, which is certainly actuated by the best motives 
in our regard. I admit without difficulty, that it is in itself a great deal to have 
introduced the oral method almost everywhere, but it is a grave responsibility 
to impose it indiscriminately upon all, so that half and sometimes even three- 
fourths of the pupils of an institution are unable to make themselves under- 
stood by the first comer, who has not the same facilities as those who habitu- 
ally have intercourse with him, and they then betake themselves with all haste 
to the use of the language that is so familiar to them since it came to them 
from nature; and one comes to regret most bitterly, but too late, an almost total 
loss of time. The attainments acquired are superficial and soon forgotten. 

My God! How sad to see so much devotion, so much patience, so much 
charity come out with such insignificant results! But, one has faith! This is 
the occasion to remember that the wisest men in their most generous under- 
takings, often proceed in the wrong direction. 

When a deaf mute has a mind well endowed and well directed, he can 
make improvement in all branches of study, written language, geography, his- 
tory of France, mathematics, common law, natural history, chemistry, etc., but 
upon the express condition that they be explained to him by means of speech 
and the sign language side by side. I affirm this with all the emphasis of my 
soul, for I have myself experienced the benefit of it too much not to know 
whereof I speak. The hearing and speaking, by reason of their constantly 
hearing things spoken and explained around them, comprehend the meaning 
of words and phrases through a concourse of circumstances which the 
deaf can never avail themselves of at the outset. So, if no one explains to 
him the meaning of the words which they teach him to speak, he will learn 
like a machine and he will not know at what juncture it is to the purpose to 
use such and such an expression, for the simple reason that he has compre- 
hended nothing, felt nothing, and consequently has retained nothing. 

I do not know whether or not there exists a course for adults having left 
school. As far as I am personally concerned, I confess, that in regard to the 
latter, I feel particularly interested. I never lose sight of it. Is there any one 
needing an explanation, any advice? Is any one in doubt? Has any one any 
service to request, any application to make, etc.? I hold myself always at their 

The State of Deaf Mute Educatio?i in France. 187 

service with the greatest willingness, and I shall feel amply repaid for it by an 
unalterable attachment and a gratitude which at times draws tears from me, 
so much have I known their distressed condition, and nevertheless they find 
means of imposing a great sacrifice upon themselves without my knowledge. 
It was in vain for me to chide them firmly but paternally, I could not succeed 
in curing them of this virtuous fault, which one of our number (Massieu) called 
the memory of the heart. How beautiful a thing is this spirit of brotherhood 
and unity! 

I hope I do not exceed the limits of this rapid study, so far as to put in 
practice that admirable precept of Jesus Christ! Love one another ; this is to 
carry into the sacred functions of instruction the most beneficient stimulus. It 
is well to obtain an education, but it is better to train the heart, if one would 
live an honest and tranquil life. 

In conclusion, according to the points given for consideration, it remains 
for me to speak of reforms to be made, and of those which are demanded with 
special urgency. After mature reflection I forbear to express my opinion, for 
the reason that I have not sufficient data at hand for an impartial estimation. 
It is therefore for the International Congress in Chicago to deal with them 
according to the documents it ought to have in possession. 

I have said honestly and without bias what I think of the condition of 
Deaf-Mute Education in France. I believe that this ]will suffice for the Con- 
gress to draw therefrom the most logical and the most profitable conclusion. 

Elbeuf, May 4, 1893. 

The Chair: M. Gaillard will also present a few remarks on 
the preceding paper. 





[Translated by Mr. A. G. Draper.] 

In order to prepare the Congress to make proper decisions regarding the 
state of the instruction of the deaf in France, I think it useful to offer some 
pages complimentary to the remarkable memoir of M. Louis Capon, the only 
deaf person in France who has had the courage to maintain the school he had 
founded, amid all the progress of science, and that without giving up the abso- 
lute right of the deaf to concern themselves with the deaf. 

Among the sixty-nine schools now in France, there are only two which 
are directed by the deaf: That of Elbeuf, of which M. Louis Capon 
is director, and that of d'Oloron — Sante-Marie, Basses Pyrenees, pre- 
sided over by a deaf lady, Mile. Pauline Laronny. Their worth has long been 
acknowledged; both have been decorated with the palm-branches of officer of 
a university, and both have obtained a prize from the French Academy. 
Everywhere else hearing people have seized the schools for the deaf, especially 
those schools founded by the deaf. 

There is one school founded by a deaf man which may be on the point of 
destruction; it is that of Lyon-Vaise, which, established by a deaf man, Com- 
berry, continued remarkably prosperous under another deaf man, Claudius 
Forestier. A pure oral school established by a naturalized German at Lyon- 
Villembanne, aided by the mistaken complaisance of the municipality of 
Lyons, has contributed to ruin this school, one of the best in France. 

Of the sixty-nine schools at least fifty-eight belong to religious bodies, the 
others being entrusted to laical teachers. I do not here discriminate as to the 
merits of the two. The partisans of the laical schools and their opponents 
offer equally good reasons in support of their opinions. I ought to say, how- 
ever, that the Brothers of St. Gabriel, the Brothers of the Christian Schools, 
the Daughters of La Sagasse, the Sisters of St. Joseph at Bourg, the Sisters of 
Providence, and perhaps the Religieuses of Notre-Dame-du-Calvarie, are, of all 
the religious bodies, those who have been more especially devoted to the 
restoration and assistance of the deaf. The only fault for which one can 
reproach them, is that they have received the pure oral method with too much 
favor. It is said that it was imposed upon them by the government under pain 
of death. That is very possible. But it is said also that if they have repro- 
bated the divine language of the noble de l'Epee, it was because signs permit 
the deaf mute to share too easily in the enlightenment of science, while instruc- 
tion by speech, especially in schools where the Gospel and the Catechism take 

Louis Capon Tpon the State of Instrnction of the Deaf in France. 

the place of all other knowledge; prevents them from asking false and corrupt- 
ing knowledge, keeps them in the holy paths of the Saviour, since " blessed 
are the poor in spirit" — a device worthy of them, as Joachim Ligot has 
written. Though it may be so, yet the congregations in question admit the 
deaf of both sexes into their body and do not forbid them to give instruction. 
The deaf man, Maille, in religion Brother Roch, is well known. 

In a report written in 1868, J. J. Valade-Gabel, a leading instructor, who, 
since the death of DeBebian, has made immense advances in the teaching of 
the deaf, thus expresses himself: 

" In general, inferiority of studies results from imperfection in methods of 
instruction, sometimes from the lack of a sufficient number of instructors and 
to the deficiency in general knowledge among some of them, as well as to the 
lack of special knowledge among many others. Strangers as they are to the 
teaching of the deaf, some superiors of congregations consider it sufficient 
preparation to teach the deaf if they know how to read and write; they do not 
hesitate to put in "the place of an able and skilled teacher some religieux, for 
whose lack of ability there is no offset save his ardent charity. The practical 
labors properly belonging to these improvised teachers cannot take the place 
of knowledge from experience. Given by the aid of books, which the master 
understands imperfectly, the lessons lack interest, movement, life. The mute, 
a great imitator by nature, sees himself transformed into a parrot. In him 
judgment, reflection, and reasoning power ought to be particularly cultivated — 
they only exercise his memory. The reform of methods and of the personnel of 
teachers presents serious difficulties. Nevertheless, as the religious bodies are 
animated by a good spirit, and as, more than ever, the laical instructors under- 
stand the necessity of improving the studies, we may hope that the most essen- 
tial part of these reforms can be effected in the course of time." 

Since then, especially since the introduction of the pure oral method, great 
changes have taken place in the picture traced by M. Tabel of the situation of 
the French schools at the end of the second empire. The Minister of the In- 
terior, upon whom the schools for the deaf depend, exacts from every master 
devoted to the education of the deaf a diploma proving his capacity, and has 
promulgated three severe decrees concerning the matter. Yet it is necessary 
to say that, except as to the official schools, the schools not subsidized continue 
to have teachers favored, indeed, with diplomas, but absolutely ignorant of the 
first principles of the art except that which aids to do miracles with the deaf, 
that is to say, of the conviction that their pupils are capable of everything, 
that they are those who, sooner or later, will do honor to them, the teachers, 
and justify their efforts. When it is not ardent charity and Christian resigna- 
tion which animates teachers of the deaf, it is cupidity and self-interest, and 
the welfare of the pupils is relegated to second place. I will never cease to 
repeat, with my friend, Louis Capon, that there is but one single means of im- 
proving this situation— to transfer the schools for the deaf to the Minister of 
Public Instruction. So long as that is not done a better condition will not be 
given to the education of the deaf in France. 

I know well that the Superior Administration of Public Assistance, or the 

190 Mr. He?iri Gaillard o?i Remarks Upon the Memoir of M. 

Minister of the Interior, thanks to the influence of his director, M. Monod 
concerns himself actively in reorganizing the schools for the deaf in France, 
and that one deputy, M. Lebon, wishes to make a report with the view of form- 
ing local schools for the deaf. Yes, I know; but this important reform would 
then be in the hands of the service charged with the care of destitute children, 
the sick, the alien, and the idiotic; and I protest that this association of our 
brothers of France with people who fill our asylums and hospitals, is unjustifi- 
able and supremely injurious. The deaf man, not having any incapacity of 
right, since he is born a legal citizen, nor any incapacity of fact, since he is en- 
dowed with a mind and heart formed by education, ought to be put upon the 
same footing as his hearing neighbor, and, like him, ought to be permitted to 
profit by the intellectual advantages which the assistance procured by the Min- 
ister of Public Instruction confers in every country: in other words, he has as 
much right as the hearing person to the free and necessary instruction which 
the state or the community gives. 

The city of Paris understands this very well, and has placed the instruc- 
tion of the deaf under the direction of the primary instruction of the depart- 
ment of the Seine. The municipal commission of the deaf itself is a sub-com- 
mission of the commission of primary instruction. The present director of pri- 
mary instruction, M. Carriot, has asked and obtained by the energy and 
perseverance of two councillors general very friendly to the deaf, MM. Talliet 
and Blondel, the establishment of a school for the deaf of both sexes in the 
suburbs of Paris, under his supervision. It is also because the deaf of school age 
in Paris are under the care of this board of primary instruction that the admin- 
istration, taking account only of the interest of the children, and not at all hin- 
dered by consideration of sentiment or pity toward the instructors thoroughly in- 
capable, has proceeded to retire them by cutting off the funds previously given 
them. It is likewise because this direction of the instruction is so enlighted in 
all that concerns the education of the deaf that I am able to say to you gen- 
tlemen that Paris will revive the truly French method of the Abbe de l'Epee 
and of Valade-Gabel, giving the French language a great place, which ought 
to be as Valade-Gabel himself has so well said, the vital point in the instruc- 
tion of the deaf — the French method, which does not differ sensibly from your 
own American combined system. 

I conclude by proposing, gentlemen, the adoption of the following reso- 

First, That in France, and in all other nations where the practice does 
not exist, schools for the deaf should be placed under the department of edu- 
cation, or under the Minister of Public Instruction, as in the United States and 
in Sweden and Norway. 

Second, That in France, and in all other nations the only system of in- 
struction should be the combined, giving a due place to speech, to signs and to 
writing, and leaving a place for the practice of the pure oral method in the case 
of those well endowed for it. 

Mr. Chair: A paper by Mr. Wm. Agnew, in his absence will 
be filed and appear in the proceedings. 



When I was asked to write a paper on this subject I felt certain that there 
were others more competent and able to deal with it, and I most decidedly do 
not include among them any oral teacher who does not happen to be an expo- 
nent in the sign manual work. I say this because he has no right to call him- 
self a teacher of the deaf and dumb. As a former pupil in the Glasgow 
nstitution, and having afterwards been brought into long and intimate com- 
munion with the deaf and dumb, I have in the circumstances endeavored in this 
paper to perform a work of love, but small excuse is necessary for presenting 
in a brief, and perhaps incomplete form, the materials and statistics to show 
that schools for the deaf and dumb in Britain at present call loudly for reform. 


I think the teachers for the deaf and dumb should be, as far as possible, 
deaf mutes themselves, for many reasons, among which I will enumerate 
one or two : 

Deaf mutes have not too many occupations open to them, why remove 
them from one they are capable of? 

They will understand by experience the difficulties of other people. 

There will be a sympathy due to a common affliction. 

Certainly if hearing persons they ought (oral or not) to know manualism 
and some signs to begin with. The head master or superintendent ought, I 
think, always to be a hearing man, because he is the link between the schools 
and all its teachers and the hearing world outside. He is, so to say, the fight- 
ing editor. No deaf man, however great his mastery of language, is capable 
of filling this position as well. Of course the superintendent should be a 
whole-hearted man, and love the work and the people, and not do at all what 
the oral teachers do— trying hard with a big brush to give a fair complexion to 
the oral education, ostensibly dancing too well to the piping and craving of 
wealthy parents for their children to be made able to speak orally. Let any 
two institutions be selected, and an equal number of deaf mutes and hearing 
men for teachers. Leaving to any one the choice of hearing oral teachers, 
even from the London College for training oral teachers, I will name for deaf 
teachers Messrs. Payne, Harris, Barker, Barland, McGregor, Armour and Ma- 
gun. At the end of the usual period of school work the result will, there can 
be no doubt whatever, be a great triumph for the deaf teachers. 


It is now becoming apparent every day that not one deaf mute or any rec- 
ognized representative of the deaf and dumb has a seat on either any of the 
school boards or deaf and dumb educational institutions in Britain. On every 

I g2 Mr. William Agnew on 

side it can be looked at it is a crying scandal, and one demanding immediate 
interference by Parliament. Every man acquainted with the finger and sign 
language who cares for the efficiency of deaf and dumb schools, will agree 
with me in saying that it is manifestly absurd and impossible that members of 
school boards, etc., who are ignorant of the manual alphabet, are qualified to 
control the education of the deaf and dnmb. Yet it is a subject of rejoicing 
among the oralists. However, their tactics and selfishness of their own inter- 
terests against those of the poor little deaf and dumb children are being grad- 
ually seen through, and they will yet become a discredited party. The hearing 
community and the born mutes are, so to say, foreigners to each other. When 
one people are brought into communication with another, such as the English 
and the Russians, what is mainly required is an interpreter between the two, and 
the better such an interpreter understands the language of each, and their 
modes of thought and expression, the better he will be able to bring both na- 
tions into touch. Now there are several sorts of people who can act in this ca- 
pacity between the born mutes and the hearing. 

First, The hearing children of deaf mutes. 

Second, Semi mutes. 

Of course, well educated born mutes do the same, to a certain extent, but- 
they are confined to writing, which is a disadvantage. 

It seems to me that superintendence of deaf-mute board schools or institu- 
tions should be mainly done by semi-mutes. They are the link between the 
hearing and the mute world. They can comprehend the difficulties of both, 
and would prevent the education of the mutes from falling into the hands of 
mere theorists like the pure oralists. 

It is a tremendous advantage to have the power of speech to convince the 
hearing world, and it is this which has enabled the oralists to make the wrong 
appear the better way. I should recommend, therefore, that a semi-mute 
should always be on the boards of public schools and institutions to look after 
his own special class, and to counteract the effects of the oralists. 

There would be no difficulty then in exposing incompetence in the teach- 
ers or backwardness in the scholars, nor would it be possible to humbug by 
pretending that semi-mutes were born deaf. I do not object to the combined 
system in itself. I only object to the degree of the mixture. The manual sign 
system is of vastly more importance than the oral. Let them combine in the 
same proportion as oxygen and hydrogen and they may give us life; but if the 
hydrogen were in equal amount to the oxygen it would mean death. In short, 
I am an advocate for Home Rule. The arguments which have been used for 
that measure apply in our case. Let us manage our own education as far as pos- 
sible, and there is no fear that we shall turn our weapon against our hearing 
brethren. I have a recent letter from a friend of mine in England. He states 
that he went into a board school (oral), not long ago, and found the children, 
after years of so-called education, steeped in the dearest ignorance, their abil- 
ity consisting in repeating a few stock phrases, such as the Lord's Prayer. 
This exactly applies to the Govan and Greenock school boards, our neighbors, 
nevertheless, although they are now having their day, it will yet cease to be. 

Reform of Schools in Great Britain. 193 

Their pupils might read easy sentences from the lips very badly and not under- 
stand the meaning of them, and they are, in point of fact and in practice, no- 
where in comparison with the neighboring manual sign school in elementary 
education and knowledge of language. Had a semi-mute been on the school 
boards or had been deputed to examine and report to the government, the eyes 
of the public would have been opened long ago. 

I do not, however, advocate confining the examination only to semi-mutes. 
Well educated deaf mutes like Messrs. Armour, Paul, McCay and others, hear- 
ing people, children of deaf parents, should help as far as possible; but it 
should be indispensible that all who were deputed for this purpose should have 
been brought into long and intimate communion with deaf mutes; then, and 
only then, shall we be delivered from the thralldom of idle and incompetent 
theorists, as ninety-nine out of a hundred of the pure oralists are. As the 
State is gradually taking the control of deaf and dumb schools, there can be no 
doubt whatever that the presence of one or more educated and intelligent deaf 
mutes is of the utmost importance. This, I take, to be self-evident. 


There is one feature in the curriculum of some of our institutions to which 
I must take decided objection, and that is the teaching, or rather I should say 
the pretense of teaching, various trades to the pupils. Now, I hold that a school 
is a school, and a workshop is a workshop, and the school days of the children 
should as far as possible be devoted to giving them mental education, and 
allow them to learn their trades after and not during their school time. It is 
quite a natural thing for a young and thoughtless child to be rather fond of 
doing work which is not, strictly speaking, lessons, and it will be found that 
whenever it is attempted to carry on both side by side, the pupil even when in 
school receiving his ordinary lessons will not give his mind so carefully to his 
school work as he would if he had not his trade to think about. 

The deaf and dumb, as a rule, are far too short a time at school, and it is 
most unfair to still further curtail the time by taking away from it for this pur- 
pose. I think every one will allow that as a rule it is best to allow a boy or girl 
to follow out the occupation for which his or her natural ability best fits him or 
her, and it is absurd to think that under the age of 14 or 15 this can be satisfac- 
torily discovered. 

Again, it is a well-known fact that masters like to train their own appren- 
tices, and it is no advantage whatever to a boy to be able to say "he has been 
taught shoemaking at an Institution." The master would at once say, " I would 
have preferred to start him from the very beginning myself, because in all 
likelihood I will have the trouble of undoing some slipshod habits he may have 
formed in doing his work." There should not be any objection, however, to 
cookery for girls or a certain amount of slojd work for boys. 


In order to obtain the government grant, our Institutions and classes for 
the deaf and dumb under the school boards are examined annually by one of 
Her Majesty's Inspectors. Now I think it is a step jn the right direction to find 
the government recognizing and assisting the education of the deaf and dumb, 

194 Mr. William Agnew on 

but it must be apparent to every thinking person how absurd it is to have this 
examination carried out by an ordinary inspector who knows little or nothing 
about the deaf .and dumb or their language. Imagine the classical department 
of any school being examined by a man who does not know Latin or French. 
The one case is quite as incongruous as the other. By all means let our schools 
be examined, but in justice to the pupils, the teachers, and the ratepayers let 
the inspection be made by a duly qualified person who has had thorough ex- 
perience among the deaf and who, while seeing that justice is being done to 
the pupils, will at the same time be able to make allowances for the deficien- 
cies resulting from their affliction. A regular system of graduated standards 
should be introduced to the capacity of the deaf and dumb for the purposes of 
annual examination; not only this, but all the teaching staff must be excluded 
from the room during the examination, and papers given out to the pupils to 
do, and afterwards gathered and carried away by the examiners to be ad- 
judged by the proper authorities as to the quality of work done. Nowadays 
the teachers chaperone the examiners through the various classes, and of 
course it can hardly be expected that the examination can be conducted on 
proper and independent lines. This is a sham, pure and simple, and yet the 
grants are too easily given. 

In presenting herewith the statistics of schools, etc., kindly and specially 
procured by Mr. Francis Maginn, the very popular and most energetic mis- 
sionary, it will be seen at a glance that reform of schools is simply urgent. 

The British Deaf and Dumb Association was started about four years ago, 
chiefly to watch the interests of the deaf and dumb, but most unfortunately it 
has been feeble and vascillating in the extreme, and thus given a long, I would 
say extraordinarily long, tether to the oral teachers, only to find it a very tough 
task indeed to strike at the deception and false praise of their system of edu- 
cating the deaf and dumb. One cannot, therefore, help deploring the laggard 
position of the Association, and it is sincerely to be hoped that this appeal will 
spur it to a sense of its duty to agitate and apply the " guillotine " process to 
the oral craze, even if it has to recoil from the consequences entailed by its 
stolid silence in the past to bolstered results of the application of oral instruc- 
tion. When I say woe to these teachers who know fine (up their sleeves) the 
uselessness of oralism among the adult deaf and dumb in the busy world, the 
conduct of the Association is adding insult to injury. The Association has 
likewise been passive as to the persecution of the poor little children, especially 
in boarding schools, as they have not the same opportunity of those attending 
day schools for complaining to parents against acts of cruelty or excessive 
corporal punishment. See Dr. Stainer's statement in the Deaf Mute Chronicle 
for this month (June) and also that public-spirited gentleman, Mr. Heidsieck's 
case, in Germany. It is plain and clear that in learning the children to speak 
orally, bullying is practiced on them by squeezing the larynx, or depressing the 
tongue, or hitting in the pit of the stomach — forsooth, an awful way of dealing 
with pupils. They are acts of assault, and therefore criminal, I hold, by law. 

Nothing can be more effective than an active and steady agitation in the 
British Deaf and Dumb Association planting local vigilance branches over the 

Reform of Schools in Great Britain. 195 

country, (1st) to demonstrate in public meeting and by practical illustrations 
the absurdity of the oral theory; (2nd) to force the hands of the State for edu- 
cation, and pressing through members of Parliament, etc., the necessity of duly 
qualified inspectors for deaf and dumb schools, and also proper representation 
on school boards, etc., wherever supported by public rates; (3rd) to show up 
the extravagance of employing oral teachers against compensating utility; 
(4th) to encourage employment of deaf teachers. If the local branches, as. 
proposed, would only be manly and stand shoulder to shoulder in their crusade 
energetically and steadily, victory will be theirs and that most undoubtedly,, 
and soon the oral craze will be blasted, and the good sensible old sign manual 
will have to be seriously reckoned with, once for all, being undoubtedly and 
indispensably a cardinal principle in the matter of educating the deaf and 

I have written without animus, and trust that the oral theorists will peruse 
this without wincing. 

The Chair: The next paper to be considered will be presented 
by the German section, through Mr. Watzulik. 



(Translated by G. W. Veditz.) 

Number of existing schools ? 

Ninety-six schools, classified as follows: eighty-two state and city schools; 
thirteen private schools; one Hebrew private institute. Or, thirty-five board- 
ing schools; fifty day schools; nine day and boarding schools. Among the 
private schools there are three nursery scoools for little deaf mutes, and three 
are conducted by Sisters of the Order of St. Francis. 

Number of pupils in attendance ? 

In these ninety-six schools, 6,390 pupils (3,560 boys and 2,810 girls) receive 
instruction in 61 1 classes, taught by 598 male and 64 female teachers. 

How are they supported ? 

According to the pure oral method, that is, without the use of the sign lan- 
guage, partly in boarding schools with from 30 to 300 pupils, and partly in day 
schools with from 50 to 100, and classes of from eight to twelve pupils. 

Which branches are taught ? 

All the branches, excepting, of course, singing, of the public school are 
taught, i. e., language (lip-reading, articulation, writing, reading and, later, 
grammar); religion, history, geography, natural history and philosophy, arith- 
metic, mensuration, gymnastics, handicraft for boys and girls, and drawing. 

Which methods are used ? 

See answer to third question. 

What are the average results achieved at graduation ? 

In some of the smaller schools that receive only bright pupils belonging 
to well-to-do families, and extend the course of instruction to eight or nine 
years, and also in general with the semi-mute and the most intelligent deaf 
mutes with a course of six or seven years, the results are altogether creditable 
and satisfactory, so that the pupils enter the world well equipped. 

With about half the entire school enrollment this is, however, not the case. 
Their attainments are so defective that they are unable to develop themselves 
further by private study, and even cannot write a decent letter unaided. To 
substantiate this statement I am able to submit numerous characteristic letters 
I have received. 


The various schools for the deaf differ greatly from each other in their 
arrangements, both internal and external. ' There are schools which, judging 
from their external organization, might be designated as model schools, and 
again there are others which are very much in need of improvement in both 
departments. In general the smaller schools with a course of from eight to 

The State of Dcaf-Mute Education in Germany. 197 

ten years, have demonstrated themselves to be the most efficient. The larger 
schools with from two hundred to three hundred pupils and a course of only 
six years, exhibit many defects, as do also those makeshift schools with a 
shorter course. Unfortunately there are still many deaf mutes in Germany grow- 
ing up in ignorance owing to the absence of a compulsory educational law, and 
the lack of the necessary means required to secure an efficient education to 
the deaf. And, most of all, the German mode of instruction, itself, is open to 
reform. Since the International Congress at Milan, in 1880, adopted those 
resolutions recommending the sole employment of the pure oral method, and 
since those resolutions have been enforced in the German schools for the deaf, 
there has been an agitation all over the field of deaf-mute education in theGerman 
Empire that is increasing from year to year in extent and violence. We deaf 
mutes have from the first strenuously protested against this complete exclu- 
sion of the sign language frem the school-room, and have been forced to be- 
come more and more emphatic in our denunciation of these execrable resolu- 
tions; for to our sorrow we are compelled to see the education of our younger 
fellow-sufferers becoming more and more superficial, and their ignorance and 
want of discrimination and character correspondingly greater and greater. The 
fruits of these resolutions have long ago reached maturity in Germany, but are 
found to be more and more indigestible and worthless. Moreover, these reso- 
lutions of the Milan Congress have proved incapable of application with many 
deaf mutes in spite of drastic measures, which, unfortunately, have been em- 
ployed only too often. The purpose of a deaf-mute school can never be 
achieved by means of forcible and bloody operations. In fact the teaching of 
articulation ought not to be regarded as the chief object of such a school ; but 
much rather the imparting of all sorts of useful knowledge and acquirements, 
and giving a mental and moral education corresponding to the natural capac- 
ity of the pupil. 

To secure this end the teacher should use such means as lead most directly 
to the gaol, and among these means the language of gestures, given by Nature 
to the deaf, unquestionably has a place. I must call it a sin and a crime 
against sober common sense, and the soul of the deaf mute, when this Heaven- 
given boon to the deaf is despised, or left unused, or even forcibly repressed. 
But in order not to lose my temper and to be brief, I will mention a few condi- 
tions which I believe necessary to the elevation and progress of German deaf- 
mute education. 

1. The introduction of a compulsory educational law for the deaf. It is 
unworthy of a great nation to still allow unfortunate deaf mutes to grow up 
without any education. 

2. Extension of the course of instruction to at least seven or eight years. 

3. The introduction of the Combined System, i. e., in addition to speech 
and writing, the sign language must be accorded a place as a means of instruc- 

4. Classification of the pupils according to mental capacity. 

5. With dull pupils the instruction in articulation should under no circum- 
stances degenerate into torment or even ill-treatment. Where there is no 

198 Mr. A. M. Watzulik on 

aptitude for articulation, the sign language should be brought all the more 
into requisition. 

6. In order to relieve the larger schools, an increase in the number of 
schools is desirable. 

7. The schools should not only be places of instruction but also of educa- 
tion. More importance should be placed upon a good education than hith- 

8. In the same manner more attention should be paid to the preparation 
for practical life, and more stress laid upon the necessity of adequate instruc- 
tion in handicraft and mechanical drawing. Practice in letter writing, the 
preparation of commercial formulae, etc., should be more frequent. 

9. A more thorough technical training of the teachers seems necessary. 
The teacher should above all things have a clear conception of the idiosyn- 
crasies of the deaf, of the causes of dumbness, and should, further, be able to 
understand and use the language of signs. 

10. The superintendence of a school for the deaf should necessarily be 
entrusted only to an expert. 

The Chair: The Swedish Section will present a paper through 
its author, Mr. Titze. Mr. Hanson will read it orally. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen : In the same year (1809) that my native 
country won its present constitution by a revolution, the first school for the 
deaf mutes was founded in Sweden by a private person, T. A. Borg. 

During half a century this school with its gradually increasing number of 
pupils, was the only school for deaf mutes in this country. It was not till the 
the year 1858 that there began to be schools founded for deaf mutes over the 
whole country, so that in 1889 these schools amounted to the number of nine- 
teen, with 769 pupils and ninety teachers, of which eight were deaf mutes. The 
instruction that is given in Swedish schools includes the following subjects, viz., 
the Swedish language, religion, history, mathematics, geography, physics, 
writing, drawing and some handicrafts. 

The knowledge of the pupils when leaving the schools, is on an average 
(excepting a few of them) superficial and of little consequence, and some- 
times even very imperfect. In the beginning, before the training school for 
educating of teachers was established at the Royal Institute of Stockholm, 
one was obliged to use as teachers persons without due qualifications. Orig- 
inally the sign method was predominant in all schools; such was the case un- 
til i860, when "the talk method" began to be adopted by the Swedish schools 
and, later on, this method became the foremost of them all. The year 1877 
the Society of the Swedish teachers for deaf mutes ("Svenska Dofstumlarare- 
sallskapet"), of which Society I am a member since 1878, was organized. The 
aim of this Society is to work for the developement of the instruction of the 

The State of Deaf- Mute Education i?i Sweeden. 199 

deaf mutes in our country by editing a periodical to that effect, and for the 
concordant (united) collaboration (efforts) of all the Swedish teachers for deaf 

In this Society there has been many a fight between opposite opinions 
concerning the different methods and other questions, but "strife is life." 

The 9th of May, 1889, was an historical day for the Swedish schools for the 
deaf mute; this day it was resolved by the Swedish parliament that the school 
instruction for the deaf mute in Sweden should be obligatory. 

The most important paragraphs of this parliament bill are as follows: (1) 
Deaf-mute children of the age of seven to nine years must attend the school; 
(2) the attendance at school should last during eight years; (3) systems of 
instruction: "Talk (oral) method, writing method and sign method applied 
according to power of conception of the children; (4) the foundation of a sem- 
inary in order to educate teachers and lady teachers for deaf children; (5) the 
division of the country into seven large school districts; (6) the installation of 
an inspector, appointed by the Government, of all the schools for deaf mutes 
in the country; (7) the expenses for the instruction should be defrayed partly 
by the Government, partly by the different districts. 

A consequence of this law and the strict application of it is, that among 
all the 5,000 deaf-mute persons living in Sweden at the end of this century, 
there will scarcely be found a single one that has not received instruction and 

The Swedish school for deaf mutes will no longer be a benevolent asylum 
or an institution of charity; it shall be to the deaf mute what the board schools 
are to hearing children. 

As for the most zealous adherents of the " pure-talk method," I think they 
mean to do well in all their blindness, but they make a great mistake in be- 
lieving themselves most competent to judge and understand the wants of the 

The Chair: The next paper is by Mr. Werner, of Norway. 
It will be filed but not read. 



In 1825 the first Institution for Deaf Mutes was established at Trondhjem. 
It employed the manual method of Abbe de l'Eppe. Twenty years later, in 
1848, a new school was opened at Christiania employing the oral method, and 
in 1850 two more oral schools were founded, one at Bergen and one at 

In 1881 a new act emanated introducing Compulsory Education of the 
Deaf, the Blind and the Feeble-Minded. The act, that provides that all deaf 
children between seven and seventeen yeai;s of age are to be sent to school or 
to be educated elsewhere for a term of eight years, took effect from 1883, and 
was followed by several alterations as to the schools. Now there are two 
schools at Trondhjem, one at Bergen, two at Christiania, and one at Hamar. 
The last named is a school for feeble-minded deaf and for doubly afflicted 
children (deaf and blind). All the schools, even that of Hamar, employ the 
oral method, the school of 1825 at Trondhjem, having in 1890 given up the 
manual method altogether. 

The number of pupils is about 400, sometimes more, sometimes less. The 
total number of deaf in Norway, was, by the census of 1891, found to be 2,082, 
the population of the country being at the same time little more than two 

We have no collegiate education, but the information given above will not 
be complete if it is not added that in 1871 two graduates of the oral school of 
Christiania, one born completely deaf, the other deaf from his fifth year, and 
completely so, passed the ordinary examinations at the University after having 
received instruction by private teachers not acquainted with deaf-mute educa- 
tion. A few years ago, two more deaf, one born so, the other deaf from seven 
years of age (a lady), passed the preparatory examination. It is probable that 
some of of the pupils of the schools for the deaf will present themselves to be 
examined before the close of this decade. 

In all cases the deaf were examined by the same board of examiners as 
the hearing, simply awaiting their turn. 

The Chair: Is there anything further to occupy the 

Mr. J. L. Smith: I should like to request those who are in- 
terested in the formation of an Editorial Association to meet at 
the rooms of the Pas-a-Pas Club, this afternoon at 3 o'clock. 

Mr. D. W. George: I desire to notify all that the Fourth 
Convention of the National Association of the Deaf will assemble 
in this hall at 8:30 o'clock this evening. 

The President: The session will now adjourn till Saturday 
morning at 9:30 o'clock. 

The fourth Convention of the National Association met in 
Hall No. 8, of the Memorial Art Palace, Chicago, at 8 o'clock 
p. m., Thursday, July 20, 1893. Immediately following the call to 
order, prayer was offered by Rev. Jas. H. Cloud. 

President George opened the session with the following brief 
but pointed address: 

president's address. 

The National Association of the Deaf now begins its fourth meeting. The 
Association had its origin in the strong predilection that naturally exists in the 
deaf for the society of one another. This predilection showed itself in the 
organization of numerous state and local associations throughout the country. 
The proceedings of these associations were published in the deaf-mute press. 
The interest that the deaf have in the welfare of one another overleaped the 
boundaries of state, and reached for the most distant part of the nation, and 
suggested the desirability of organizing a national association. The idea of 
holding a national convention of representative deaf mutes was thoroughly 
discussed editorially and by correspondence in the Deaf Mute Journal, and 
the outcome was that a large number of deaf mutes assembled in Cincinnati 
on August 25, 1880, and decided to effect a permanent organization. A second 
convention was held in New York City in 1883, and it was there decided to 
raise funds and erect a befitting national memorial in honor of Thomas 
Hopkins Gallaudet, the founder of deaf-mute education in America, on the 
occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of his birth. The third convention 
was held in Washington, D. C, where the memorial was unveiled in front 
of the National Deaf Mute College, with appropriate ceremonies, and dedi- 
cated to that Institution. The time for holding the present convention was 
postponed from last year in consequence of the postponement of the opening 
of the World's Columbian Exposition. 

The possibility of securing benefits for the deaf through our association 
are great, but hitherto we have been in the experimental stage, and we have 
had mainly to feel our way as it were, but the time will come when by unity of 
action through our organization, we shall wield power in behalf of our own 
interests in a most effective manner. The mere assembling together for a few 
days of large numbers of our people, would exert a beneficial influence on the 
welfare of the whole, even if nothing of formal nature was done in convention. 
The recounting of trials, difficulties and successes in the battle of life in indi- 

202 Official Reports. 

vidual conversation, revives drooping spirits and inspires courage to put forth 
redoubled energy in pushing onward to success in spite of our handicap of 

The President announced in order to save time and to facili- 
tate the enrollment of members, he had appointed a committee 
several days previously to attend to that work. The committee 
was constituted as follows: Mr. F. P. Gibson, Chicago, Chair- 
man; Mr. G. A. Christenson, Chicago; Mr. C. T. Sullivan, Chicago; 
Mr. A. O. Wilson, Texas; Mr. R. N. Parsons, Connecticut. 

At this point, Mr. O. H. Regensburg, in behalf of the Pas-a- 
Pas Club, presented to the Association a handsome gavel and 
stand. Upon motion of Mr. Fox, of New York, a vote of 
thanks was unanimously tendered to the Pas-a-Pas Club for its 
generous gift. 

Reports of officers were in order. Mr. R. P. McGregor, 
of Ohio, Chairman of the National Executive Committee, gave a 
brief report of the action of that body since the adjournment of 
the Third Convention, held at Washington, D. C, in 1889, as 


It was decided at the last meeting of the Association, held in Washington, 
D. C, to hold the next meeting here in 1892. 

Subsequently that date was changed by a letter vote of the Committee to 
the present date; and at the same time it was resolved to give the meeting an 
International character by inviting foreign delegates to participate therein. 

As directed by the Constitution, I appointed a Local Committee, with Mr. 
G. T. Dougherty of this city as chairman. 

• This Committee, after looking over the ground, recommended that a 
World's Congress of the Deaf be held under the auspices of the World.s Fair 
Auxilliary, in connection with other World's Congresses to be held during the 
Fair. To this the Executive Committee agreed and the Local Committee was 
appointed by the Auxilliary to represent it. How well it has carried out the 
plans of the Auxilliary and its own you can all attest. 

Its subsequent movements in regard to the National Association were 
confined to arranging for this meeting here this evening. 

The action of the Executive Committee in subordinating the Association 
Meeting, to the World's Congress of the Deaf, has been criticised, but I have 
no doubt that the results, as demonstrated here this week, amply justify it in 
its action. 

Mr. Kerney, of Indiana, moved that the report be accepted 
with thanks to the Chairman. Passed unanimously 

Mr. J. L. Smith, of Minnesota, submitted the following report 
as Secretary: 

Official Reports. 203 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen of the Association : 

The first and most important duty that devolved upon me, following the 
adjournment of the Third Convention, was the preparation of the Report of 
the Proceedings. The work having been accomplished, I was instructed by 
the Executive Committee to send the manuscript to Mr. E. A. Hodgeson, of 
the Journal, he having made the lowest bid for the printing. In due time I 
received from him, by express, 400 copies of the Report. Pursuant to instruc- 
tions of the Committee, one copy of the Report was sent post paid, to every 
member of the Association. I also published a notice in the Journal to the 
effect that non-members could obtain copies of the Report by sending 15 cents 
to the Secretary. But one copy was sold. I have now on my hands fully 200 
copies of the Report. 

A detailed account of my expenditures for postage and express was sent 
to the Treasurer, and the amount was promptly remitted. He will doubtless 
refer to it in his report to you. 

One other duty that devolved upon me was the writing of a letter to the 
directors of the American Asylum, Hartford, Connecticut, requesting them, in 
behalf of the National Association of the Deaf, to consider the propriety of 
changing the name of that Institution. 

The letter may be found on page 62 of the Proceedings of the Third Con- 
vention. The reply was received too late for publication. I present it here, as 
it may be well to have it go on record. 

American Asylum for Deaf and Dumb, \ 
Hartford, Conn., May 12, 1890. \ 
Mr. J. L. Smith, Secretary National Association of the Deaf , Faribault, Minn. 
Dear Sir: — Your letter of Sept. 5, 1889, addressed to the Board of Direc- 
tors of the American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb was presented to this 
Board at its next regular meeting. This meeting was held May 3, 1890, and 
the subject of the communication was duly considered. It was voted that the 
clerk be requested to reply to the Secretary of the National Association of the 
Deaf that the Board of Directors of the American Asylum do not think it ex- 
pedient to change the time-honored name of the Institution. 
Yours very truly, 

Atwood Collins, Clerk, 
This report is respectfully submitted, with the hope that it will meet with 
your approval. J. L. Smith, Secretary. 

The report was unanimously accepted. 

The Treasurer of the Association, Mr. B. R. Allabough of 
Pennsylvania, reported as follows : 

204 Official Reports. 

OF THE DEAF. 1889-1893. 

Receipts. Expenditures. 
To balance June 29, 1889 Si 13 90 By local committee, 3d con- 
To membership fees, 3rd con- vention expenses $ 2 73 

vention 2 00 By E. A. Hodgeson, 

To membership fees, 4th con- viz., printing 400 

vention 2 50 reports 3d conven- 

To interest 7 50 tion $45 00 

Illustrating same with 

Gallaudet statue 6 50 51 50 

By J. L. Smith, ex- 
penses as Secreta- 
ry, viz.: postage 5 80 

Expressage on re- 
ports 3d conven- 
tion, from New 
York to Minnesota 5 80 

Wrapper on same 15 n 75 

By balance July 20, 1893 59 92 

$125 90 $125 90 

Mr. Jones, of New York, moved that the report be approved. 

Passed unanimously. 

The election of officers was next in order. Mr. W. G. Jones, 

of New York, moved that the president be authorized to appoint 

a committee on nominations consisting of five members. The 

motion was seconded by Mr. Regensburg. 

Mr. McGregor suggested that to save time it would be better 
to nominate from the floor. 

Mr. R. M. Ziegler, of Pennsylvania, dissented from this sug- 
gestion. He said it might result in there being several nomina- 
tions for each office, which would necessitate repeated voting and 
a waste of time. 

Mr. Regensburg moved to amend Mr. Jones' motion to the 
effect that the two committees be appointed to prepare different 
tickets. Mr. Englehardt, of Wisconsin, seconded Mr. Regens- 
burg. Subsequently, however, Mr. Regensburg withdrew his 

Vote was then taken on the original motion of Mr. Jones, and 
it passed. President George then announced the committee as 
follows: W. G. Jones, of New York, chairman; J. W. Michaels, 

Official Reports. 205 

of Virginia; C. D. Seaton, of Illinois; E. W. Frisbee, of Massa- 
chusetts; A. Berg, of Indiana. 

The committee retired to deliberate. 

The president read the following letter from T. A. Froehlich, 
of New York, with the accompanying final report of the commit- 
tee on the Gallaudet memorial: 

125 East 86th St., New York, July 18, 1893. 
Mr. Dudley W. George, President National Association of the Deaf. 

My Dear Sir: — Very much to my regret, uncontrollable circumstances 
prevent me from being with you at the Fourth Convention of the National As- 
sociation of the Deaf. I had planned all arrangements, fully expecting to 

It had been my good fortune to participate in all previous conventions, and 
I revert to them with much pleasure and gratification. I resign myself, though 
I fear not very gracefully, to my enforced absence. 

I therefore send the accompanying report. 

Please convey to the members my best wishes for an enjoyable and profit- 
able session. Yours very truly, 

Theo. A. Froelich. 


To the President and Members of the National Association of the Deaf: 

As the last convention of the Association held at Washington, D. C, the 
chairman and treasurer of the Gallaudet Memorial Committee were requested 
to take entire charge of the matter until all the arrangements in reference to it 
were completed. 

As per promise to you in our last report we have publicly made through 
the deaf-mute press a full and clear statement of the disposition of the funds 
the treasurer's final itemized report of receipts and disbursements being as 

Total receipts Si 2,447.77 

Total disbursements 1 1,968.23 

It will be seen from this that a balance of $479.54 of the total amount to 
the credit of the funds remained over and above all expenses connected with 
the memorial. 

Since the public evinced an earnest desire to share in raising the statue, 
we felt it due the subscribers to devote their contributions to the purpose for 
which they were subscribed; we therefore decided to deliver the balance to the 
authorities of the Columbia Institution (to whom the statue has been presented) 
under an agreement with them that the income from the balance shall be used 
to protect and preserve and keep this monument in perfect condition. 

The members of the Board of Directors of the Columbia Institution, upon 
hearing of this action of your committee, generously gave from their pockets 
enough to make the sum an even five hundred dollars. The handsome balance 
will, in the course of time, amount to a large sum, should it not be necessary to 
make large inroads upon the principal. Should there be at any time more 

206 Official Reports. 

than enough to properly care for the statue and its appurtenances, works of 
art will be purchased with the money. These works will adorn the College 
buildings of grounds and will be inscribed as coming from this fund. Thus 
all money subscribed thereto, except such as was used for the memorial in 
whatever connection, will forever be devoted to the purpose for which it was 
subscribed, always testifying in some shape to the love and gratitude of the 
deaf for Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. 

We here take the opportunity to acknowledge with sincere thanks the gen- 
erous contributions and untiring labors of the deaf and their friends in the col- 
lection of funds. 

It is with great pleasure and pardonable pride we congratulate our col- 
leagues upon the faithful and self-sacrificing manner in which they performed 
the many onerous duties devolving upon them. We all tried to do our duty, to 
do our work not unworthily of the trust placed in us, nor of the great subject 
honored. We sought also to erect a memorial worthy of the culture and art of 
the epoch in which we live, a memorial that shall be a likeness of our great 
benefactor for all future generations to look upon, to know and to love. All 
these considerations involved responsibilities. 

The work was done by an experienced artist of the first rank, and com- 
mands the admiration of all persons of taste and judgment. 

We retire to-day with the pleasantest recollections of our associations with 
comrades and co-workers throughout the country, grateful for the satisfactory 
result of their unselfish labors, convinced that the memorial is a credit to all 
concerned. Respectfully submitted, 

Theo. A. Froehlich, Chairman. 

The report was accepted with the thanks of the Association 
to the committee. 

Rev. A. W. Mann, having asked and obtained permission of 
the President, made announcement of the religious services for 
the deaf that were to be held in Chicago the following Sunday. 

Mr. Fox, of New York, brought before the association the sub- 
ject of the attitude taken by the United States Civil Service in re- 
lation to deaf applicants for positions. He said that intelligent and 
capable deaf persons go before the Civil Service Board, pass the re- 
quired examinations, and are then rejected solely on account of 
their deafness. The deaf as citizens of the United States have a 
right to recognition. He submitted to the association the follow- 
ing preamble and resolutions: 

Whereas, The rules controlling admission to the Civil Service of the 
General Government make unfair discriminations against the deaf and deprive 
them of their rights as citizens; and 

Whereas, Other things being equal, deafness does not incapacitate them 

Official Reports. 207 

from performing such service as requires merely manual dexterity and visual 
quickness; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the matter of this discrimination be brought to the atten- 
tion of the Commissioners of the Civil Service, and they be requested to amend 
the rules disqualifying the deaf from service under the National Government. 

In support of the above, Mr. Fox added that an eminent law- 
yer, a warm friend of the deaf, the late Hon. Erastus Brooks, had 
advised the deaf to assert their rights. 

Mr. Kerney, of Indiana, suggested that we all write letters to 
our congressmen, asking for justice in the matter. 

Mr. Ziegler, of Pennsylvania, recommended that when a deaf 
person's name was to be sent in, along with others, as a candidate 
for appointment, he should secure the aid of some friend who had 
influence to back him. This was a course often pursued by others. 
Mr. A. R. Spear, of North Dakota, who had been in the civil ser- 
vice for years, expressed a doubt whether matters were as Mr. Fox 
stated. He did not think the service was closed to the deaf, and 
believed that the association should be well assured of the facts 
before it took action. 

Mr. Fox replied to this, that whatever may have been the 
state of affairs formerly, it was now as he had stated, through a 
new ruling. 

Mr. McGregor, of Ohio, gave his testimony in support of Mr. 
Fox to the effect that a friend of his in Cincinnati was rejected by 
the Civil Service Board because he was unable to stand the dicta- 
tion test. 

Mr. Smith, of Minnesota, here interposed, saying that the com- 
mittee on nominations was ready to report, and he moved that Mr. 
Fox's resolution be laid upon the table, pending the election of 
officers. Passed. 

Chairman Jones, of the committee on nominations, submitted 
the following report: 

For President — Thomas Francis Fox, New York. 

For First Vice President — George T. Dougherty, Illinois. 

For Second Vice President— Robert M. Ziegler, Pennsylvania. 

For Third Vice President — Sidney J. Vail, Indiana. 

For Fourth Vice President — Lewis A. Palmer, Tennessee. 

For Secretary — Henry C. White, Massachusetts. 

For Treasurer — James C. Balis, Ontario, Canada. 

Mr. Gibson, of Illinois, moved that the report be accepted 

208 Official Reports. 

unanimously. Mr. White desired to be excused from candidacy as 
secretary, but yielding to pressure, consented to let his name stand. 

Mr. Spear, of North Dakota, said that he was a new member, 
and consequently hesitated to express himself in opposition, but it 
seemed to him that the west was not sufficiently represented on 
the ticket. All the candidates came from east of the Mississippi. 

Mr. Smith, of Minnesota, said that he was a westerner, but more 
of an American. In this case he recognized " no north, no south, no 
east, no west." Not long ago there was an attempt to divide our 
country into a north and a south. It failed. He did not want to see 
now, in our association, a disposition to arouse a sectional feeling 
between the east and the west. He was in favor of the ticket as 
it stood. 

Mr. Spear insisted that there were plenty of good men in the 
west. It was not to him a question of American citizenship, but 
of fair and square dealing. 

Mr. Fox said that all were or should be Americans before 
anything else. It was a question of Americanship rather than 
partisanship, and he was sorry to see any evidence of sectional 
feeling. He had not sought the nomination, and rather than to 
give rise to further dispute he was willing to have his name with- 
drawn in favor of a westerner. He had been a member of the 
association and in attendance at every convention since its incep- 
tion, and never before witnessed the raising of an eastern or west- 
ern qualification in the association, and hoped it would be the last 
time such a point was raised. 

President George remarked that the national committee 
would equalize representation quite thoroughly, so that every state 
and section would have an equal influence. 

Mr Gibson here called for the previous question. His mo- 
tion being put to vote, was carried unanimously, and the ticket as 
reported was declared elected. 

Mr. Veditz, of Colorado, and Mr. Spear, of North Dakota, 
were appotnted a committee to escort the newly elected president 
to the chair. 

Mr. Pach, of Pennsylvania, moved a vote of thanks to the re- 
tiring president. Passed by acclamation. 

Mr. Thomas F. Fox,of New York, the President of the National 

Official Reports. 209 

Association for the next three years, made a brief speech upon 
assuming his duties. He thanked the members for the honor they 
had conferred upon him, and expressed his purpose to labor with 
all zeal to further the interests of the association and of the deaf. 

Others of the newly elected officers were invited to return 
acknowledgments, which they did amid much applause. 

At this point Mr. H. C. White, the talented Bostonian, took 
up the duties of secretary, and the undersigned yielded up to him 
the official quill with all the honors pertaining thereto. 

J. L. Smith, 



Upon the organization of the new board of officers, the busi- 
ness of the convention was resumed. Mr. R. N. Ziegler, of Pennsyl- 
vania, moved that Mr. Fox's resolutions on the matter of civil 
service discriminations, previously laid on the table, be taken up 
and accepted, Passed. 

Mr. Olaf Hanson, of Minnesota, submitted a set of resolu- 
tions requesting schools for the deaf to eliminate the obnoxious 
term " asylum " from their official title. 

Whereas, The application of the term " asylum " to schools for the 
deaf is incorrect and misleading; and, 

Whereas, Webster, Worcester, the Century Dictionary, and other works 
of reference thus incorrectly apply the term; therefore be it, 

Resolved, By the National Association of the Deaf in convention assem- 
bled at Chicago, that the publishers of said dictionaries and works of reference 
be requested to omit or correct this erroneous application as soon as practica- 
ble; and, 

Resolved, That schools for the deaf still using this term in their official 
titles be requested to substitute therefor a more appropriate designation; and, 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee of this association be instructed 
to communicate these resolutions to the parties concerned, and adopt such may in their judgment tend to promote the end desired. 
Passed without dissenting votes. 

Mr. R. M. Ziegler, of Pennsylvania, moved that Prof. McGreg- 
or's interesting paper on the "Employment of Deaf Teachers',' as 
read at the Congress of the Daf, be printed and distributed at the 
expense of the National Association. Seconded by Rev. Mr. 
Cloud, of Missouri. Passed by unanimous vote. (See Mr. Zieg- 

ler's written motion.) 

Resolved, That Prof. R. P. McGregor's paper on " The Deaf as Teach- 

210 Official Reports. 

ers," read before the International Congress of the Deaf, July 20th, 1893, be 
published in pamphlet form.and at the expense of the National Association of the 
Deaf, and the secretary of the said Association be instructed to send one copy 
to the principal and superintendent of every institution for the education of the 
deaf, and also to every member of the board of directors or trustees of the 
said institution. 

Mr. Kerney, of Indiana, moved that M. Plessis' statue of the 
Abbe De L'Epee be presented to the National Deaf Mute College 
at Washington, D. C. Promptly seconded by Mr. McGregor, 
of Ohio. 

Mr. Gallaher, of Chicago, argued strongly in favor of allowing 
the bust to remain Chicago in association with other priceless 
treasures of art at the Memorial Art Palace. 

Mr. Dougherty, of Illinois, supported these views, stating that 
Kendall Green had two busts and many other memorials of our 
friends and benefactors, that it would be impossible to get the 
bust out of bond at the customs office except as a gift to the City 
of Chicago, and that M. Plessis was willing his work of art 
should go to the city. 

Mr. Hodgeson, of New York, stated as a matter of objection, 
that Chicago was not known as a place having any associations or 
traditions in the education of the deaf, and that this solitary mem- 
orial would be lost in the vast collection in the Art Memorial 

Mr. D. W. George, of Illinois, replied that the Memorial Pal- 
ace was intended to be permanent, and that whatever was put in 
exhibit at the World's Fair should be donated to the City of Chi- 
cago as a matter of courtesy. 

Mr. Kerney, of Indiana, says, " Washington is a National 
City in its importance to the Nation, in its vast resources and 
unbounded future possibilities." [Laughter and applause.] 

Mr. P. S. Englehardt, of Wisconsin, here calls for the pre- 
vious question. The motion was put to a vote and failed to pass. 

After the vote was announced, M. Plessis arose to say that he 
would be glad to donate the bust to the National College at 

Mr. Emanuel Souweine, of New York, moved that a com- 
mittee of five be appointed by the President to confer with the 
sculptor. Seconded by Mr. Schary, of Ohio, who suggests that 

Official Reports. 


the bust should be kept in place until the committee acts upon 
the matter. 

Rev. Mr. Koehler moves thafthe question be left to the Con- 
gress on the ground that it was a matter which concerned that 
body exclusively. This view of the matter was concurred in, 
and the disposal of the bust was left entirely to the Congress of 
the Deaf. 

The report of Messrs. Froehlich and Draper on the Gallaudet 
Memorial Statue (herewith appended) was read. Accepted on 
motion of Mr. Allabough, of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Gibson, Chairman of Committee on Enrollment, reported 
to the Convention. Report appended herewith: 


Axling, P. L., Sioux Falls, S. D. 

Angle, Chas. H., South Superior, Wis. 

Aronson, Miss Bertha, Chicago. 

Abrams, Geo., Boston, Mass. 

Alabough, B. R., Edgewood Park, Pa. 

Anderson, Parry, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Buxton, Albert C, Crisfield, Md. 

Boylan, W. H. H., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Black, Miss Dora D., Morgan Park, 111. 

Bowes, E. N., Austin, 111. 

Bixler, Jos. B., Elkhart, Ind. 

Barrett, J. W.. Council Bluffs, la. 

Bierce, Miss Mary C, Kenwood, Chi- 

Buchan, C. L., Englewood, Chicago. 

Buchan, Mrs., Englewood, Chicago. 

Barnum, W. O., Knoxville, Tenn. 

Balis, J. C, Belleville, Ontario, Can. 

Balis, Mrs., Belleville, Ontario, Can. 

Barrick, John, Cincinnati, O. 

Barry, Miss Annie B., Baltimore, Md. 

Bacheberle, Louis J., Cincinnati, O. 

Burrell, Miss Emma, Columbus, O. 

Biggam, Miss Edith, Columbus, O. 

Bartlett, Miss Emma, Mannington, 
W. Va. 

Blood, Irwin, Chicago. 

Blood, Mrs. Irwin, Chicago. 

Babbitt, Harry E., Boston, Mass. 

Bixler, Mrs. E. H., Elkhart, Ind. 

Kinsley, Miss Ida B.,Indianapolis,Ind. 
Koehler, Rev. J. M., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Kessler, C. W., Pullman, 111. 
Kestner, Max, Denver, Colo. 
Kerr, M. H., St. Louis, Mo. 
Kerr, Mrs. M. H., St. Louis, Mo. 
Lynch, Thos, Rockford, 111. 
Lieb, John S., Columbus, O. 
Lieb, Jos. W., Columbus, O. 
Lange, Paul, Evanston, 111. 
Lietner, Frank A. Baltimore, Md. 
Locke, Miss Edna B., Covington, Ky. 
Lupien, F. P., Watseka, 111. 
Larson, Lars M., Santa Fe, N. M. 
Loose.Miss Margaret,Mishawaka,Ind. 
Little, Miss Lou, Mt. Airy, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 
Luttrell, Miss Cynthia, Wichita, Ks. 
Long, J. S., Delavan, Wis. 
Long, Mrs. J. S., Delevan, Wis. 
Loew, Jacques, Chicago. 
Lowman, Miss A. M., Leitersburg, Md. 
Left, E. H., Chicago. 
Long, R. L. H., Chicago. 
Le Clercq, New York City. 
Lewis, H. S., Waterbury, Conn. 
Lung, John B., Haverhill, Mass. 
Livingstone, R. D., Bridgeport, Conn. 
Meyer, C, Cleveland, O. 
Meyer, Mrs., Cleveland, O. 


Official Reports. 

Bierlien, Alfred, A., Cincinnati, O. 
Bierlien, Mrs. Lucie C, Cincinnati, O. 
Bacheberle, Louise K., Cincinnati, O. 
Boos, August, Cincinnati, O. 
Boos, John H., Cincinnati, O. 
Back, Edward, Cincinnati, O. 
Berghorn, Louis, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 
Baxter, Miss Amelia, Jeffersonville, 

Cartwright, Clara, Olathe, Ks. 
Campbell, John E., St. Louis, Mo. 
Coughlin, Jas. W., Chicago. 
Camerush, Miss T., La Salle, 111. 
Corey, Clarence A., Chicago. 
Crossman, Frank S., Springfield.Mass. 
Colby, C. C, Chicago. 
Colby, Mrs. C. C„ Chicago. 
Charles, C. W., Columbus, O. 
Coleman, T. H., Cedar Springs, S. C. 
Conway, Jas. G., Erie, Pa. 
Cartter, Mrs. G., Chicago. 
Cotton, John R., Chicago. 
Chapman, Henry A., Salem, Mass. 
Carroll, E. R. Cleveland, O. 
Codman, C. C, Chicago. 
Chagnon, Miss Mamie, Chicago. 
Cleary E. P. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Comp, Mrs. Chas., Omaha, Neb. 
Carroll, J. F., Chicago. 
Cloud, Rev. J. H., St. Louis, Mo. 
Dunham, N. C. Jefferson, Ind. 
Demarais, Chas., W. Superior, Wis. 
Demarais, Mrs. C, W. Superior, Wis. 
Dundon, Miss Nellie, Columbus, O. 
Dundon, Mrs. M. L., Pleasant Ridge, 

Dougherty, G. T., Chicago. 
Des-Rocker, Edward, Chicago. 
Edwards, W. D.. Indianapolis, Ind. 
Erbe, Herman, Waterbury, Conn. 
Engelhardt, P. S., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Engelhardt, Mrs. Milwaukee, Wis. ' 
Erd, Robert, Waterloo, Iowa. 
Elsey, Elmer, Columbus, O. 
Eden, Miss Lavinia, Jacksonville, 111. 
Fankhauser, Win, Elkhart, 111. 

Miller, Louis, Fosters, O. 
Mulcahy, E., Salem, Mass. 
Michaels, J. W., Goshen, Va. 
Merrill, Ashbel N., Macon, 111. 
Meade, James, Town of Lake.Chicago. 
Mills, Mrs. J. A., Lu Verne, Minn. 
Mann, Rev. A. W., Cleveland, O. 
Mason, A. W., Toronto, Canada. 
Mayer, Miss Bettie, Evansville, 111. 
Moses, Miss Maude, Chicago. 
McGinness, Thos., Columbus, 0. 
McCook, Matt., Dubuque Iowa. 
McMaster, David, Chillicothe, 0. 
McPeek, Miss Ella, Columbus, 0. 
McNeeley, Miss Elizabeth, Newport, 

McFarland, Jane, Elgin, 111. 
McGregor, R. P., Columbus, 0. 
McGregor, Mrs. R. P., Columbus, 0. 
McGinnity, Stephen, Denver, Colo. 
McMaster, H. H. B., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Mclntire, Dan V., Crawfordsville, Ind. 
Neal, W. E., Evanston, 111. 
Norrish, Willie, Springfield, O. 
Neel, David S., Macon, 111. 
Neumayer, Wm., Aurora, 111. 
Oppenheimer, Ben, Trenton, Tenn. 
O'Connor, Miss Bessie, Maplewood, 

Orr, Miss Eva, Amboy, 111. 
Oxley, Wiltshire, W. Pullman, 111. 
Ochs, William, Faribault, Minn. 
Pyle, Edwin, Ft. Madison, la. 
Priestly, John W., New Albany, Ind. 
Philpot, Frank E., Ravenna, 0. 
Patterson, Miss Nora B., Columbus,0. 
Perrette, Eleanore, Jeffersonville, Ind. 
Phillips, Hiram, Delavan, Wis. 
Phillips, Mrs. Hiram, Delavan, Wis. 
Peek, Miss Mary E., Chicago, 111. 
Pach, A. L., Easton, Pa. 
Parsons, R. Newton, Hazzardville, 

Palmer, L. Arthur, Nashville, Tenn. 
Post, Barbara, Chicago. 
Pershing, J. Ernst, Springfield, 0. 

Official Reports. 


Frisbee, Edwin W., Everett, Mass. 
Ferguson, Miss Lizzie, Chicago, 
Freeman, S. M., Cave Springs, Ga. 
Friday, Frank I., Kensington, 111. 
Friday, Mrs. Kensington, 111. 
Fowler, Miss Maggie, Cleveland, O. 
Froelich, Theo. A., New York City. 
Frank, Ben., Chicago. 
Fox, T. F., New York City, 
Fraser, George, Fernwood, 111. 
Fravel, Miss Annie, St. Louis, Mo. 
Flagg, Miss Belle C, Boston, Mass. 
Fowles, Miss Mary, Columbus, O. 
George, D. \V., Jacksonville, 111. 
Gordon, J. S., Chicago. 
Gotthainer, J., Chicago. 
Gotthainer, Mrs. Chicago. 
Gibney, Wm, Chicago. 
Goldman, Jos., Middletown, O. 
Gibson, F. P., Chicago. 
Glass, F., St. Charles, 111. 
Gallaher, J. E., Chicago. 
Garton, Miss Cora H., Oriskany Falls, 

N. Y. 
Goodwin, Jas., Baton Rouge, La. 
Greener, A. B., Columbus, O. 
Hanna, H. M., Springfield, 111. 
Holycross, E. I., Chicago. 
Howard, S. H., Chicago. 
Huff, Mrs. Louis P., Kansas City, Mo. 
Hicks, Wm., Jacksonville, 111. 
Hasenstab, P. J., Chicago. 
Hesse, Frank, Indianapolis, Ind. 
Hesse, Mrs., Indianapolis, Ind. 
Halloway, F. C. Council Bluffs, la. 
Hathaway, H. A. Elgin, 111. 
Hathaway, Mrs. H. A., Elgin, 111. 
Heyman, Moses, New York City. 
Hines, W. W., Columbus, O. 
Hagerty, Thomas, Delevan, Wis. 
Hall, Ernest W., Moreland, 111. 
Holmes, Ed. P., Chicago. 
Hanson, Olof, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Hartung, Fred, Chicago. 
Hyman, F. R., Chicago. 
Hodgson, E. A., New York City. 

Rogers, Miss Annie M., Edgewood 
Park, Pa. 

Reed, Harry, Mevasha, Wis. 

Rogers, Thos. J., Gates City, 111. 

Ritchie, Thomas, Chicago. 

Ross, H. C, Chicago. 

Robbins, A. H. Jr., Chicago. 

Regensburg, O. H., Chicago. 

Robinson, Warren, Delavan Wis. 

• Root, Geo. E., Kansas City, Mo. 

Reed, Chas., Mevasha, Wis. 

Rose, Theo. S., New York City. 

Rowe, Samuel, New Gloucester, Me. 

Rothert, Waldo H., Council Bluffs, la. 

Stout, Milton, E., N. Evanston, 111. 

Stout, Mrs. Milton E., N.Evanston, 111. 

Steaton, C. D., Golden, 111. 

Smith, J. L., Faribault, Minn. 

Schory, A. H., Columbus, O. 

Swift, Harry, Indianapois, Ind. 

Shields, Mrs. J. J., Englewood, 111. 

Strening, Miss L. A., Chicago. 

Schaub, W. H., St. Louis, Mo. 

Smith, Russell, Omaha, Neb. 

Standacher, E., Dubuque, la. 

Smith, Harry, Green Bay, Wis. 

Souweine E., New York City. 

Steinweinder, C. E. Indianapolis, Ind. 

Snyder, Miss Renia, Chicago Lawn.Ill. 

Smith, H. Ward, Albion, N. Y. 

Syle, Mrs. H. W., Germantown, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Sonneborn, Joseph, Chicago, 111. 

Sonneborn, Morton, Chicago, 111. 

Spear, A. R., Devil's Lake, N. D. 
Scott, Robert, Chicago. 
Scott, Mrs. Robert, Chicago. 
Schuttler, C. J., Chicago. 
Schoenenberger, Miss T. W., Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich. 
Tregarden, G. M., Edgewood Park, Pa. 
Towner, C. C, S. Brooklyn, O. 
Tracy, H. L., Baton Rouge, La. 
Towne, E. O., Pekin, 111. 
Thornberry, W. M., Austin, Tex. 
Vail, S. J., Indianapolis, Ind. 

214 Official Reports. 

Hyman, G. S. Chicago. Veditz, G. W. ( Colorado Springs, Colo. 

Hart, H. R. ( Chicago. Wood, Alfred F., Talladega, Ala. 

Hunter, Mrs. E. D., Chicago. White, W. E., Nashua, N. H. 

Hine, E. H., Waterbury, Conn. Wolff, Chas., St. Louis, Mo. 

Heyman, Mrs. Moses, New York City. White, Harry C, Boston, Mass. 
Jack, Miss Ida L., Logansport, Ind. Welch, Chas. I., Port Royal, Pa. 

Jackson, Chas., Indianapolis, Ind. Wolpert, D. N., Denver, Colo. 

Jones, W. G., New York City. Woodrow, Jas., McLean, 111. 

Jones, Miss Nettie, Columbus, O. Wilson, A. O., Corsicana, Tex. 

Jackson, B. F., Rockford, 111. White, Miss, Emma, Chicago. 

Johnson, David E., Faribault, Minn. Woolley, Jas. M., Pleasant Ridge, 0. 
Kaufman, Fred, Chicago. Woolley, John, F., Connellsville, Ind. 

Keine, Wm, Omaha, Neb. West, Jesse A., Springfield, 0. 

Keefe, J. T., Bellows Falls, Yt. West, Mrs. Jesse A., Springfield, 0. 

Knollman, Frank, Cincinnati, O. Wray, Miss G., Englewood, Chicago. 

Kinney, Geo. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. Wayman, Miss Bessie, Wheeling, W. 

Klagge, F. E., St. Paul, Minn. Ya. 

Kennedy, Miss Annie, Farmer City.Ill. Ziegler, Robert M., Mt. Airy, Phila- 
Kerney, Chas., Indiananapolis, Ind. delphia, Pa. 

Kerney, Mrs. Chas., Indianapolis, Ind. Zorn, Wm. H., Columbus, O. 

Mr. Dougherty causes a break in the programme by present- 
ing a large handsome copy of the Pas-a-Pas Club in group, with 
the compliments of the Club, to the French and Irish Delagates, 
to the Gallaudet Society of Boston, the Union League of New 
York, the Fanwood Quad Club of New York, the St. Louis Deaf 
Mute Club, and the All Saints Club of Philadelphia. 

Mr. William E. White, of New Hampshire, presents to the 
Association a copy of the " Eulogy on the Life and Deeds of 
Thomas Brown; the pioneer of New England and a leading light 
in his day and generation." Accepted with thanks. 

The Fourth National Convention now draws to a close. 

Mr. Allabough moves resolutions of thanks to the energetic 
and successful Local Committee of Arrangements for their 
valuable services as follows: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Association are extended to the Local 
Committee for their services in making arrangements for this Convention. 

Passed, amid wild enthusiasm. 

Mr. Souwenie, of New York, moves that the foreign delegates 
present be made perpetual members of the Association in recog- 
nition of their important services at the Congress. Passed unan- 

On motion of Rev. Mr.Koehler, the Convention was adjourned, 
and the gavel fell. The curtain fell upon the most important 
scene in the life of the National Association for years. 

Henry C. White, N. D. M. A., Secretary. 


For mutual assistance and encouragement in bettering their standing in 
society at large, and for the enjoyment of social pleasure attendant upon the 
periodical reunion of a widely scattered class of people, the undersigned deaf 
citizens of the United States agree to form themselves into a national associa- 



This Association shall be called the " National Association of the Deaf." 


Any deaf citizen of the United States may become a member of this Asso- 
ciation upon the payment of the initiation fee. 


Section i. The officers of this Association shall consist of a President, 
four Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer, and a National Executive Com- 

election of officers. 

§ 2. The officers of the Association shall be elected by a majority vote of 
all the duly qualified members voting at the permanent organization of each 
national convention of the Association. 


§ 3. The National Executive Committee shall consist of one member 
from each State and Territory represented upon the roll of membership of this 
Association, one of whom shall be Chairman and the President of the Associa- 
tion as ex-officio member. 


§ 4. The President elected at each national convention of the Association 
shall have power to appoint the members of the National Executive Commit- 
tee and to designate the Chairman thereof. 


§ 5. It shall be the duty of the President of this Association to preside at 
its meetings in national convention. 


§ 6. The Vice President shall fill the office of the President when the latter 
is unable to discharge the duties of his office. 


§ 7. The Secretary shall record the minutes of all meetings of the Associa- 
tion. He shall keep a list of the members of the Association, giving the full 

216 Constitution and By-Laws. 

name, together with the post-office address. He shall have charge of all docu- 
ments, etc., belonging to the Association, except those of the Treasurer. 


§ 8. The Treasurer shall receive all moneys belonging to the Association, 
keep an account of all receipts and expenditures, and shall make a report of 
the state of the finances of the Association whenever called upon to do so by 
the Association. He shall preserve all vouchers. 


§ 9. The National Executive Committee shall have general conduct of 
the affairs of the Association from the final adjournment of one national con- 
vention to the organization of the next one. It shall aim to carry out the ex- 
pressed will of the Association as far as circumstances may render it wise or 
allowable. It shall have power to appropriate any available funds of the Asso- 
ciation for purposes tending to promote its welfare. 


Section i. This Association shall meet in National Convention in three 
years after the adjournment of each convention, unless unfavorable circum- 
stances should call for postponement. 

§ 2. The month, day and place of holding each succeeding National Con- 
vention shall be decided upon by the National Executive Committee. 


A motion to amend the Constitution or By-Laws of this Association must 
be submitted in writing to the President, and be published by him in the lead- 
ing newspapers for the deaf for at least thirty days before the meeting of the 
Association in National Convention, and then such amendment shall require 
a two-thirds vote, a quorum voting, for its adoption. 



Section i. The initiation fee of this Association shall be one dollar for 
gentlemen and fifty cents for ladies. 


§ 2. No person shall vote on the permanent organization of the conven- 
tion of the Association, or thereafter, who has not first paid the initiation fee. 


§ 3. The term of membership of each member expires during the prelim- 
inary organization of each convention, and must be renewed by the payment of 
the initiation fee to the Enrollment Committee. 


§ 4. Any deaf person not present at any convention of the Association, 
may be enrolled as a member by forwarding the initiation fee. Any deaf per- 
son may, at any time after the adjournment of a convention, be enrolled as a 
member by the payment of the initiation fee to the Treasurer of the Associa- 
tion, but the term of such membership shall expire during the preliminary or- 
ganization of the next following National Convention. 

Constitution and By-Laws. 2 1 7 


§ 5. No person shall be entitled to take part in the permanent organiza- 
tion of the convention, to offer any motion or resolution, to read any paper, to 
discuss any motion, resolution or paper, to address the convention on any sub- 
ject, or to hold any office, who has not first paid the initiation fee, but non-mem- 
bers may be invited to speak by special courtesy of the Association. 


The proceedings of the convention of this Association shall be governed 
by ordinary parliamentary practice, and in case of dispute on any question of 
parliamentary practice, " Roberts' Rules of Order" shall be regarded as au- 
thority on all such points. 


The President of the Association shall open the proceedings of each Na- 
tional Convention by calling the meeting to order and reading the official call. 
in the absence of the President, this duty shall devolve upon the first, second, 
third and fourth Vice Presidents, in succession. 


At least three months before the time for holding each National Conven- 
tion, the Chairman of the Executive Committee shall appoint a local commit- 
tee, not necessarily members of the Association, residing in the city where the 
convention is to be held, and this local committee shall make the best possible 
arrangements for the reception and entertainment of the members of the Asso- 


Saturday, July 22, 1893. 

At 9 o'clock a. m. President Dougherty called the Congress 
to order, and introduced Rev. P. J. Hasenstab, of Jacksonville, 
111., who made the opening prayer. 

The President: We now come to the concluding work of the 
Congress, and we shall proceed with the programme without any 
unnecessary delay. The opening topic of discussion is " Oralism 
from the Standpoint of Practical Experience." I shall ask M. 
Genis, of France, to take the chair. 

The Chair: The first paper on the programme is from M. 
Chambellan, of Paris. It will be read by M. Despeeriers. 



(Translated by Mr. J. L. Smith.) 

I have been requested to send to the Congress at Chicago a brief discourse 
concerning the pure oral method from a practical point of view. I do not 
know how to accede to this request better than by reproducing some passages 
from my pamphlets. 

Since 1878 there have been held International Congresses of teachers for 
the betterment of the condition of deaf mutes. Many questions have been 
discussed at them. Especially have they concerned themselves with the 
method which is fitted for the instruction of these unfortunates. After long 
debates, they have condemned the sign-language and proclaimed for instruc- 
tion by means of speech, which I regard as unfavorable to the moral and inte- 
lectual development of the deaf mute. 

It should be stated that the method which they propose is not new; like 
other systems it has already been tried; they undo and do over again what has 
been attempted many times. 

The education of deaf mutes dates one hundred and twenty-six years since 
the time when tbe Abbe de l'Epee engaged in it, and three centuries since the 
death of Pedro Ponce. How is it that we still advance gropingly? Should we 
be led astay? Have we not profited by the lessons of experience? 

However it may be, we do not want the deaf mute reduced to the condition 
of an automaton; we want him to reason, to understand what he reads, what he 
says, what is said to him; to know how to manage his affairs, to have a con- 

Oralism in France. 219 

sciousness of his duties and his rights. And this progress, let us not forget' 
can only be obtained if we have the wisdom not to extinguish the beacon-fire 
which the Abbe de l'Epee lighted in his school by introdncing there the lan- 
guage of signs — that language which Nature, in her solicitude, has given in 
compensation to the deaf mute from birth — the language to which has likewise 
recourse the traveler in a foreign land, not knowing one word of the idiom of 
the country. 

To make all deaf mutes talk is a superfluous undertaking. It is important 
not to confound accidental deafness and congenital deafness. Those individ- 
uals who, in their childhood, could hear and who were taught to speak letters 
and syllables, if they have preserved the activity of their intelligence, acquire 
facility by means of an able drill of the vocal organs and learn to speak with 
sufficient distinctness. As for those deaf from birth, notwithstanding the efforts 
of the most accomplished teacher, they are always at the beginning; they suc- 
ceed in pronouncing a hundred separate words, more or less, without the power 
to combine them by means of other words in such a manner as to form a sen- 
tence. Moreover, their pronunciation is guttural, nasal, and very disagreeable 
to those who hear the children and who do not succeed in understanding them 
without giving the closest attention. All this testifies that it is impossible for 
the deaf of that category to make use with profit of spoken language. 

Let us examine by what means the pure oral method, which is wrongly 
called new, has succeeded in gaining a certain prestige. There have been pre- 
sented to the public, in exhibitions, some deaf mutes, carefully selected, talk- 
ing well enough and appearing to read from the lips. The persons who wish 
to gain public favor for this method, have renewed these exhibitions with va- 
riations, seeking to create for it thereby a curent of favorable opinion. 

We know that the public grows enthusiastic over generous projects; it said 
to itself that a method of instruction that did away with mutes; that placed 
them in a condition to converse with their fellow citizens as if they could hear 
and speak, was a noble work, and merited the support of the whole government. 

Thenceforth the current of opinion desired was obtained; it went on in- 
creasing, little by little, so successfully that this pure oral method has become 
the official method. 

At present, in solemn ceremonies, there are shown pupils who talk passa- 
bly well, and the public believes that all the others arrive at the same result. 
Alas! there is nothing in it. Out of fifteen young people, for example, three 
or four at most learn to talk in a manner sufficiently satisfactory. It is still 
necessary that they should be exceptionally endowed, or, as I have said, that 
they should have heard formerly. No one can understand the other, and good 
care is taken that they shall not be seen. In the schools the teachers, in order 
to communicate with their better pupils, make, in pronouncing the wojds, very 
distinct, very emphatic movements of the lips. But upon their departure from 
the institution, when the young deaf mutes find themselves in contact with 
their fellow citizens, can they take part in speech? Can they, by this means, 
exchange their thoughts and grasp those of others? I do not hesitate to say 
very few can do it. 

220 Mr. Victor Chambellan oti 

In order to understand a deaf person talking it is necessary to be accus- 
tomed to his manner of pronunciation, which varies with individuals, to the 
tone of his voice, which presents as much diversity as there are individuals — 
in a word, to be already acquainted with him. 

In turn, one wishes to reply to the deaf. To this end it will be necessary 
to have recourse to the movements of the lips so exaggerated, of which I re- 
cently spoke, that everybody can make, but everybody does not know 
how to make well, lacking which the deaf person will not divine what is said 
to him. 

I challenge any one to show me, on an average, one deaf mute out of five, 
or even one out of ten, taking part in a connected conversation with strangers 
or even with acquaintances. 

What signifies a method that is to benefit so few persons? By that alone 
it is condemned. It develops the intelligence some one objects, better than 
the sign language. This is a pronounced error. The deaf mute comprehends 
only by means of signs the principal abstract ideas, and there are as many, if not 
more, abstract ideas as concrete. What kind of instruction is it that is limited 
exclusively to concrete ideas? It is not even half instruction; it is nothing. 
And, then, how can moral ideas be made to enter the head of the deaf mute? 

It has been said that some talking deaf teachers made no use of the lan- 
guage of signs; that they taught only by means of speech. That is truly in- 
credible. How, in effect, could those who never heard direct the pronuncia- 
tion of their pupils and know whether it was intelligent and tolerable? 

I have had occasion to question some deaf mutes taught according to the 
new method. They were much less instructed than those trained in the old 
way. One has also seen some of them who, moving their lips and tongue, be- 
lieved themselves speaking, in the acceptation of the word, and did not 
speak at all. 

Certain families cannot endure the hoarse, somestimes sepulchral, voices of 
their young relatives sent forth from the schools; they oblige them to have re- 
course to the pencil and the manual alphabet. We must not lose sight of the 
fact that these pensioners of speech have difficulty in finding situations. Man- 
agers and foremen prefer to them the deaf mutes expressing themselves well 
enough by means of writing and signs. 

In a decisive address by a speaking professor of the National Institution 
for Deaf Mutes, at Paris, at the distribution of the prizes of 1887, we read: 

" The truth is that the speech of the greater part of my pupils only dis- 
tantly recalls that of their hearing brothers; the truth is, that in spite of our 
efforts, the deaf will never be anything but deaf, and that they will remain, 
from the severe law of their birth, pensioners of speech. 

**** * * * * 

" In order to understand them, complaisance is often necessary, one must 
guess a little. 

pf» 3|C «|C S|S 3|C S^C SfC 3(c 

"However strange and fantastic their accent may seem to you to be in 
certain cases, guard yourselves from letting it appear to them. 

Oralistn in France. 221 

" Among these young pupils, it is true, sight has taken the place of hearing, 
and they have acquired the sad privilege of hearing with the eyes. Does it 
follow then that they will understand all you say to them? Guard yourselves 
from that illusion. 

" They will often have to repeat your remarks; if they did not already 
know the sense, they will be to them only useless sounds. That is why you 
can employ in your conversation only words that may be familiar to them." 

The author of these lines deserves congratulations, for he has had the 
courage to attack error with frankness. 

Mr. Warring Wilkinson who, in i8gi, visited the institutions for the deaf 
mutes of Europe, declares that he learned hardly anything new, and in regard 
to the pure oral method, practically applied, he saw it nowhere. 

Only twenty minutes have been accorded for the reading of my address. I 
pause. But I will not end without putting down my conclusions. It is necessary to 
establish two categories among the deaf-mute pupils, as the earnest modern 
teachers have always done: 

First, Those who have never heard nor spoken, or who have lost their 
hearing before the age of four years. 

Second, Those who have heard and spoken until that age. 

The education of the former can only be carried on successfully by means 
of the sign language, with written exercises and varied reading. To cultivate 
speech among the others nothing can be better, and it has been done in all 
times; but it would be an error to make them abandon entirely the language 
of signs which can only contribute to quicken the development of their intellec- 
tual faculties. 

The Chair: The next paper is from Mr. Foster, of England. 
It will be deliveredjn signs by Mr. McGregor, and read orally by 
Mr. Odebrecht. 



I have been specially asked to give a paper on the above subject, on ac- 
count of my having experienced the benefits of both the oral and the manual 
systems, and my large experience among the deaf and dumb residents in Great 
Britain and Ireland. At the age of nine years I was sent to a private boarding 
school at London (kept by Mr. Van Asch for the teaching of the deaf and dumb 
on the pure oral system), where I remained for four years. He was considered 
one of the best oralist teachers. I got on very well in articulation and lip-read- 
ing, owing a good deal to my being possessed of a little hearing, and thus being 
able to distinguish sounds. Afterwards I attended an ordinary day school for 
three years in order to finish my education; especially in relation to history, com- 
position, grammar, arithmetic, etc., as most of my time at Mr. Van Asch's had 
been spent in articluation and lip-reading, thus leaving me only half-educated. 
Leaving school at the age of seventeen years, I began the battle of life by be- 
ing apprenticed to a litho-draughtsman, and almost at the same time I began 
to associate with the deaf and dumb of Glasgow, in which town I was then re- 
siding. I attended divine services, lectures, etc., at the Mission Hall, deriving 
much good therefrom, and in time became proficient in the finger and sign-lan- 
guage, and for many years afterwards took an active part in the work of the 
Mission. I had thus many opportunities of mixing with the deaf and dumb, 
and observing the results of both systems of education, there being some 
among them who had been taught on the pure oral system. I also often met 
with children who were being taught orally at a private school and others who 
had already left school (pure oral.) And now, after all my experiences and 
careful observations, I have come to the conclusion that oralism, taken as a 
whole, is not the best for the deaf and dumb. 

First I will deal with its possibtlities. Under favorable conditions it is 
possible for oralism to be successfully taught. First, The child so taught must 
be intelligent and smart; its voice good. Second, The teacher must be spec- 
ially trained, and having a large fund of patience, and Third, And a longer 
period than that usually allowed under the manual system for teaching If 
these conditions were carried out the child would turn out a well educated one, 
able to speak and to read lips well; all the better if it enjoys the faculty of a lit- 
tle hearing. For I have noticed that those who are stone deaf, as a rule, are poor 
speakers, and in many cases execrable ones, while those who are not so turn out 
to be fair speakers. The person, if thus taught under favorable conditions, is 
able to carry on conversation with his folks at home and also friends elsewhere, 
with his employer and others at his work. But those are all the benefits he 

Practical Experience in Great Britain a?id Ireland. 223 

gets; for, and here I come to the limitations of oralism, he will, outside the cir- 
cle of his own relations and friends, find his articulation and lip-reading abili- 
ties practically useless. He may manage, here and there, to make strangers 
understand what he says, but as for reading their lips, the attempt is almost 
quite useless. He will invariably have to resort to paper and pencil, as has 
been the case with myself, although I am considered one of the b^st examples 
of the pure oral system. Then as to attending divine services, lectures and 
public meetings, he also finds that oralism is of no use whatever to him in try- 
ing to make out what is said thereat. I myself have tried to make out what is 
said by preachers and public speakers on various occasions by means of lip- 
reading, but have always failed. Then, lip-reading is very trying to the eyes if 
kept up for a length of time and at a distance. In fact oralism is practically 
useless for divine services, public meetings and entertainments. 

It does not, as some people say, retore the deaf to society. I myself have 
several times tried to get on socially with hearing people at parties, dances, 
etc., but so far never succeeded. I never feel verv comfortable on such occa- 
sions. I enjoy the society of my afflicted fellow-creatures far better, carrying 
on our conversation in the finger and sign language. From the educational 
point of view, oralism does not produce satisfactory results. I have noticed, as 
a rule, that those taught on the finger and sign language are much better edu- 
cated than those taught on the oral system. I attribute this result to the fact 
that much time is required for teaching the child articulation and lip-reading 
only, and very little time left for improving its mind by means of reading, 
composition, study of history, etc., whereas in the case of the finger and sign 
system, much less time is expended in acquiring the finger and sign language, 
and consequently a large margin of time is left for improvement in other 

In many institutions, endeavors have been made to use both systems at the 
same time; that is to say, the children are taught on both systems, a combina- 
tion known as the combined system. What is the result? Well, in my hum- 
ble opinion, it has made matters worse. The education of deaf and dumb 
children nowadays is no better; on the contrary, it is worse, all owing to the 
combined system. Some of you may take exception to my statement; how- 
ever, I maintain its truth, and am ready to stake my word, yea my life, upon it. 
Ever since oralism became a part of the curriculum of our public deaf and 
dumb institutions, the education of the deaf and dumb has suffered a good 
deal. No one who has any experience among the deaf and dumb, and come 
across those who have left school within the last ten years, can shut his eyes to 
this fact. How is it? Simply because too much time is wasted in the efforts of 
teaching the children to talk and read lips; the chief object of teachers seems 
to be in turning them out as speaking automatons, and nothing more. I beg 
to remind you of the fact that a large number of them, after leaving school, 
give up speech and lip-reading, and fall back on their natural language, viz.: 
the finger and sign language. In most cases they make use of their dearly- 
bought acquirements only at home, and even there not always. I find that, as 
a rule, they do not associate by preference with the hearing; they find it more 

224 J- P- Foster on Oralism fro?n the Standpoint of 

enjoyable and congenial to mix with those similarly afflicted. It is so in my 
own case. 

In my opinion, oralism should be used only as an accomplishment for those 
who are capable of acquiring it. The finger and sign system is by far the best 
for the majority, I should say, the whole of the deaf and dumb; it benefits them 
in every way. I close this imperfect paper with a strong appeal to all present 
to make a firm stand against oralism, or rather the oral system being used as a 
principal means of educating the deaf and dumb. 

The Chair: Mr. Watzulik will present the German view on 
the subject. 



Its possibilities? 

With a part of the deaf, especially those who have formerly been able to 
hear and speak, or who on entering school still possess some degree of hearing 
and speech, a good articulation is possible. As soon, however, as signs are 
avoided in teaching these pupils, the lesson becomes irksome and fatiguing, 
because the spoken word leaves too weak an impression on the mind of the 
deaf, and because in such a process the eye is strained more than the intellect. 

Its limitations? 

The pupils should be required to answer the questions of the teacher orally 
whenever it appears possible and their command of language is sufficient. On 
the other hand, the teacher, in addition to speech and writing, should use signs 
in order to give life and interest to the lesson, and a better understanding of 
the subject to the pupil, and also to spare the eye. 

Its results? 

The results with the semi-mute, the semi-deaf, and bright deaf mutes, must 
be designated as gratifying; that is, results in speech regarded as speech only. 
Unfortunately, however, these results are obtained at the cost of a satisfactory 
elementary education. With about forty per cent, of all deaf mutes the results 
in articulation are altogether incomplete and disappointing. 

Do pupils educated according to this method abandon speech after leav- 
ing school, and to what extent? 

While semi-mutes and bright deaf mutes attain to a high degree of pro- 
ficiency in speech after leaving school, the less intelligent, after a few years, 
become almost totally dumb. Their articulation is so indistinct that even 
teachers are unable to understand them. This remark does not, of course, in- 
clude those deaf mutes who develop their speeeh by means of constant inter- 
course with the hearing. Such deaf mutes are, however, very scarce. 

Does this method " restore the deaf to society?" 

It is certainly an occasion of pleasure in social circles when individual 
deaf mutes are found who are able to make their articulation in a measure un- 
derstood. On the other hand, we may also say that an indistinct utterance and 
a harsh and disagreeable voice have a repellant effect upon the hearing. Give 
us gestures and writing rather than an articulation that insults the ear, for it is 
not unfrequently the means of bringing the deaf into disrepute with the unini- 
tiated laity. 

What is its future? 

Articulation, provided they possess the necessary ability to master it, is one 
of the most beautiful gifts a deaT-mute school can endow its pupils. There- 

226 Mr. A. M. Watzulik on 

fore articulation must in the future always hold an important place, and that, 
too, not only in Germany, but wherever the deaf mute finds intelligent teach- 
ers. But this does not imply that all instruction should be imparted by speech 
alone. On the contrary, the combined system is, according to my firm convic- 
tion, the system of the future, and this view is defended with the greatest per- 
sistence and courage by our noble champion, Mr. Heidsick, teacher in Breslau. 

What can you say from your own experience on this subject? 

I am indebted principally to speech for my present education. An inter- 
course with the hearing extending over many years, carried on by means of 
speech and written conversation, and supplemented by private study, has ena- 
bled me to amplify my education. I would even declare that intelligent deaf 
mutes are very well able, by means of good reading and regular association 
with intelligent hearing people, not only to widen their mental horizon but also 
to cultivate theirjudgment on all subjects. But there is one drawback I have 
always met with in my association with the hearing; notwithstanding that I 
always select interesting subjects for conversation, there is soon a manifest un- 
willingness to submit to the inconvenience of repeating statements and correct- 
ing misunderstandings. This may be owing to the circumstance that this 
conversation generally takes place in the evenings, and my partners are com- 
pelled to work more with the pencil than the tongue. This has had one good 
result — it has driven me to the companionship of newspapers and books. I 
must also say that, notwithstanding my long association with the hearing, I have 
always preferred the company of the intelligent deaf, simply because the lan- 
guage of signs affords a more rapid and convenient medium than speech. I 
am able to put hearing people in audible good humor by all sorts of spoken 
remarks, but also to awaken the deepest sadness; I am able to furnish articles 
for the hearing papers; and, in short, I can perform almost any task that might 
be demanded of any intelligent deaf mute, but never can I acknowledge that a 
really good education can be secured to the deaf by means of speech alone. 

The Chair: Mr. Babbitt will present a paper from the Amer- 
ican section. 




The advantages of the pure oral system are many and useful to those who 
can master it. It would be folly to deny the benefits of speech to the deaf in 
the family, in the company of friends, in the market and workshop or office, 
and I have known one deaf mute, who has obtained a marvelous command of 
English from his long course of reading, to say that he would gladly give ten 
years of his life to be able to speak with ease, for the convenience of it. 

People are always in a hurry, and it is not always possible to use the tablet 
and pencil. Speech and lip-reading save time and patience. Of two young 
men, one of whom can speak and the other cannot, the foremen of workshops 
always prefer the first one for the sake of easier communication, and the mute 
young man finds it harder to get regular employment than the average young 

We deplore it, but we cannot help it. Such is the way of the world. 

The art of speaking can be learned by constant practice in school and out. 
In the class room we learn only the principles of speech, and to make the 
lessons worth anything we must make use of them everywhere. Unless this is 
done, all the efforts of our teachers are worse than wasted and our education 
as a whole is ruined, for while so much time is spent in these oral lessons, the 
rest of our education is neglected, not intentionally but unavoidably. 

From my own personal experience since boyhood, I am confident that 
speech can be improved and developed by studious attention to the teachers 
and practicing at it with friends. If my friends and relatives had not kindly 
given me as much assistance as they could at all times, my lessons wonld have 
been thrown away, and I have improved little by little, until now I can talk 
fairly well. If my friends had not helped me, I certainly would have been 
obliged to give up all attempts to learn to articulate. It would have been im- 
possible to get any benefit from the school room alone. My friends encour- 
aged and infused new life into me, for in the beginning of my education my 
case was not much better than that of a newly-born babe. For this object my 
stern father made me serve him as a clerk in his drug store, where I was 
obliged to wait on customers, read their lips, and ask whether they wanted such 
and such a thing. My father understood better than any one else that I could 
learn to speak only by experience. 

At first it was a great difficulty for me to understand exactly what was 
wanted, but gradually my confidence grew until my father thought I was good 
enough to run a drug store all by myself in Lynn, Mass. From what I have 
seen' I believe that any boy or girl with a sound voice and more than fair intel- 
ligence can be taught to read the lips and articulate if they would give thei 

228 Mr. Harry E. Babbitt o?i 

whole attention to it all the time. But, like any other system, oralism has its 
limitations, and more of them than the sign system. 

" Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, 
Think what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be.' 1 

As speech can be learned with profit only by constant practice with the 
hearing people in lip-reading, asking fearlessly for a correction in case a mis- 
take is made in pronunciation, there are but a few who have courage and pa- 
tience enough for the task, the oral system is necessarily limited in its useful- 
ness. Most of the pupils do not carry their practice out of the schoolroom, and 
the teachers are obliged to give them much more of their time and attention to 
the neglect of other studies. These teachers, however, believe that whatever 
has been gained is better than nothing, and they blind their eyes to the defects 
in the education of their pupils. 

In my own class of twenty pupils, as far as I know, only three or four 
pupils have succeeded in mastering the speech system well enough to use it in 
the world. All the rest can use only a limited vocabulary and cannot carry on 
a general conversation with their hearing friends. They have been unable to 
overcome their difficulties. The results of the system are not the same in all 
cases. While some have left school poorly educated, a few learned enough to 
be able to carry on the ordinary business of life in speech, and went to the 
School of Oratory to perfect themselues in the voice and manner of speaking. 

Many, however, have been thrown upon their own resources, and as their 
folks and friends would not encourage them in the use of the tablet and pencil, 
they forced themselves to self-improvement by talking with their friends 
oftener, and made better progress in this way. In one case which has come to 
my knowledge, a young man who was admitted into a business firm achieved 
remarkable success without any particular method, by personal and persistent 
efforts in conversing with his partners, clerks and customers. He learned to 
read the lips even at a distance with lightning-like rapidity, and seldom asked 
others to repeat their words to him. In a business way, this is the most success- 
ful case in my knowledge. But this is an exception to the rule, and as a gen- 
eral thing the want of hearing is a great hindrance in business, and the use of 
the pencil is necessary in all business matters, even with the best graduates of 
the oral school. 

Inattention and indolence are the worst foes of the oral system. I should 
judge that twenty-five per cent, of the pupils lose their speech after leaving 
school. They never use their voice if they can help it. The difficulties of 
k eeping up their speech are too great for them to overcome, and they are dis- 
couraged by their inability to make their wants understood by strangers and 
others who are not accustomed to their peculiar manner of pronunciation. 
Then they are sometimes ashamed of the unnatural gutteral tones of their 
voices, at which thoughtless people often laugh, and being very sensitive to 
ridicule, they give up speaking and resort to writing only. 

I don't know as the oral system really restores the deaf to society. H 
you mean it as a general thing, it cannot and does not. Whoever says it doe;, 
claims too much. It may restore to society a few among the wealthy classes 

Oralism from the Standpoint of Practical Experience. 229 

whose children are given the benefit of private teaching and when their teacher 
goes with them every hour of the day, talking to them all the time. But it 
does not always do that. The children must possess a good voice and intelli- 
gence. A dull pupil can never do as well under private teachers as a bright 
one could in a school. These privately-taught deaf are so jealously guarded 
from contact with the other deaf that it is difficult to tell whether they are really 
restored to society or not. As fair as I can see, the graduates of the oral 
schools, with a very few exceptions, are not restored to society, in a business or 
social sense. There is still an insurmountable barrier of silence between all the 
deaf and the rest of the world. Whatever the oralists may claim, the deaf 
themselves do not know what restoration to society means. 

From my intimate relations with the graduates of pure oral schools, I know 
that they certainly try their best to keep up their speech after leaving school, 
but they cannot keep it up to a great extent. Probably out of twenty gradu- 
ates, fifteen of them get along fairly well, while the others articulate rather 
queerly, and soon come to the conclusion that it is of no use to try; hence they 
give up their attempts. But in most cases, say five out of twenty, continne to 
improve with rapidity, while the rest still stand in the same position as when 
they left school. As to the future of oralism, at present it is meeting with many 
disadvantages, but it is slowly but surely approaching its limit, beyond which 
it cannot go; but as long as the parents of deaf children wish them to learn to 
speak, so long will the oral system flourish. The promoters of speech are rich, 
influential and active. They will spare no efforts and leave no stone unturned 
to make it the universal system of education in America. They have the pub- 
lic with them, because the public knows nothing of the practical results of 
either system. If a child is taught to crow, it is proof positive of success! It 
may be that the great expense, which is not equal to the benefit, will prevent 
the spread of the system, as it requires more teachers to a class than the com- 
bined system does. Except in isolated cases, the pure oral system does not 
bestow any tangible advantages over the pupils of other schools. As to my 
own case, I attended the Northampton, Boston and Hartford schools; yet I 
found no material advantage of the oral system over the combined method. 
On the contrary, I feel that I have gained more benefit from the combined sys- 
tem than the oral. I do not say that the oral schools cannot do as well, but 
they cannot give as substantial an education as the other schools do. Too much 
valuable time was wasted in my lessous on articulation and lip-reading. In 
looking around, I have found the graduates of the combined system much 
better educated in language, mathematics and general knowledge of the world, 
politics, religion and everything worth talking about. In spite of their system 
you will find the graduates of the oral schools in New England dumb on any 
subject except trivial home affairs. Of the great world outside of their homes, 
they know nothing. Their ignorance of current events in the State or nation is 
pitiable. They could not tell the difference between Democracy and Republi- 
canism, and do not know who is President of the United States or queen of 
Great Britain. 

If these oral pupils spoke on the street, their uncouth voices and unnatural 

230 Mr. Harry E. Babbitt on 

contortions of the face would attract a large crowd around them, who look at 
them as though they were a set of monkeys chattering to each other. I have 
seen it time and again. 

Just look at those from the Horace Mann school. Among many I have 
been able to meet, I have attempted to talk with them, but it was difficult to 
get a right answer from them. There are many who, after leaving school, find 
more light and knowledge among those from other schools, and again and 
again is the expression from their lips, " Oh, I wish I had gone to Hartford," 
and the like. Doesn't that show then that the advocates of oralism claim too 

As to myself, I am a strong advocate of oralism, but still stronger on the 
combined system as the best method ever adopted. General intelligence and 
information, as far as my close personal experience among the three schools 
shows, are generally sacrificed to proficiency in lip-reading and speech. 

The oral pupils only practice among their own folks, to whom they are ac- 
customed, but as they do not speak to strangers it would never do to claim it as 
a success. The oral graduates associate with the hearing not by preference, 
but only at the request of their friends; and I am acquainted with many who 
after leaving school attended a gathering of the deaf for the first time and 
wished to go again, but their folks refuse them permission; but they attend 
again on the sly. They find it a blessing to meet other deaf mutes. After some 
time it came to the knowledge of their friends and they are scolded for it and 
kept at home. 

The Chair: We shall proceed to the consideration of "The 
Necessity of Technical Schools for the Deaf." Mr. Warren Rob- 
inson will present the first paper, which will be read orally by 
Rev. Dr. Gallaudet. 




Never before in the history of the world, has an age been distinguished by 
such wide-spread and deep-seated a revolution in industrial education as the 
present one. The striking features of this great reform are the large introduc- 
tion of machinery into every branch of human industry, specialization and the 
incorporation of manual training into the courses of study of the schools. The 
best proof and illustration of these changes are right in our midst. In the 
presence of such a display of the handiwork of man, thought is crystalized in 
such substantial and durable form that words seem to lose their force and 

The question now is whether we are to take advantage of and constitute a 
more intelligent and prominent factor in this great movement of progress and 
reform. It is scarcely in line with our greatest possibilities. This occasion is, 
perhaps, the grandest opportunity of our lives, and well has it been recognized 
in the presentation at this distinguished gathering, of the industrial problem 
for consideration, so far as it concerns ourselves. 

Now to our subject, " The Necessity of Technical Schools for the Deaf." 
Are they necessary? 

Let us look into the meaning of " technical education," " industrial educa- 
tion," and " manual training," the confusion or misunderstanding of which we 
believe has been the cause of considerable indefinite discussion. 

In its generally accepted sense " technical education " is used to describe 
all that aims at a directly practical end as opposed to the education given at 
the college. It is the application of the sciences to industiral ends. The class 
of professional men that technical schools turn out are usually known as 
engineers, whose work covers all the arts of production and construction which 
arise from the physical sciences. Examples of the high grade technical 
schools are found in the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, the Rose Poly- 
technic Institute, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and others of a 
like character, whose courses of study embrace such specialties as Civil, 
Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Architecture, Metallurgy, Chemistry, 
Biology, etc. The building up and maintenance of these institutes has cost 
millions of dollars. 

" Industrial education " does not differ from general technical education, 
except that the term may properly be considered as applicable to the lower 
ranges instead of the higher, though no line of demarcation between the two 
can be sharply drawn. 

" Manual training " does not necessarily include scientific instruction. It 

232 Mr. Warren Robinson on 

is rather an education in the care of tools, of the hand to skill in the use of 
them and of materials, and a training of the eye to accuracy and the mind to 
attention. It does not violate the rights of young people. It teaches no par- 
ticular trade, but the mechanical principles of them all. It gives a boy the 
best chance to choose a trade and the best preparation for it. Taken with the 
usual school work, a course which included quite a variety of work in drawing, 
in wood, the metals stone, and leather, might extend over several years. The 
motto of manual training is: " Instruction, not Construction." 

Now a high grade technical school does not appear necessary right away. 
What we want is to make a beginning, with that as an objective point. The 
courses of study in those high-grade schools are very difficult, and could only 
be successfully pursued by the few, to say nothing of the fewer still who would 
follow up their success, and the sharp competition against which they would 
have to contend. Of the ten we know who prepared themselves for special 
callings, with all their ability and the advantage they derived from mingling 
with the hearing, only half of them kept up technical work. Two are archi- 
tects, two chemists, and one a mechanical engineer. 

There is abundant opportunity offered to these few in the excellent insti- 
tutes of technology and technical departments of universities scattered 
throughout the country. Judged by the experience of those who have, and 
those who are now taking courses in such schools, the difficulties are more 
imaginary than real, and the advantages derived have been invaluable. There 
can be no question that to successfully compete with the hearing, especially in 
the higher professions, the deaf must be in contact with them as much as 
possible during the stage of preparation. 

In regard to the deaf entering such schools, a deaf graduate of the Wor- 
cester Polytechnic Institute writes: " I do not see why a deaf man, endowed 
with a fair amount of ability and good sense, should not be able to master the 
courses offered by them." A graduate of another school thus delivers himself: 
" My actual experience is that the deaf student, bright and willing to learn, 
can go through hearing technical schools, without even the aid of special 
professors or ' coachers.' " As the student is supposed to have a taste for his 
work, only suggestions and occasional explanations are necessary. The sub- 
jects of lectures can be found out beforehand, and read up in the library, or 
the professors may be asked to loan their manuscripts, or the notes of a fellow 
student may be borrowed; for there will always be some willing and ready to 
lend a helping hand to a solitary deaf student. 

The deaf want more encouragement to enter these high grade schools and 
some means by which they may maintain themselves while there, such as the 
Northern New York Institution, at Rochester, is trying to secure for its special 

But for a large number of the deaf, no one can deny that there is not a 
strong and growing demand for higher industrial education, such as would fill 
up the gap between the industrial training given at the State schools and the 
high-grade technical schools. 

We feel certain that the idea of so many entering hearing technical schools 

The Necessity of Technical Schools for the Deaf 233 

in order to procure this higher industrial education, would be rejected by a 
majority of persons directly interested in this question. 

Without some such provision we can not see how the more intelligent and 
aspiring deaf are ever going to hold their own in the sharp competition that is 
fast relegating to the background all who are unprepared for the new condi- 
tions of life. It has been said: " A vast majority of our people are employed in 
the useful arts, and distinction in every department of labor now depends upon 
scientific education. Without technical education or manual training the 
laborer of the future cannot hope to rise above the grade of a piece of 
automatic machinery." Out of this higher education, in time, might grow the 
highest technical instruction. For a beginning it might offer a course in the 
mechanic arts, which would help pave the way towards the engineering pro- 
fessions; courses in the various branches of the industrial and fine arts and 
agriculture; at the same time giving attention to machine and electrical con- 
struction, surveying, photography, engraving in its various forms, pattern mak- 
ing, chemistry in connection with assaying, and other particular lines of work 
requiring more than ordinary intelligence and skill. There would be no need 
whatever of duplicating the work of the schools. What is here suggested 
would form a " natural supplement " to the present work ot the National Col- 
lege, which the Directory of the Graduates and Former Students of that 
Institution, as given in the Buff and Blue, plainly shows is very much needed. 
It would also be, as another aptly puts it, " the training school for the future 
leaders and instructors of the deaf in Science and in Art," besides enabling 
hundreds of others to follow more independent, lucrative and honorable call- 
ings than they could otherwise do. 

The tendencies of our time on their very face, indicate the necessity of 
higher education, and tendencies are stronger than men. 

This year a Commission was appointed by the Senate of the State Legisla- 
ture of Massachusetts to investigate the existing system of manual training and 
industrial education, and the following is a gist of its report: "The Commis- 
sion recommends that the principles and practice of the kindergarten, of 
-domestic science, of manual training, the last so far as applicable to primary 
and grammar schools, be taught in the normal schools; that high schools in 
which a course in the mechanic arts and in domestic science, the latter includ- 
ing sewing and cooking, be established in all cities having a population of 
20,000 or more; that cities establishing industrial training schools for boys and 
girls 14 or more years of age, shall receive from the State treasury an amount 
<not exceeding $5,000), equal to the amount specially appropriated yearly by 
the town for the support of such schools; that the State shall make provision 
for the training of teachers by establishing at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, or Worcester Polytechnic Institute, State scholarships open to 
•such young men as, being otherwise well qualified, shall promise to become 
after this course of training, teachers in the public schools of the State." This 
is only a single instance among many of the importance that is being attached 
to industrial education by the hearing in this country, not to mention the 
immense strides it has made in the old one. Is it of less consequence to us 

234 Mr. Warren Robinson on 

when our need of it is greater by so much as our " misfortune leaves us in the 
rear,'' and when our greatest hope lies in this very direction? "The blind 
have been worsted in the conflict." Are we, too, to be left by the wayside? 

Twelve years ago the prophetic eye of a distinguished educator of the deaf 
anticipated this necessity by recommending the establishment of a Professor- 
ship of Fine Arts in the National College. Last summer the Seventh Con- 
ference of Superintendents and Principals in session at Colorado Springs^ 
Colorado, put itself on record as " feeling the great need " of technical and 
industrial education for the deaf. 

The Worcester graduate above referred to says in connection with this 
subject: " I think the one thing needed is a school where the deaf can com- 
plement the classical training they receive at the existing Schools and College 
with such technical training as will enable them to earn a comfortable liveli- 
hood at some skilled trade." Another, whose opservations among the deaf, 
both in this country and Europe are entitled to weight, says in substance that 
unless post-graduate courses in industrial training are given at the State 
Schools, which he fears is not practicable, owing to their limited facilities, such 
a technical school is absolutely necessary. " The best investment for any one 
of us is to become a specialist, either in excellence among the skilled, or one 
of a few in a special occupation," is the opinion of another in the teacher's- 
profession, who has pretty well divined the signs of the times and clearly 
foreseen the course which nature and circumstances have laid out for us. 

We need not tell you that the professions are already crowded even for 
the hearing. As a class we are not cut out for purely literary or scientific 
careers. Even in the profession of teaching, which has been the chief employ- 
ment of the educated deaf in this country for over half a century, the demand 
for us is slowly but preceptibly diminishing, especially for those of us who 
have been deaf from childhood, or from birth. At the printer's trade many 
have done well, but the field of their labor is being invaded by machinery, and 
though there are conflicting opinions as to how far it will displace the type- 
setter, there is no predicting what further improvements may do. And here 
again will the deaf printer be brought into still closer competition with his 
hearing brother, not only for place, but for the operating of the machines. 
With few exceptions, so far, little can be said for us in the province of journal- 
ism and business outside of our own small world. 

Too much must not be expected of the State Schools. They now have all 
they can do, and much more than can be done well. Their mission is to fit the 
great mass of the deaf manually, morally aud intellectually for the common 
walks of life, and the brighter ones to enter the higher, not to undertake 
higher work or instruct in special lines. In fact, it will be one of their great 
duties to make this higher education possible. Those who have had exper- 
ience in the literary department of our Schools, need not be told how much of 
time and work is required there to give most of the deaf even the rudiments of 
an education and a fair command of language. What all the Schools want 
now, are thorough courses in manual and domestic training, the introduction 
of more machinery, and more thorough instruction in the trades already taughV 

The Necessity of Techical Schools for the Deaf. 235 

The industrial exhibit of the Schools now here indicates more what may be 
accomplished in advanced work and in special lines, than it does.the actual 
condition of the departments themselves. In speaking of manual training, one 
of the leading educators of this country has said: "With industrious habits, 
a trained eye, a skilled hand and educated judgment, one may acquire a new 
trade with comparative ease; but where these are wanting to start on, any new 
line of work is a difficult task." To this may be added that manual training is 
the best safeguard against changes and improvements in the industrial 

In conclusion, in whatever form this higher education materializes, 
whether as a technical department of the National College or as a separate 
school, it must be a matter of growth, particularly on the lines of applied 
science. For our own part, the College, as the center of all higher educa- 
tion for the deaf, would seem to be the proper place for a beginning of this 

The Chair: M. Aymard's paper on technical schools will now 
be read by M. Genis. 



[Translated by Mr. J. L. Smith.] 

The apprenticeship in the workshop, such as our fathers knew, no longer 
exists except in occasional cases. The reason therefor is in the employment 
of mechanical devices which can be operated by men without much profes- 
sional knowledge; and in the division of labor bom of the demand for quick 
and cheap production. 

Apprentice or industrial schools are destined to fill this important gap. 
Without doubt they are necessary for deaf mutes in order to make of them 
workmen perfectly prepared for work and capable of earning their livelihood 
immediately upon leaving school. They can also furnish to industry good 
foremen and masters of shops, for the deaf have a special aptitude for grasp- 
ing all instruction that is addressed to the eye. The school must be directed 
by means of a very practical sense, and tend to develope the imitative faculty 
of the deaf mute. It is to this kind of instruction that the young deaf mutes 
owe their love for independence, their confidence in themselves, and their pre- 
cocious judgment. 

It is in contemplation to organize the leading schools for the deaf under 
new conditions, and transform them into industrial schools, on a higher plane 
than their present one, but with a programme less developed than that of other 
industrial and professional schools. The principal workshops include the 
various industries connected with working in iron and wood, forging, fitting 
and turning of metals, wood turning, carpentry, cabinetmaking, wood carving, 
chair making. The deaf pupils pass successively, during the first year, through 
the workshops of iron and that of wood. This kind of general exercise gives 
to the hand suppliness and sureness. It is well, moreover, that in case of stop- 
page in the industry in which he may have adopted, the workman can, at least 
provisionally, earn his daily bread in some other manner. The choice of a 
specialty has not a place until the opening of the second year. Then, only, 
commences the work of actual execution; but the theory is never sacrificed to 
the practice. No piece, no implement is taken up in the school before it has 
been the object of a sketch, a working drawing, so that the deaf mute can give 
an exact account of the proportions and of the joinings, and that he may have 
a full understanding of all that his hand executes. 

Technical instruction divides itself into two parts: the one theoretical, the 
other practical. The theoretical includes the necessary complements of pri- 
mary instruction in order that the deaf mutes may keep up and add to the 
general knowledge acquired in their special school, and, in addition, the ele- 
ments of geometry, of technology, of physical and natural sciences, the history 
of art, industrial drawing, drawing by sight, modeling and moulding. 

Industrial Schools for Deaf Mutes. 237 

The practical instruction corresponds to the trades that make use of iron 
and wood, and includes four years of apprenticeship. The young deaf mutes 
cannot be admitted before the age of thirteen, nor after seventeen. It is at the 
end of the fourth year that the certificate of apprenticeship is given to each 
pupil; to those who shall have entirely satisfied all the tests of the final exam- 
inations there should also be given a fine premium. 

When the deaf mute has finished half of the required time, he is more or 
less in a condition to earn his living. At this moment he is very generally 
seized with an ardent desire for independence, for the abandonment of his 
studies, in order to go forth and live the life of a workman, with freedom and 
compensation. His parents are often the first to encourage him in this. The 
result is, naturally, an insufficient technical knowledge, a lessening, often for 
all his life, of the industrial value of the workman. The various grades of ap- 
prenticeship are applied, more or less, to fight against this danger; the increase 
of gain from year to year would be one of the means most often employed, but 
it is not always sufficient; the attraction, of liberty is frequently more powerful; 
the prospect of receiving a sum of money at the end of the apprenticeship 
would be a second encouragement very efficacious. 

An industrial school for deaf-mute girls should have for its aim the teach- 
ing of an occupation while permitting them to complete the general studies in 
their institution. The instruction includes two series of courses: the course of 
general instruction, the course usually followed by all the pupils; and the spec- 
ial course answering to the occupation chosen by each pupil. Besides the 
technical and theoretical instruction, the young deaf-mute girls ought to re- 
ceive a teaching not less useful, that of knowledge necessary for women in order 
to manage a household with order and economy. The course of general instruc- 
tion and instruction in housekeeping, are common to all the young deaf-mute 
girls, and obligatory for each one, whatever may be the occupation for which 
she is destined. The course of general instruction includes the matters of the 
higher course of primary instruction taught to little deaf-mute girls, viz., written 
language, the elements of style, arithmetic, history and geography, to which 
are added accounts, the usual ideas of legislation, and drawing regarded from 
the point of view of its applications to industrial work. 

As to the instruction in housekeeping, it includes the care of the household, 
cooking, washing, ironing, ordinary sewing, knitting and le recommodage. The 
deaf-mute girls participate in them by turns, being given charge in succes- 
sion, during one week, of all the labors pertaining to the household. These 
practical exercises are completed by a course of hygene and domestic econ- 
omy. Religious instruction forms a part of the moral education which the 
pupils receive. There is made, moreover a special course in morals, and a 
course in politeness and good breeding. 

From the industrial point of view ; the school is divided into many work- 
shops, corresponding to the following specialties: laundry, ironing, dressmak- 
ing, corsets, embroidery for clothes and furniture, millinery. A certain num- 
ber of pupils only, according to their aptitude, are admitted to the course in 
drawing and water colors, in painting on porcelain, faience, silk, glass and 

238 Mr. F. Ayntard on 

•enamel, fans and screens, and in the manufacture of artificial flowers and 
feathers. The young deaf-mute girls can only be admitted at the age of thir- 
teen at least, or sixteen at most. The duration of their normal apprentice- 
ship is three years, save in the case of the courses in painting and industrial 
drawing, for which four years are necessary. 

For deaf-mute farmers a farm school would be of great utility in develop- 
i ng among them moral force by a Christian education, and, upon this firm basis, 
intellectual force by means of an earnest professional and theoretical instruc- 
tion, arresting the emigration of the rich or well-off youth from the fields 
towards the so-called liberal professions, by showing them how agriculture, 
well understood and intelligent in its processes, ceases to be difficult occupa- 
tion, poorly remunerated, vulgar in appearance, and is elevated to the height 
of the most liberal, the most worthy, and the most healthy, both for mind and 
body, of the professions, as well as the industry best guaranteed against the 
disturbances frequent among other occupations, such as stoppage and bank- 
ruptcy. The farm school will also arrest the emmigration of the deaf-mute 
youth in quest of their daily bread, for it devotes itself to the sons of cultiva- 
tors, of renters, of vinedressers, of market-gardners, and will produce and 
distribute in all parts of the country excellent farm laborers, by giving them 
employment in all the operations of improved cultivation. 

In the regions of petty farming, of medium rental, and of small cultivation 
varying from ten to fifty hectares (about 25 to 124 acres), the farm-school has 
another aim, it must not only facilitate the creation, in France, of that class, 
who, in England and America, are called " gentlemen farmers," that is to say, 
capable and educated proprietors, sufficiently in the possession of the knowl- 
edge of a healthy economy to understand the best way to draw from the farms 
that surround them the precious treasurers that the earth conceals for them; 
treasurers which she only gives up to persistent and intelligent labor. But it 
must also create petty farmers, farmers capable of understanding, and, by their 
intelligent co-operation, of aiding the relatives and agticultural proprietors 
to intelligence in rural management, and desirous of applying to the soil their 
knowledge and their capital. 

It is very well to teach the deaf-mute child in his primary school to spell, 
to read in his agricultural catechisims; but if, between his departure from this 
school and his entrance into the hard and continuous labor commanded to the 
cultivator from morning till night, the young deaf mute of sixteen or seventeen 
years passes three or four years in on industriul school where he will become 
acquainted with the most perfect implements, economical processes, the 
rational distribution of crops, (felevage), drainage and irrigation, the culture 
of the vine, which constitutes the great wealth of France, concerning which we 
have already told him the advantages in the primary school; if he is accus- 
tomed to agricultural labors, he will be incited against the difficulties which 
he there encounters, for he will wish to be their conqueror. Before a thriving 
seed-time a soil cleaned of weeds and bearing rich products, at the sight of 
calves, of colts, becoming by his care, splendid bulls, stallions, etc., etc., the 
pupil-apprentice will no longer feel fatigue, for weariness and perspiration are 

Industrial Schools for Deaf Mutes. 239 

easily endured by those who likewise feel that success will be their recom- 

The need of new establishments, which we experience more than ever, need 
not make us refrain from telling you that the silent people of France will one 
day be dowered with a leading farm-school, or agrichltural colony, of 600 hec- 
tares (about 1 .Sco acres), which is to be included in the department of Correze, 
in Limousin. An enlightened philanthropist and friend of deaf mutes, has 
made a gift of it to the worthy congregation of brothers of St. Gabriel, which 
possesses already eight schools for boys in France. It will assume charge of 
this vast establishment to promote at the same time the instruction of the ag- 
ricultural industry and the physical developement of its deaf-mute pupils. 

Likewise industrial instruction will there be applied to apprenticeship in 
the trades of the shoemaker, the tailor, and the carpenter, while permitting 
the installation that prepares the way for the establishment of a forge, the work- 
ing of iron, to make and repair various implements destined for agriculture. 

The Chair (Mr. A. M. Watzulick): A paper on Physical Cul- 
ture will be presented by Mr. A. F. Adams. In his absence it 
will be signed by Mr. Veditz and read orally by Rev. Mr. Cloud. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : In the library of the Surgeon Gen- 
eral's office, at Washington, can be seen a cartoon representing a middle-aged 
couple calling upon a doctor. To judge by the costumes worn, the period was 
somewhere during the seventeenth century. The following dialogue is said to 
have insued: 

" Husband. — Do you see, doctor, my dame and I be come to ax your ad- 
vice. We both of us eat well, and drink well, and sleep well, yet for all we be 
somewhat queerish. 

"Doctor. — You eat well, you drink well and you sleep well, very good. You 
were perfectly right in coming to me, for depend upon it I will give you some- 
thing that will do away with all these things.'' 

Probably many of you feel a fellow-sympathy for this seventeenth century 
couple, coming here as you do in good health and spirits to receive something 
which you might think "shall do away all these things." 

But seriously, in addressing this assembly of adult deaf, it is with a feeling 
of regret that for most of you the time for receiving the fullest benefits of phys- 
ical training has passed. Fortunately, though, that part immediately con- 
cerned with the preservation of health is still available, thanks to the spread 
of gymnasiums under the control of educated and specially trained directors; 
and to the arrangement of home exercises and the invention of apparatus for 
home use. Still it should be borne in mind that a thorough course in physical 
training in youth, tends to act as a preventive for many ills from which adults 
who never enjoyed physical training are now suffering. These ills are often too 
deep seated to be offset by exercise later in life, though their increase may be 
thereby prevented. 

When we stop to think how much one's mental powers, moral nature and 
manual dexterity, depend upon his physical condition, we can only wonder that 
such a valuable part of an education as physical training has so long been 
neglected. It is true that the subject has been given more or less attention at 
a few of our schools during the past ten years. But the extent to which phys- 
ical training has been adopted, the support accorded it, and the standing given 
it are not of the character needed to make it a perfect success. 

Before going further it would be well to define our subject. Physical train- 
ing, in its latest significance, is the training and development of the muscles 
and that part of the nervous system — the motor centers in the brain and the 
motor nerves — concerned in muscular movements. Included in this is a train- 
ing of the judgment of distance and height, of physical judgment, muscular 
control, quickness, courage and self-possession. The muscular, osseous and 
the nervous tissues constitute the working mechanism of the body, while the 

The Physical Training of the Deaf. 241 

vital organs serve either to provide material for the growth and repair of these 
tissues or to remove their waste. The vital organs — the heart, lungs, digestive 
and eliminating apparatus — being called into increased activity during mus- 
cular exercise, have their functional power strengthened. The ends, then, of 
physical training are seen to be educational on the one hand and hygienic on 
the other. 

How these ends of physical training are accomplished will now occupy our 
attention. Considering the hygienic end first, we find a vast number of exer- 
cises carefully arranged by medical men who can give a physiological reason 
for every movement. These movements are carefully graded, permitting 
adaptation to the varying wants and requirements of different individuals in 
respect to age, sex and strength. Nothing need be done at hap-hazard; the 
result, where a course is intelligently followed, being good health and develop- 
ment under normal conditions. Where training is the object, we can also find 
series of exercises going from the simple to the complex, from the general to 
the special, all scientifically arranged. Of course it is not to be understood 
that exercises intended primarily for health are never used for training, or 
vice versa. On the contrary many exercises are used indiscriminately for 
either health or training, but the point should be noted that certain exercises 
which can be used for one end only should not be condemned because una- 
vailable on the other. A person taking the hygienic view of physical training 
ought not to regard all exercises as useless which fail to promote health, 
though demanding adroitness to perform; while on the other hand many seem- 
ingly simple and tiresome exercises requiring no skill are highly conducive to 
health. In a system where the two ends to be accomplished are kept steadily 
in view, and where the means employed are those which scientific minds have 
sanctioned, we can look for such results as health, an erect and graceful car- 
riage, a broad and deep chest, fully developed and well rounded limbs, and 
power to execute with ease, precision and economy of force to such movements 
as are involved in exercises of strength, speed and skill. 

The effect of physical training is three-fold — physical, mental and moral.. 
The mental and moral effects, being indirect, are not easily observed, and 
hence are apt to be overlooked or attributed to other causes. They are well 
illustrated by the experiments recently made in the State Reformatory, at El- 
mira, N. Y. Here are confined criminals from all classes, ranging in age from 
eighteen to thirty. Many of these are dullards whom it was formerly found 
impossible to instruct. Yet by an intelligently directed course of physical 
training, satisfactory progress was found possible in a mental direction. It is 
supposed that the motor centers giving rise to muscular movements stimulate 
by their increased activity the adjacent intellectual centers. Many of these 
young criminals who were in poor physical condition, improved greatly in con- 
duct and morals when their bodily defects were removed or lessened by phys- 
ical training. The relationship existing between an unsound body and 
unsound morals is not quite clear, but it can be stated without hesitation that a 
healthy and vigorous body is the safest from a moral standpoint as well as from 
the physical. Those of our class who possess in a marked degree the " deaf* 

242 Mr. A. F. Adams on 

mute mind," or whose moral nature specially needs strengthening, might re- 
ceive great benefit from the right kind of physical training. 

The need of physical culture in our public schools and in our colleges, so 
■widely recognized by our leading educators and physicians, becomes doubly 
pressing when we turn our attention to schools for the deaf. Among congenital 
mutes we are apt to find in the majority of cases a relatively small lung capac- 
ity. This is due mostly to a failure to use the voice in anything like the extent 
usual among the hearing. It is well known that the deep breathing which 
precedes a prolonged effort of the voice, as in singing, public speaking and 
certain forms of conversation, has a most salutary effect on the development of 
the lungs. A small lung capacity means poorly oxygenized blood, a liability 
to coughs and colds, and a greater or less tendency toward consumption 
while it is also a frequent cause of rejection by insurance companies. In ad- 
dition, the fact is well known that few deaf mutes breathe properly. Any 
unusual exertion is apt to cause gasping or puffing. The inability to properly 
manage the inflated lungs is a serious obstacle to success in learning to speak. 
On this account, teachers of articulation often experience great difficulty in 
training their pupils to avoid pausing at the end of every word. Another pe- 
culiarity noticeable among congenital mutes is a shuffling and a stamping gait. 
A considerable majority of the adventitious deaf lose their hearing from dis- 
eases which almost invariably leave after-effects. Victims of cerebro-spinal- 
meningitis and scarlet fever usually suffer from impaired constitutions. This 
■manifests itself in a staggering gait, enfeebled digestion and circulation and 
imperfect muscular control. Now, owing to the attention which has been 
given the subject of physical training by educated men during the past twenty 
years, the problem of how to treat these defects is easy of solution. 

In the purely intellectual parts of the brain the different faculties, such as 
memory, imagination, reason and judgment have their particular time for de- 
velopment, though this is relative, not absolute. We do not attempt to develop 
the reasoning powers of a young child, because the time for that faculty to be 
developed has not arrived. It is the same in the case of that part of the brain in 
which the motor centers are situated. We do not teach a young child complicated 
movements because the co-ordinating centers are not ready to be developed. So 
it is seen that mental and physical training correspond in the fact that the re- 
spective centers which they exercise have a certain period during which per- 
fect development is possible. Further, if this period is not utilized, the center 
or centers involved can rarely, if ever, be made to reach their normal develop- 
ment. Witness the effects of neglecting one's education until late in life, or of 
-attempting to master the sign language after the age of forty. It is obvious, 
;then, that physical training, like mental, must commence in childhood. 

The physical training of the deaf should begin with their admission to 
school, and continue as regularly as their mental training until they graduate. 
Further, their instruction should be of a nature to impart an intelligent under- 
standing of their bodies, thereby creating a desire for a continuance of physical 
care and training as long as life lasts. Any system of mental education that 
-looks only to the immediate present of the pupil is more or less a failure. The 

The Physical Training of the Deaf. 243 

object of mental culture is not simply to store facts into the pupil's head to 
enable him to recite his daily lessons, but to form habits of reading, thinking, 
observation and expression, insuring future mental progress. The same can 
be said in regard to physical training. A system which aims only to teach 
gymnastic feats for exhibition purposes, without any regard to or explanation 
of their hygienic or educational ends, ignores the future and is a failure. Just 
here lies the fallacy of those who contend that the athletic sports as usually in- 
dulged in by the pupils, or that some of the trades taught them, render phys- 
ical training unnecessary. The great difference between physical training and 
athletic sports is that while both have a tendency to keep the body healthy, the 
former alone gives the pupil an intelligent understanding of his body, and 
gives him power to keep his health years after he has lost all desire or oppor- 
tunity to engage in sports. Concerning the trades the deaf are taught at 
school, few if any employ all parts of the body, while the majority induce a 
one-sided development. It is of the greatest importance that pupils who learn 
and afterwards follow such trades as printing, shoemaking and tailoring be 
given every advantage in the way of healthy bodies, and such information as 
will enable them to counteract the numerous evil tendencies of a physical na- 
ture to which they are exposed. 

The best way to get an idea of the working of a course of physical care 
and training of the deaf such as every school shonld have, is to imagine we are 
following a pupil through his entire school life. It should be added that while 
the course outlined below is for both sexes, there will necessarily be some mod- 
ification to suit the girls, particularly toward the close. 

Immediately upon entering school the pupil in question is given a some- 
what restricted physical examination by a man or a woman instructor as 
occasion requires. Next the pupil is assigned to a class to which, in the judg- 
ment of the physical director, he or she is best suited. Special classes can be 
formed for those whose physical defects prevent them from joining one of the 
regular classes. For the first year or two only the lightest forms of gymnastics 
are given, consisting of marching, free-movements and gymnastic games. 
The latter are just beginning to be systematized and are meeting with deserved 
f avor.The following two years or so is taken.up by advanced light gymnastics.drills 
with dumb-bells, wands, rings, clubs, practice on the balancing beam and games 
of basket ball. The pupil has now reached an age when the fuller develop- 
ment of the muscles can be commenced in earnest, without stunting the growth 
or dwarfing the intellect. Preliminary to this there is a thorough physical 
examination and a system of bodily measurements. Knowing the strength of 
various muscles, size of different parts of the body, lung capacity, condition of 
the heart and many other items, it becomes comparatively easy for the 
instructor to prescribe general or special work. For this development the 
principal means employed is the chest weight. The name of this machine 
should be changed, as the latest are so combined with other pulley machines, 
that by its use the muscles of the entire body are safely and symmetrically 
developed. To strengthen the heart and lungs, swimming, with running and 
jumping in the open air, form part of the course. After development, more 

244 Mr. A. F. Adams on 

training follows. This time it is through the medium of heavy gymnastics. 
Embraced in these are exercises on the vaulting-horse, parallel-bars, horizon- 
tal bar and ladders. In addition, there is instruction in wrestling, boxing and 
fencing; beside out-door work, such as " putting the shot,'' tossing the medicine 
ball, hurdle jumping, mile running and pole vaulting. But the most important 
part of this final course is the instruction imparted by the physical director in 
anatomy, physiology, effects of exercise, hygiene and personal purity. The 
entire course combining, as it does, theory and practice in a most advantageous 
form, leaves the pupil possessed of good health and of a fully and harmon- 
iously developed body, which he is able to control instantly and with the least 
unnecessary expenditure of force His courage and will have been developed 
by exercises in which there is an element of danger; and by some which are in 
a measure distasteful, though excellent for the discipline they impart. His 
self-reliance has been increased by exereises where no assistance can be given 
by others. Those parts of the brain and its accessory nerves controlling mus- 
cular movements have been properly trained and developed. And lastly, he 
knows how and feels inclined to preserve his health, strength, skill and courage 
under ordinary circumstances for the balance of his active life. 

In the system just outlined great attention is paid to the defects peculiar 
to the deaf. For those with a small lung capacity and defective breathing are 
arranged out-door work, especially running, and breathing exercises such as 
any intelligent instructor knows will develope the lungs and promote correct 
respiration. Prolonged practice at marching and exercises on the balancing- 
beam will tend to obviate a faulty gait. While various functional disorders, 
such as a feeble circulation and impaired digestion, due mostly to diseases of 
the nervous system, are greatly aided by special exercises. 

The period when the deaf were regarded fit for only menial work has 
passed. Considered in reference to occupation, it is a sign of advancement 
that the deaf need physical training. A laborer has about all the physical ex- 
ercise he needs; while his out-door life balances his hygenic errors due to 
ignorance. But the large number of you who have become teachers, draughts- 
men and clerks, derive little physical benefit from your occupation and require 
artificial exercise. That you do not know why, how and when to take it, must 
be charged to your schools. Beleiving that the value of physical training is 
understood and appreciated, it is hoped all will do whatever lies in their power 
to assist in having it introduced into schools for the deaf, even though they 
will receive no direct benefit themselves. Let the coming generation be able 
to say that ample provisions are made for the physical training of the deaf. 

The Chair: According to the programme, the paper to follow 
is on " Indirect Results of College Training." It will be pre- 
sented by Mr. Amos G. Draper and read orally by Mr. Fox. 




To draw a hard and fast line between direct and indirect results of colle- 
giate training of the deaf is not practicable; yet certain results may be classed 
as indirect. 

One, and perhaps the most important, is the effect which the prosecution 
of that training has exerted upon the work of the schools and institutions. 
When the college was organized, in 1864, there were only three or four high 
classes in all our institutions put together. Among the first applicants for 
admission were bright deaf and semi-mutes who had not received preparatory 
training at all commensurate with their abilities, because, being proficient in 
language as compared with their class-mates, they got no special training in the 
absence of special arrangements for it. But, even of applicants prepared so 
imperfectly as these, there proved to be few. The examinations showed that 
it would be necessary for the college itself to do the preparatory work. Ac- 
cordingly a course of two years' study was laid out in advance of the college 
course proper. This situation immediately became the burden of constant 
correspondence between the college and the school authorities, and the subject 
of constant pressure on the part of the deaf themselves. Largely, if not 
entirely, as a result, some of our most progressive institutions set up high 
classes and made their course of study lead to the college preparatory class. 
In not a few cases where this was impracticable devoted principals and 
instructors deserve still greater praise, for they went out of and beyond their 
daily duties to labor in the preparation of single pupils. So effective was this 
new impulse in the schools that, after maintaining the two-year preparatory 
course for seventeen years, the college authorities were justified in giving 
notice that its preparatory work would thereafter be confined to one year. 
This was in 1881. To illustrate the steady improvement in the schools, the 
time during which the records are complete may be divided into two equal 
periods, and the comparative numbers of failures noted in the examinations 
for admission to the preparatory class. In arithmetic the failures in the earlier 
period were to those in the latter as 27 to 14; in English as 3 to 2; in United 
States History as 13 to 11; in English History as 29 to 14; in Geography as 
1 to o; in Physical Geography as 5 to 1 ; and in Natural Philosophy as 29 to 19. 
In but one subject, English Grammar, have the failures increased, they 
standing as 3 to 4. Comparing the whole number of failures with the 
whole number of examinations, the former have decreased in the two 
periods from 17 to 10 per cent. All will rejoice but none should feel 
content with the improvement already attained. It can be still further 

246 Mr. Amos G. Draper o?i 

increased. The college and the schools should enter into closer and 
friendlier relations, as colleges and schools for the hearing are. The National 
Educational Society has begun a movement too systematize and harmonize 
secondary education throughout the country. The college regents' examina- 
tions in the State of New York have improved secondary schools in that State 
50 per cent, in the last twenty-five years. We may fairly anticipate a time 
when the education of the deaf in America will be a regulated, harmonious, 
mutually-related system, from the primary classes through all the grades to 
the college. The effect of college work among the deaf must not, however, be 
estimated solely by reference to those who have entered the college doors. 
Where one has succeeded numbers have tried and yet failed to enter; never- 
theless, to these that incitement and strenuous endeavor was great gain. .More- 
over, I know to-day, on the plains of the South, in the Colorado mountains, in 
the coal regions of Pennsylvania, and on the rugged hillsides of New England, 
deaf persons who, roused by this college work among their kind, are pursuing 
the highest culture in the midst of their daily avocations. True, the best 
efforts of these men may come to naught from a worldly point of view, — they 
may never be heard of more; yet, struggling as they are to brighten the im- 
mortal part of themselves, their toils will count for something in the sum of 
human progress. 

It is the glorious function of colleges everywhere to send into the world a 
large body of men whose influence is almost wholly good. A large proportion 
of college-bred men in any community is a warrant that there will be found in 
greater force the activities that tend to elevate, empower, ennoble and sweeten 
society. What thus ensues in the world at large has taken place also in the 
narrower circle that has been called, sometimes with a measure of opprobrium, 
" the deaf world." The tendency of the deaf to associate is marked, is almost 
universal. Not merely the manually-taught, but likewise the pupils of every 
pure oral school in America seek one another and, if near enough, form socie- 
ties as soon as they leave their schools. From a theoretical and scientific point 
of view this tendency must be deprecated. From that point it would be 
infinitely better if the deaf could, upon leaving school, be sundered and 
scattered among the hearing, and live out their lives in contact with the hear- 
ing alone. On the other hand we are bound to view the matter from the warm 
regions of humanity, religion and love, as well as from the airy heights of 
idealism and the cool pinnacles of science. We have got to remember that, 
comparatively speaking, the deaf man is always and forever a unit in society. 
Circumstances may mitigate, but they can never cancel the pitiless fact. Now, 
the deaf man is a man still. He hath still hands, organs, dimensions, senses, 
affections, passions; he is hurt, healed, warmed and cooled as a hearing man 
is; if you prick him he will bleed, and if you tickle him he will laugh like a 
hearing man. These susceptibilities are what make a human creature, and 
they are fully gratified only in a society where there is ease, equality, freedom, 
and that sympathy which grows out of a common experience. It follows that 
the deaf in general do not find with the hearing alone that incredible happi- 
ness, that fruition of the soul, and of all the faculties which springs from true 

Indirect Results of Collegiate Training of the Deaf. 247 

human intercourse; and when they incline to cheer the dull round of daily 
toil by meeting one another in leisure hours they only obey impulses which are 
at once the sweetest and most dominant in human life. For these reasons 
societies arise among them almost by a law of nature, and it can be safely 
assumed that no arguments, no system of education, and no power whatever 
short of despotism will ever greatly check the existence and development of 
such societies. Now, many alumni of the college, while doing their full duty 
in the great world, have mingled also in this little world, exerting precisely the 
same influence that the graduates of other colleges exert upon the world at 
large. Everywhere their presence has had the effect to energize the work, ele- 
vate the character and broaden the sphere of these societies. Formerly they 
were occasions for games and chit-chat. While retaining their social features 
they now generally embrace also literary, charitable and religious work among 
the members. The graduates frequently engage in debates before them, and 
give lectures upon subjeets almost as varied as those of the lecture platform 
in general. They also induce hearing persons to give such lectures. Thus 
the adult deaf are enabled to share an intellectual stimulus from which they 
would otherwise be wholly cut off. 

In no direction has the elevating influence of the graduates been more 
marked than in the matter of Christian worship. This, the highest of the 
common interests of mankind, is nevertheless one in which a deaf person can 
ordinarily share only in the most remote and perfunctory sense. By the aid 
of a friendly hand he can indeed follow the bare order of services. But the 
moving pathos, the sweet persuasion, the solemn warnings that fall from the 
sacred desk are all alike to him; for him in vain the pealing organ swells the 
note of praise; and naught in him responds when the vaulted arches roll with 
the harmony of a thousand choral voices. His eye takes in the vast throng, 
intent and reverent; the mighty arch, the softened light; the person and vary- 
ing aspect of the man of God; — and all these things do move him; but for the 
rest he sits a solitary man, not being, in any true sense, even a unit in the 
mighty congregation that presses upon him, for he alone, of them all is cast 
back upon his own consciousness for spiritual sustenance, communion and 
growth. To a few highly-cultivated deaf persons such a situation may be con- 
soling, but to no human creature can it be satisfying. Hence, wherever in any 
parish there are a number of Christian deaf people they inevitably draw 
together by the operation of precisely the -same instincts that have drawn their 
hearing friends together — seeking communion of soul by means of exercises 
in which they can all join intelligently. In one place, for more than forty 
years, such exercises have been held by one of the most devoted friends the 
deaf ever had; but latterly, largely as a result of collegiate training, these 
exercises have been established in many centers. A number of the alumni 
are engaged wholly in religious and missionary work, either independently or 
as regularly-ordained clergymen of certain sects. They speak to the deaf 
from the most powerful of spiritual platforms, that of an intimate and com- 
mon experience. Moreover they speak in a language that alone of all lan- 
guages is capable of fixing the attention, arousing the interest, stirring the 

248 Mr. Amos G. Draper on 

emotions and persuading the reason of the deaf in public assemblies, — the 
only language which serves perfectly to congratulate them in joy, comfort 
them in sorrow, cheer them in the struggles of life and support them at the 
gates of death. If ideality or science would suppress such meetings by des- 
troying the sign language, may not humanity and religion well ask what 
science proposes to give the deaf that will fill their places as agencies in 
sweetening life and exalting character? 

Besides the results that have been alluded to there are others, evident to 
all familiar with the deaf for the last twenty-five years. One is the attitude of 
Eurpean observers of American methods. Those methods are exerting great 
influence, if not imposing themselves upon Europe. The intelligent deaf in 
Europe look at American schools with longing. Those who can,*come to avail 
themselves of the opportunity here for higher education. They return and stir 
the spirits of their brothers with the narrative of their experiences, powerfully 
illustrated as it is by their own evident growth in breadth and knowledge. 

Again, the deaf in America during the same period have greatly changed. 
They are more enterprising, more alert in business; they have a broader con- 
sciousness of the meaning of life, a keener appreciation of the value of its 
opportunities. As a consequence of all, they have a greater tendency to pur- 
sue high lines of action and thought, and hence have increasing self-respect. 

All these advancements in the character, condition and labors of the deaf 
are, of course, not wholly ascribable to the establishment and maintenance of 
collegiate training among them. Other agencies have contributed to the same 
end. But if from all agencies we were to select one as pre-eminent, surely it 
would be that which has unfurled and still before the masses of the deaf bears 
aloft the standard of the highest physical, mental and moral culture. 

The Chair: The next paper on the programme is from Mr. 
Douglas Tilden, at present in Paris, France. 



When we look at a painting, the first thing that strikes us, is the story it 

An art critic comes around and glances at the same picture, and he will 
see not only.the story told on the canvas, but also what we fail to grasp, the 
means and elements that go toward making up the composition. We admire 
it without being able to tell whether it is well executed or not, while the critic 
will at once sum up its merits and defects. 

In this way the critic is said to be a better judge of art than us. He sees 
farther than us. We may stare wonderingly at an immense battle-piece on 
which he would condescend to bestow only a cursory glance, or we may pass 
heedlessly by what he would spot at once as a masterpiece. A Western far- 
mer will hang up a gaudily colored chromo and deem himself a happy pos- 
sessor, while a connoiseur will be content only with the pick of European art 

And why all that? The critic is better educated than us, but in what? In 
that knowledge of what constitutes mechanical excellence in painting. That 
finesse may have reference to the body, form, substance, quality, action, color 
of the images that the artists depicts with his brush. 

Art, therefore, concerns itself not merely with the expression of an idea, 
but also with the mastery of many things, without the aid of which that expres- 
sion can be but imperfectly carried out. 

Now, what the critic assumes to know, the artist certainly also knows, for 
he is the creator. He thinks out the picture, and then sets to give substance 
to the idea teeming in his brain; he imitates the forms, corrects the drawing, 
adjusts the tones and values, balances the shadows, patches on the lights. 

All this mechanical manipulation — imitating, correcting, adjusting, bal- 
ancing, patching — comes under the designation of technique or grammar of the 
art of painting. The skill of the artist is measured by the promptitude and 
confidence with which he does those things; his eye has to be educated and the 
hand trained, and moreover, behind them all, there must be the requisite 
strong and natural talent, without which all labor would be unavailable. 

Now, to acquire that skill, an apprenticeship covering many years is 
required, and it is best begun in early manhood. The student may be eighteen 
years old. He begins by copying plaster casts of antique statues or of their 
fragments, which are admirably adapted for the purpose not only by their 
matchless beauty, but also by the breadth and simplicity of their masses of 
lights and shadows. From that, he next goes to the " life class " where he 
studies the living human figure. A naked man, woman or child poses on a 

250 Mr. Douglas Tilden on 

platform in the middle of a room, and the students sit before their easels, set 
in a semi-circle around the model, and set to reproduce on paper or canvas, 
the form that they see before them. The study of the antiques may take one, 
two, five years according to the aptitude and application of the pupil, while 
the nude will take a longer time. In Paris it is no uncommon thing to meet a 
student who has been studying the academic rules of imitating the human 
figure alone for ten years. 

At the same time, to test or stimulate the student's imaginative or inventive 
faculties, subjects are named, from time to time, for original compositions in 
charcoal, oil or clay. They may be words of an abstract nature, such as Desire, 
Patriotism, Maternal Love, etc., or incidents drawn from Biblical and classical 
times. Thus, at the last competition for the "Prexde Rome" in which ten 
students, chosen out of some three hundred young sculptors, took part, the 
subject was "Despair of Adam." In one sketch in clay (almost life size), our 
ancestor was represented as tugging wearily at a shrub, another as sitting with 
his head bowed down in profound dejection, another as standing by the side of 
a primative spade and wiping his forehead, and, at the same time, looking 
heavenward with a face which told with unmistakable features, the extreme 
despair preying on the exile's mind; this third composition was adjudged the 
best, alike for its technique and sentiment, and was accordingly awarded the 
coveted prize. 

The above course is about the rule in all European schools, no matter in 
what line the pupil's taste will ultimately lead him, be it portrait, genre or 
landscape painting. Of course, there are theories as to art education which 
this or that master advocates with all the warmth of our oral and manual 
teachers, but this paper is hardly the place for such discussions. 

Now, the student's first period of " disciplinary study," in which he has 
been perfecting himself in the means of art, is over; and his second period is 
come, when, to use Thackery's simile, he must, like the Indian youth after his 
trials of endurance, pass into the rank of warriors. He has now to deal with 
that critical time of his life, when his own inherent powers, as apart from mere 
mechanical skill, must be made manifest or he falls by the roadside. Hitherto, 
in a sheltered cove and under the guidauce of a teacher, he has been for many 
years, fashioning his ship; he must now break loose/ from the mooring and sail 
his life-long journey alone. " ' Method and skill are as rudder and compass,' 
said Leonardo;" but whither shall he go? Shall he follow beaten tracks, or 
shall he steer for undiscovered lands? Shall he come back richly freighted or 
shall obstacles arise before him, and he put into a harbor, discouraged, and let 
the ardor of his earlier days fritter away? Those questions he can answer 
only for himself. No hand can hold out succor to him. His guide must be 
the individuality /. He must look into himself and discover his powers there; 
he must dream and work, and lo! one morning the world may crown his brow 
with the laurels of a creator! 

For the above distinction between the two periods of an artist's career, I 
am indebted to an article by the Professor of Fine Arts of Yale College, pub- 
lished in the Harper's Monthly some ten years ago, and gladly would I make 

Art Education of the Deaf. 251 

use of more of his learned ideas, if they can serve the purpose of this paper, but 
I think that enough has been said to make us understand: 

Firstly, why the deaf, with their keen sight, will often show so much apti- 
tude for drawing and modeling, and, 

Secondly, when they come to the greater and true tests, they will fail to be 
great artists. 

Now, suppose a young deaf-mute aspirant came to me for counsel. He is 
the first pupil in the Institution Art Class, and his friends speak hopefully of 
him as a coming artist. Should he go direct to Paris, Munich or Rome? I 
cannot advise such a course. His strength has been measured only with 
that of those whose powers are weak or uncertain. What, then, should he do? 
I think it is best first to go to some large town of his own State and, joining a 
drawing class there, try to make his mark. If he makes no show in this class, 
he can hardly ever be of any account anywhere else. Of course there are 
exceptions to this rule. There are pupils who make a brilliant record at 
school and sink out of sight as soon as they leave the guiding hand of their 
master, and there are dullards whose powers suddenly burst into flowers as 
soon as they are free of academic restraints. But all the same the rule is a 
safe one to follow. 

The best course for the unsuccessful deaf mute would perhaps be to go 
back home and get into some useful trade; and here, in his new sphere he will 
find that what little training he has had in that provincial art class, was bene- 
ficial, and that he can accordingly hope to be an excellent workman. 

But suppose, again, that he distinguished himself. He had now better go 
to an academy in some great Eastern city, such as the Art Students' League of 
New York City or the Academy of Fine Arts of Boston. Thence his steps 
may lead him to Paris. I put Paris last, not indeed because it has better 
equipped schools than America, but because for several reasons, the students 
from all parts of the wcrld have chosen so make Paris their Mecca. Among 
those students we find graduates from academies of other countries. Is not it 
then but uatural that, with that influx of so much youthful talent, a high 
standard of excellence should be maintained as a standard of success in the 
atelier and of admission into the Salon, and that the competition for fame 
should therefore become all the more keen? To succeed under such circum- 
stances, the deaf student's powers, clearly, had better first be put to a severe 
proof at home, or he will, after some years' struggle (he will naturally expect 
to stay long before he can be rightly called a failure), have the mortification of 
finding that his friends had overated his talent, that he had been put to 
unnecessary expenses and that, at his advanced age, he must retrace his steps 
and get into more congenial business. 

The above recommendations are not so weighty, if the deaf student is a 
genius of an unquestionably high order, or if he is the son of wealthy parents, 
or in himself possesses enough funds to gratify a not over serious inclination. 

Another equipment in the career of a deaf artist should be a sound literary 
education. The directions that his masters write to him often contain involved 
language, to say nothing of technical terms such as value, fore-shortening, per- 

252 Mr. Douglas Tildeti oh 

spective, which will always puzzle a half -educated mute; current literature is 
full of news of art of the day as well as dissertations on this or that style, be it 
that of idealists, realists, impressionists, symbolists, incoherents, Raphaelites, 
pre-Raphaelites, all of which he should be able to read intelligibly. 

All great artists, even if some of them started in life with a poor education 
were men of culture. Michael Angelo was a poet, Leonard de Vinci an 
essayist, Flaxman a lecturer. 

A courtier referred to Rubens as a diplomat who amused himself with 

"lam a painter," replied the artist, "who amuses himself with diplo- 

The hearing artists have that inestimable advantage over the deaf-mute 
in that they can hear; brought into contact with each other as students and 
fellow-workers and with polite society as men of the world, they must event- 
uaily come to lop off the shortcomings of their earlier days. What, then, is the 
instrument with the aid of which the deaf artist expects to overcome his disad- 
vantages and to keep himself continually in repair, if it is not a good educa- 
tion, a taste for reading and some ability as a conversationalist? I have 
described the two periods of the artist's career, the first that concerns itself 
with skill and is preparatory to the second, that deals more with the " expres- 
sion of himself." Does the latter have nothing to do with an instructed mind? 
Will a deaf artist succeed in spite of his illiteracy? That seems improbable. 
After a flash of success during the mechanical period, he will, when he comes 
to the greater after-school test, be weighed in the balance and found wanting. 

As is the case with all rules, there may be exceptions to the above, but they 
can occur only under extraordinary circumstances, or in the very rare cases of 
exceptional genius. 

The Annals (Vol. XXVI., No. 3) has an account of a Spanish mute artist 
named Juan Fernandez Navarrette (born 1526, died 1579) who seems to fur- 
nish an illustration of such an exception. 

" He acquired sufficient reputation," says the biography, "to attract the 
notice of Don Luis Manrique, Grand Almoner to the king of Spain, through 
whose influence he was invited to Madrid, and on the 6th of March, 1568, was 
appointed Painter to his Majesty, with a yearly allowance of 700 ducats, be- 
sides the price of his works. * * * The king declared later that 
none of his Italian painters, except Titian, were equal to the mute Spaniard. 
* * * From his splendid coloring, ' El Mudo ' received and deserved 
the name of the ' Spanish Titian.' His works have a freedom and boldness of 
design that belonged, says Stirling, to none of his Castilian contemporaries; 
and it has been well said that he spoke by his pencil with the courage of Ru- 
bens without (what the Spaniards call) the coarseness of the great Flemish 
master. * * * He painted no face that was dumb, and although 
mute himself, his breathing pencil lent to his canvas a voice more eloquent than 
many a speech." 

All accounts seem to unite in giving El Mudo the highest rank as an ar- 
tist, and his existing works are being preserved in the museums of Spain with 

Art Education of the Deaf. 253 

the same zealous care allotted to a Valasquez; but at the same time we are 
compelled to believe that this deaf-mute painter to his majesty the iing of 
Spain was comparatively uneducated. 

" He had no opportunity," says the Annals, " of learning speech and lip- 
reading, for that method was not introduced by the Benedictine friar Pedro 
Ponce de Leon until '1560, some thirty years after the birth of 'El Mudo.' In 
his chilhood he expressed his ideas and wants by rough sketches in chalk or 
charcoal, a practice in which he showed great readiness of hand, learning to 
draw as other children learn to speak." 

And again: " ' El Mudo ' was a man of great talent, and in an uncommon 
degree versed in sacred and profane history and in mythology. He read and 
wrote, played at cards, and expressed his meaning by signs with singular clear- 
ness, to the admiration of all who conversed with him." 

The last paragraph was quoted from the history or the Spanish writer Cean 
Bermudez, and the statement that the painter could read and write may be ac- 
cepted with some reserve; for if he could write fluently he would not have 
found it necessary to resort to the use of signs. Moreover, we learn that 
" shortly before his death, he confessed himself three times to the curate of the 
parish of Santo Vincento by means of signs, which that ecclesiastic declared 
were as intelligent as speech." 

Judging from the pictures he painted, which, I believe, were all of a Bibli- 
cal character, he must have been a copyist in the sense that he could, by seeing 
a number of compositions treating of the same subject, create out of them a new 
one, with the figures in new positions and surrounded by new accessories. He 
could not have been an originator like Raphael, a discoverer like Corregio, but 
at the same time we know that the art of painting is also a science; that the 
perfect combining of elements in a picture of even an old theme requires a 
profound subtlety of mind, and that the fact that he repeated subjects does not 
in consequence, detract in any way from his reputation, if he could paint such 
masterpieces. How, then, his genius came to assert itself in face of manifold 
disabilities is a problem that must always baffle our understanding. He was 
the first star to appear on the horizon, and is it not strange that in the history 
of deaf-mute achievements the brightest and most lasting page should belong 
to this same painter to his majesty the king of Spain, an uneducated mute who 
lived centuries before the Abbe de l'Epee came to bless our times? 

Now, to conclude, the aim of this short paper has been rather to show what 
a deaf-mute student is expected to do, than to describe schools and methods or 
to enumerate deaf-mute artists; and I hope that in doing so I have thrown 
around the calling of an artist all the dignity and importance that really belongs 
to it. We are too prone to look upon " art " as something like manual dexter- 
ity and nothing more, and to call a deaf mute " artist " who makes crayon por- 
traits from photographs. Where such flippant ideas prevail, the Institution art 
department is bound to be a poor one, and the effect can hardly be a beneficial 
one, for are not the deaf artists, of all the bright deaf mutes, destined to con- 
tribute a great deal to the elevation of the class to which they belong? It must 
be remembered that we are one to every two thousand of the population, and 

254 Mr. Douglas Tilden o?i 

that, in that small number, we cannot expect to look for an over-abundance of 
talent. Does not this fact, important as it is because of its relation to the wel- 
fare of the deaf at large, devolve upon us all the more the two-fold duty: firstly, 
of discovering artistic propensities among the pupils; and, secondly, of foster- 
ing them in an enlightened manner? What if the Institution sends out many 
graduates before one case of strong natural talent is stumbled upon? Is not 
one Koh-i-noor found only after many small diamonds have been unearthed? 
Multiply, therefore, the art classes so that hidden genius might be discovered, 
no matter where; and when such a young artist is met with, let us teach him 
dignified ideas of his chosen vocation, and, above all, repeat to him this infalli- 
ble maxim: Excellence in any pursuit whatever can be purchased only with 
fortitude, unremitting labor and a high and unswerving ideality. 

The Chair (Mr. Gerhard Titze) : A paper on the Royal Com- 
mission of Great Britain will be presented by its author, Mr. Bray, 
and read orally by Mr. Hanson. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

To some of you here present it may be recalled that it is just a year since 
I wrote a letter for the columns of the New York Deaf-Mute Journal upon an 
item that appeared a few days before in the Chicago Herald, to the effect that 
out of fifty-two children, candidates for admission to the London (Eng.) School 
for the Deaf and Dumb, only twenty-three were elected. I have not had the 
opportunity of reading the comments upon my paper in the other journals in- 
terested in the deaf and dumb, but am told my statements were much com- 
mented upon, and were corroborated by some of the educated deaf in England. 

To you, deaf citizens of the United States of America, who by the grace of 
God and the liberality of the Legislatures of your various States, here enjoyed 
the benefits of an education, untrammeled by the restrictions imposed by the 
scanty resources of charitable organizations, or the want of influence arising 
through the poverty or reluctance of parents to receive charitable aid for their 
deaf children, you sympathize with what is still the misfortune of large num- 
bers of English deaf mutes, who grow up deprived of the inestimable blessing 
of an education, the sole and only means of developing their dormant minds, 
and thus lifting them above the level of the animal world. 

Consider the lot of these fifty-two children, who had to pose as candidates 
for admission to one school. Many of the twenty-three who were successful 
had been required, in all probability, to wait one or more years before they 
were lucky enough to gain admission to the school. Those who were unfortu- 
nately unsuccessful would have to remain in total ignorance for another year, 
or perhaps find their chances gone altogether for a lifetime, to become rational 
and civilized men and women; perhaps, through no fault of their own. Some 
might eventually be confined in asylums for the feeble minded or insane, just 
because they failed to express their wants and desires in an intelligible man- 
ner, or confined in poor-houses, because they had not acquired a trade that 
would keep them independently of other help. 

But here the opportunities are open to all the deaf who will accept of 
them; although occasionally we hear of deaf-mute children, even in Illinois, 
being kept on poor-farms or asylums for feeble minded, because those having 
the care of them have not heard of the schools where they might be educated. 
Still, these cases are isolated, and whenever known prompt measures are taken 
to remedy the injustice. In England the schools are all supported by voluntary 
contributions. You can little understand the repugnance I feel when seeing 
this polysyllabic expression. I have seen it outside the gates of all sorts of 
buildings in London and other parts of England. The cripples are supported 

256 Mr. Robert E. Bray on The Royal Commission of 

thus, and pleas are put in the newspapers for help continuously to keep them 
from starving or being turned from these havens of refuge. The consumptives, 
the incurables of all kinds of diseases, the feeble minded, men and women of 
evil repute who have lost their health or profess reformation, the blind, old 
tradesmen, worn-out teachers of both sexes — over all these houses is to be ob- 
served that degrading sign, as I look upon it, " Supported by Voluntary Con- 
tributions." In one way it expresses human sympathy for the afflicted, arid in 
that it is ennobled; but on the other hand it is too apt to give every unfortunate 
who accepts the aid of these places the badge of pauperism or "Charity," 
which latter does not signify the same as St. Paul used it — Love, but it means a 
grudging donation of $1 or $5 yearly in order to see one's name in print as a 
'benefactor" in connection with others of his or her acquaintances. 

The English deaf, many of whom, like myself, have lost their 
hearing in youth or later years, feel indignant that their class, who require an 
education, must accept it as an act of charity, or else their friends be compelled 
to pay a very large yearly sum for a rudimentary education, which sum would, 
if they could hear, be adequate for their support in college, or learning a well- 
paying profession. So for years they have agitated for the English schools to 
be under government control and inspection, the Voluntary Contribution sys- 
tem to be done away with, and a humane law passed whereby every child who 
is unable to hear sufficiently to take its place in a common school should be 
provided for in its educational period by the state. 

This demand, which my American friends would think reasonable enough , 
met with many and serious objections from superintendents of schools and 
others, where such schools were already well provided for by donations, lega- 
cies and other charitable bequests. These people foresaw an end of certain 
private emoluments. Where they were allowed to keep an unlimited number 
of private pupils at the same time as they were teaching the children admitted 
by charity, the private pupils would enjoy advantages out of the reach of the 
others, being waited upon by servants, and treated with greater consideration 
and respect by the principals and teachers. This would often breed an amount 
of arrogance and pride in those more favored ones than would scarcely ever 
be eradicated in after life. It is both amusing and mortifying to be in the 
company of one of these parlor-boarder, educated deaf mutes, and notice the 
air of superiority they frequently give themselves when dealing with an old 
schoolmate of the other class. 

But as I have said, the more enlightened deaf, and the teachers, have been 
steadily trying for better legislation. Years passed, and at length some atten- 
tion was paid to their complaints, mainly through the persistency of Mr. Wm. 
Woodall, M. P., who had taken a great and lively interest in tbe deaf while a 
member of the House of Commons. The Conservative government of that 
time, 1884. I think, in order to pacify Mr. Woodall -and some of his friends, who. 
like the " importunate widow " mentioned in St. Luke, would not leave the gov- 
ernment alone until they got what they wanted, a Royal Commission was ap- 
pointed, with a metaphorical flourish of trumpets, and an exceedingly dignified 
inauguration. I append the list of the Royal Commissioners, with a few ob- 
servations upon fheir qualifications as arbitrators: 

Great Britain — Its Work and Results. 257 


Chairman, The Rt. Hon. Lord Egerton, of Tatton. 

The Rt. Hon. The Lord Bishop of London, D. D. 

The Rt. Hon. Sir Lyon Playfair, M. P. 

The Rt. Hon. S. Mundella, M. P. 

The Rt. Hon. Sir Lelwyn Ibbetson, M. P. 

Admiral Southwell Sotheby. 

Benj. Ackers St. John. 

Dr. Thos. Rhodes Armitage, 

Wm. Auchinloss Arrol. 

F. S. Campbell. 

Sir Wm. Tyndall Robertson, M. D. 

The Rt. Hon. Wm. Woodall. 


Rev. Wm. B. Sleight. 

Rev. C. M. Owen. 

L. Van Oven. 

I feel rather tempted to make some disparaging remarks about the com- 
position of this committee. It is just a sample of the ordinary way such things 
are done in England. 

The Chairman, the Most Noble Lord of Tatton, I should not think possessed 
any special knowledge of his duties, or had any acquaintance with the deaf 
and dumb, particulary of the class most affected by his decisions. 

The Lord Bishop of London, would, on his own line, be a very hard worked 
man; he has the oversight of all the clergy of the Established Church in Lon- 
don; has to arbitrate in their quarrels between themselves or their congrega- 
tions; to preach himself; to attend to his parliamentary duties in the House of 
Lords; assist at social functions among the aristocracy, and occasionally show 
himself among the poor of that great city. I cannot conceive what time he 
could give to this hardly debated question of State aid to deaf mutes versus 
voluntary contributions. 

Sir Lyon Playfair. A scientist of high rank and a politician in the best 

Admiral Southwell Sotheby, as his title implies, would be an old salt; he 
would be about the last to understand the questions most pertinent to deaf- 
mute education, for in the whole British navy there would not be an officer or 
A. B. who could either be deaf and dumb or blind. 

On the whole list of fresh appointees there are only three names I could 
recognize that could speak with any authority on deaf and dumb matters, they 
are Mr. Wm. Woodall, Sir Tynsdale Robertson, Mr. Ackers St. John; but even 
these were without practical knowledge of deaf and dumb requirements. 

Sometime after the original committee had been nominated, there was so 
much dissatisfaction with its composition, and the committee themselves found 
they could not get along without the aid of specialtists, so three more names 
were submitted to the Queen and graciously accepted as part of her royal com- 
mission, the were, the Rev. Wm. B. Sleight, whose father was honorably known 

258 M. Robert E. Bray on The Royal Commission of 

for forty years as the principal of the Brighton school; Rev. C. M. Owen, an 
Episcopal clergyman and friend of a young semi-mute gentleman who ulti- 
mately was ordained to preach to the deaf. Thirdly, Mr. Wm. L. Van Oven, 
whom I think, from his name, was associate with the teaching of the oral sys- 

The Committee commenced their work by ordering teachers of the deaf 
to London for examination, and also accepting written papers from them. All 
this had to be done after parliamentary precedent, in which a great deal of 
" red tape" is unwound. Then the Committee concluded it necessary to make 
personal visits to the schools and institutions through the country. After that 
Europe was overrun with them in search of novelties, not a country except 
Turkey and Russia was exempt. A great deal of information was acquired; 
very rarely were the principals of foreign schools averse to giving the Com- 
mission all the assistance in their power. The majority of the Commission be- 
ing not experts in deaf-mute education, were more impressed with the oral 
system than the sign or combined; a little talking, even of the simplest forms 
of speech, by a semi-mute, or alleged deaf mute, was considered a greater 
marvel than the best display of intellectual activity and knowledge when the 
pupil happened to be unable to talk. There was a decided bias against the 
manual system, and its advocates were in many instances treated in scant cour- 
tesy, and frequently were the objects of cross-examination and re-examination 
in order to break their evidence, but in every instance they came out trium- 

The Rev. Mr. Owen, who was one of the Committee, submitted himself for 
examination, and gave his testimony in a very interesting and convincing man- 
ner. His experience of the deaf in general, and of his friend, Mr. Pierce, in 
particular, strengthened his conviction of the superiority of the combined 
system over the pure oral. Most other practical teachers of the deaf supported 
this view; they readily admitted that in some cases the oral was of the greatest 
benefit, but in rapidly instructing a class of varying degrees of deafness, but 
of equal intelligence and acquirements, the sign system gave the best results. 

The whole field of deaf-mute education, ethics and morals, was covered by 
the evidence. Prof. Bell was able to give his views of the laws of sociology in 
extenso, and very interesting they were to the examiners and to those who 
have read his theories. They must be considered respectfully, they have been 
a work of labor and love on behalf of the mute, but though the theory may 
seem unanswerable by logic, yet in actual practice we find such is often disre- 
garded with no evil consequences resulting therefrom. 

Dr. Gallaudet, of Washington, was invited to address the Commission; he 
very kindly accepted. He came as a representative of the teachers of the 
United States. His evidence was very interesting; it was the experience of a 
life time devoted to the best interests of the deaf; a grand example of the laws 
of heredity — a worthy son of a thrice-worthy father. The Commission was 
much impressed with his views and the results he was able to show from the 
standing and careers of many of the graduates from Kendall Green. But he 
was occasionally interrupted by some not over-wise question coming from one 

Great Britain — Its Work arid Results. 259 

of the know-nothing figure-heads on the Committee. But his patience and 
tact won him great applause. A very graceful action during his evidence, was 
the presentation of a complete set, in thirty-one volumes, of the American 
Annals of the Deaf and Dumb. The Rt. Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M. P., of 
England, gave an account of a personal visit to Kendall Green; it was deliv- 
ered in his usual graceful and convincing oratory, and was highly in favor of 
the work carried on there, with the wish that the same could be done in Eng- 

Having given a synopsis of the views of two representative Americans and 
of two English laymen, I now come to the evidence of the English teachers. 
The principals of schools, or, as we say here, the superintendents, only were 
invited, a very few missionaries to the adult deaf were among the number; no 
assistant or subordinate teachers, neither were there any representative deaf 
mutes or semi-mutes, with the exception of two only, Mr. Healy, of Liverpool, 
and Mr. Baker, the Hon. Secretary of the Royal Association in Aid of the Deaf 
and Dumb, a society which has been of great value in London in the interest 
of the adult deaf-mute population. 

Mr. Healey handed in a written statement, which was accepted not a sin- 
gle question was addressed to him; he was introduced to the Commission and 
bowed out quicker than it takes to tell it. 

Mr. Barker was accorded a little more courtesy, a distinction in his case 
owing to his position as a civil servant under government, acquired, as he him- 
self admitted, not altogether by merit. His answers to questions in some 
instances were prompted by very good sense, and, like an Englishman, were 
very outspoken. He alluded to his school career under inefficient teachers; he 
was a semi-mute but received no oral instruction, nor was his speech improved 
methodically, yet at the examination he was brought before the public as an 
example of the oral method, which he terms was a bare-faced falsehood. He 
approves of the oral as an adjunct, but is a firm beleiver in the mixed system. 
I have spoken of the class distinctions in deaf-mute schools arising from the 
majority of the children obtaining their education as an act of charity and not 
of right, and of other children in the same schools and classes, who were termed 
parlor-boarders, and lived in a more sumptious style than the others, having 
also the direct personal supervision of the superintendent, his wife and assis- 
tants after school hours. Mr. Barker being educated in this way and of the 
latter class retained some of those predjudices which I consider are inimical to 
the real welfare of the deaf mute in school. 

As an example. He is asked if in favor of trades being taught in schools. 

Ans. No. 

Why not? 

Ans. Because no master will take a workman without an apprenticeship. 
His idea seemed to be that it would be preferable for a deaf-mute boy to go 
into the world helpless instead of with a good knowledge of a trade by which 
he could earn money at once. 

Mr. E. Townsend, principal of the Birmingham, Eng., school, was very 
emphatic in his advocacy for State aid, as we understand it in America; his 

260 Mr. Robert E. Bray o?i The Royal Commision of 

school has been established for sixty or-more years; no provision is made for 
the physical training of the children. I visited that school many years since 
when under another superintendent, and I shall never forget the miserable 
listlesness of the poor children in the evenings, no books nor games to keep 
their minds and bodies busy. I have no doubt things would be much better 
under Mr. Townsend, but he deplores that there was only one school room, 
where all classes were taught in common, no class or study rooms were pro- 
vided, and, as a general thing, he could only have a poor staff of assistant 
teachers, young men and women of ambition would not accept the salaries 
offered them, less than laboring people. This, indeed, is very true and is a 
sample of many other teachers' evidence. The regret is almost universal that 
the schools are quite inadequate for educational purposes as understood in 
these enlightened times. Limited resources cripple the enthusiasm and abili- 
ties of the teachers. The prayer was for entire State control of the schools 
with adequate funds to pay for . efficient instructors and the requirements of 
the pupils. 

The only exception to this universal appeal to the British Government for 
aid, comes from the secretary of the London Deaf and Dumb Asylum, the old- 
est and richest school in the country, and the place where the first philanthropic 
Dr. Gallaudet was refused the permission to acquire the art of teaching the 
deaf. It has been explained that the occurence was the result of an agreement 
made at that time by the directors of the school whereby the family of Dr. 
Braidwood had the sole monopoly of imparting his system of deaf-mute instruc- 
tion. What seemed at the time a most ungenerous act and a great misfortune, 
like other happenings that occur to nations and individuals, was by the power 
of God only a blessing in disguise. 

Mr. W. H. Warwick is the secretary of the London Deaf Mute Asylum and 
objects to Government interference in the management of his school. It is the 
same old, old story, especially in England where the rights of "property, prop- 
erty" are deemed invoilable. This school is the wealthiest of all; until fifteen 
years ago the old building that had stood the requirements of nearly ioo years 
of deaf-mute teaching, was supplied with an annex — as I might call it — at Mar- 
gate, a seaside resort perhaps forty miles from London. The children were 
under better sanitary conditions than at the old school, which for many years 
had been situate in the midst of a most squalid population, and in the adjacent 
neighborhood tanneries and other insalubrious and evil-smelling businesses 
were carried on. In the heat of summer all the school windows were closed, 
and both teachers and pupils were in danger of suffocation by foul and heated 
air. Things have improved lately, but with all its wealth no attempt js made 
to impart an education to all deaf-mute children who apply for it, or who live 
in what is called London. So that in the year 1892 — eight years after the 
Royal Commission had started its inquiry— this wealthy school was electing its 
objects of charity by votes, and out of fifty-two candidates only twenty-three 
were to have access to its privileges! Mr. Warwick would not give much in- 
formation about the funded-property and other wealth of the school, but ad- 
mitted that every year children who could not obtain enough votes were " left 

Great Britain — Its Work and Results. 261 

over" uncared for till another election. At the time he was examined, A. D., 
1886, fifty-eight children were " left over" for that year. 

Mr. Richard Elliott is Superintendent of the London School, and by his 
zeal and enlightenment, many changes were made for the better, against much 
opposition from parsimonious Directors. Mr. Elliott's position is such that he 
has little voice or choice in the financial management, hence he has been 
subjected to many restrictions. His evidence was given in a very straight- 
forward manner. He thinks much of the oral system where it can be success- 
fully used, and every effort is made to develop and cultivate the children's 
powers of speech; but where the results are unsatisfactory, they are transferee! 
to the sign and manual department. 

The majority of teachers are against day schools for the mute children, 
and the usual arguments are adduced. 

The Commissioners, with the apparent object of saving Government 
money, were very anxious to get a favorable opinion of day schools, so that 
the cost should be thrown upon the local rates or taxes, but was not successful 
in putting the scheme through. 

On the marriage question there was much interesting discussion, from the 
philosophical theories of Professor Graham Bell, downward. The Chairman 
of the Commission was far more prejudiced against deaf-mute marriages than 
Professor Bell. As an illustration: Mr. E. Townsend, of Birmingham is under 
examination. He is asked if he disapproves of them? You see how the 
question is put. He replies, No. I think they are the most natural thing in 
the world. Question, 17354. Why? Because of the sympathy and mutual 
feeling, and mutual interest very often; and more than that, I think it is better 
for the deaf and dumb to marry and have children in wedlock, than to have a 
lot of illegitimate ones, which would invariably be the case if they were not 

Question 17355: Do you think that the absolute ultimatum? And so the 
argument continues, the Chairman showing his animus against young deaf- 
mute people being brought together in school. The old British idea of 
seclusion of the female. 

In many of the schools supported by voluntary contributions, the limits of 
Institution training is fixed at only four years — which is all the funds will allow. 
The Rev. Mr. Stainer, a teacher of many years standing, advocated a period 
of ten years in school, eight spent on languages and two on manual training. 

It is absolutely impossible for me, in the time limits allowed for this paper, 
to notice the evidence of many other experts in the instruction and training of 
the deaf. I have ommitted to mention that the Royal Commission was author- 
ized to enquire into the condition of the blind as well as the deaf. We are, 
of course, all sensible of the justness of the plea that the blind should be 
equally well provided for in all that concerns their welfare as the deaf. But I 
consider it a matter of regret that this Commission should have been obliged 
to accept this double task — either of them requiring all the thought and skill 
of men of the highest culture to do justice to — and when it so happened that a 
day or a part of a day was devoted to listening to arguments about the deaf, 

262 Mr. Robert E. Bray on The Royal Commission of 

and then the next day or part thereof was spent in receiving evidence on the 
wants of the blind; I maintain that it was absolutely imposssible tor either 
class of our afflicted fellow creatures to receive that undivided attention, and 
impartiality of judgment that was absolutely necessary. The requirements of 
the deaf are so utterly dissimiliar in the matter of education, to what is 
necessary for the development of the faculties of body and mind of the blind 
child, that it seems to me, the adjudicators would sometimes unconsciously let 
their thought run on what would advantage one class, when they should be 
determining the requirements of the other. 

It was with reluctance I accepted the invitation to address the Congress on 
this subject, having been absent from England for several years, and thought 
one better qualified might have been selected. But being in some measure 
instrumental in getting the Government to nominate this Commission, I know 
the many years the friends of the English mute spent in agitation for recogni- 
tion before the Commission materialized. We wanted something of a less 
cumbrous nature, and thought a few, earnest-minded men could have settled 
the question of State aid in a few weeks or months at the latest. The British 
Government thought otherwise. Hence the Commission was started, and its 
deliberations extended year after year, with the steady refusals of its officials 
to take the educated deaf into its confidence, we thought it might last until the 
commencement of the next century, which some people expect will usher in 
the millenium. The enquiry, however, was finished a few years ago, though 
little was known of it; its very existence had been forgotten, until the appear- 
ance of four bulky volumes, which not long since, were circulated among a few 
of the institutions for the deaf. I have been fortunate in gaining access to 
them by the kindness of Dr. Gillette, lately of Jacksonville, and have done my 
best to digest the moiety of 22,298 questions, and their respective answers, 
which as usual would often require an hour to cover a monosyllabic query. 
The other half of the questions, I should think, would represent those of the 
enquiry into the condition of the blind. 

The evidence being heard, the Commission drew up a series of recommen 
dations concerning the deaf, educationally and socially. 


Educational. (1). Children to enter school at the age of seven and con- 
tinue until their sixteenth year. 

(2). All schools having Government grants (of money) to teach the oral 
system the first year. Children shall only be taught the manual, or combined 
system, if they prove mentally or physically incapable of being benefitted by 
the oral system. 

As regards the first, it would be impossible and unjust to make a hard and 
fast rule, to send all pupils away from the school at the end of their sixteenth 
year, would be to deprive the backward youth of the opportunity to gain a 
better standing in language; and also close the way for bright children to 
obtain a more complete mastery of it; and of the ordinary branches of a good 

Great Britain — Its Work a?id Results. 263 

Educational. The Commissioners think the " mixture of the sexes in 
school, and especially in after life, is in all cases unadvisable." 

At this time we shall probably have several of the British Commission 
among us. We must show them what we know of the advantage to both girls 
and boys of co-education; already in England some steps, tentative and timor- 
ous, have been made in this direction in the higher branches of learning. But 
the old British prejudice and horror of innovation is strongly displayed in this 

Marriage. This leads to the consideration of the marriage question, which 
the committee consider in all cases unadvisable, when contracted by congenital 

This is due in a large measure to the terror inspired by the hypothetical 
cases of Professor Bell. They would like, if possible, to prevent these mar- 
riages by Act of Parliament. They have the idea that a tremendous respon- 
sibility is thrown upon society by the permission of these deaf-mute marriages; 
utterly ignoring the hundreds of thousands of hereditary criminals who marry, 
as well as the offspring of the vicious and depraved, born out of wedlock, reared 
in vice and infamy, costing the community hundreds of thousands of dollars in 
efforts of repression, by police, prisons, and other engines of the law; while the 
deaf mute, congenital or not, his school days over, with an education equal to 
his capacities and started on the road to work, however humble, is almost 
invariably a law abiding citizen and a producer of wealth to the country. 

In respect to the great question of State control of the schools; putting 
them on the same basis as the institutions for deaf mutes and the blind in the 
United States and Canada, where every child, poor or rich, has an equal right 
to an equal education, and the best that the latest development of the art and 
theory of deaf-mute instruction is able to impart. The British schools will 
undergo no such remodeling, neither will the Government be responsible for 
apparatus nor books. The Commissioners, without taking into consideration 
the different conditions under which the present institutions carry on their 
work, where some few have a surplus of funded property, and others are in a 
chronic state of beggary, simply recommend that a grant of about $50.00 per 
annum be given for each scholar. 

Trained teachers " as in Germany," (why was America to be ignored, 
which gave far more information and precedents than any other country) 
should receive salaries such as would induce teachers of special attainments to 
enter the profession, and on a higher scale than those enjoyed by trained 
teachers of " ordinary " children. This recommendation does only tardy jus- 
tice to the abilities and self sacrifice of many worthy men and women who have 
remained teachers of the deaf in spite of many discouragements, but we must 
remember that this is only a recommendation, there is nothing to hint, as yet, 
that the government will enforce any or all of them. 

I must now close this exceptionally long and perhaps discursive paper. 
A great field has had to be covered in order in some measure to do justice to 
the Commission, which has indeed been most exhaustive, however disappointed 

264 Mr. Robert E. Bray on The Royal Commission of 

many of the British deaf were that they were not allowed better representation 
on the Committee. 

My own defects of expression and language I attribute in no small degree 
to the want of such educational training during my youth as I should undoubt- 
edly have enjoyed had I been born or reared in this country. Though desirious 
of an opportunity to acquire a thorough course of instruction, my wishes were 
regarded with indifference or suspicion and I must frankly say I have been 
quite unable to discover a case when a mute or a semi-mute has gained any 
distinction in the literary or business world, through the stimulus of any of his 
instruction in deaf-mute institutions in England. I take it as a personal 
favor, notwithstanding my deficiences, to have been permitted to address you. 
The British deaf-mute and semi-mute population owe a great debt to their 
American friends, the deaf and the instructors of the deaf, for their sympathy 
and good will, and I take upon myself to tender our grateful acknowledgements 
for the same. 

The Chair: A paper on "The Deaf in India" follows, from 
Mr. Francis Maginn. It will be delivered in signs by Mr. Ode- 
brecht, and read orally by Rev. Dr. Gallaudet. 



Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

I feel happy to take the opportunity given me on this occasion, and would 
humbly endeavor to create an interest in the condition of our brethren in India- 
Before doing so, it is well to notice the improved facilities enjoyed by the hear- 
ing masses in India. 

In the year 1854 the British East India Company resolved to introduce a 
national system of education for India, in a dispatch from the Board of Control. 
July 19, No. 49, 1854. The most important feature of the dispatch was the 
measure of Grants-in-aid. It offered to all schools already existing, or that 
might hereafter be established, provided they were found efficient, pecuniary 
aid, and to an amount in each case not exceeding sums arising from local 
sources, subject to conditions that in no way interfered with the perfectly free 
action of the managers of such schools, and only requiring that they should be 
submitted to government inspection, with a view to insure the secular instruc- 
tion therein furnished being of a satisfactory character. 

Up to that year (1854), during the rule in India of the English East India 
Company, only small and local efforts had been made by the state to educate 
the people, and even these had languished. The school of Fort William, es- 
tablished during the Marquis of Wellesley's administration, was again abol- 
ished in 1853. But in 188 1, Calcutta, Madras and Bombay cities each had a 
university with professors, and granting degrees in arts, medicine and law and 
civil engineering. In the ten years — 1872 to 1881 — there had been 56,647 can- 
didates for matriculation, of whom 21,182 had passed. 

In 1881 there were 79,953 institutions for youths and 2,599 f° r g' r l s > w ' tn 
2,195,614 scholars, of whom 120,365 were females. 

During Hindu and Mohamedan supremacy, except in a few rare places, 
the education of their subjects was left to the benevolent efforts of learned 
men, who taught gratuitously such pupils as sought instruction; and this prac- 
tice is continued to the present time. Since the arrival from Europe of Portu- 
guese, Dutch, Danes, Italians, French and British, the Christian missionaries 
of all sects have striven to spread educatio namongst the people, and there are 
schools and colleges in which the English language is the medium of instruc- 
tion which compete successfully with the institutions established by the gov- 
ernment of India. 

I trust this Congress will give impetus for further good work, and that the 
report, with that of the Teachers' Convention, should possess great interest for 
those who look forward to legislation for the deaf in Great Britain and Ireland 
and India. It is scarcely creditable that England, which has spent over 
$30,000,000 on grants to schools for the hearing, last year allowed the deaf and 

266 Mr. Francis Magimi on 

dumb to be educated through charity. I am glad to think that this injustice — 
I can call it by no other name — will soon be a thing of the past, and that the 
Educational Department is waking to a sense of its duty in this matter. I have 
had a communication from the Right Hon. A. H. Acland, M. P., Vice President 
of the Council of Education, in which he said: " The bill for the education of 
the deaf, to which you allude, has been introduced in Parliament and referred 
to a select committee of the House or Commons." 

We know that to all preceding generations of the deaf, until a century ago,. 
education was non-existent or unattainable. It is only right that deaf mutes 
who have been happily brought by the education we have received to enjoy the 
blessings of civilization and religion, should help that the same blessings should 
extended to the 150,000 living sufferers from life-long deafness among the pop- 
ulation of India. There are in other parts of the world 500 special schools 
while in the whole of the vast territory of India there is but one, of recent 
foundation, containing less than thirty pupils. Bombay itself, in which the 
institution stands, contains 551 deaf mutes of different races, the Presidency 
contains over 16,000, and the whole of India a total variously estimated at from 
1 50,000 to 200,000. 

As the Indian peoples are now so largely, as I have demonstrated, admitted 
to English rights and privileges, education and religious influence, it is right 
that the government of India should establish a system of education which will 
afford to the deaf and dumb inhabitants of that vast land those advantages of 
education which we gratefully enjoy, and which our unhappy brethren in the 
East have never known. 

The Institution at Bombay was established through the exertions of Mon- 
signor de Haerne, who intended founding one in India before he thought of 
England. He persuaded Monsignor Meurin, the Archbishop of Bombay, to 
begin an Institution for boys, and sent out Mr. Walsh to be head-master. Mr. 
Walsh had previously been the head-teacher at St. Joseph's Cabra, Dublin. 

While at the Deaf-Mute College, Washington, I wrote to the Marquis of 
Dufferin and Ava, then Governor General of India, offering to establish a 
school at Calcutta, providing that I received pecuniary assistance from the 
Indian government. My letter was referred to the Education Department a 
Calcutta, and I was promised assistance on condition that I would undertake 
to raise one-half of the amount needed for the support of the school by volun- 
tary subscriptions. I could not venture to start a school under such circum- 
stances, and nothing more was heard of the matter until the following letter 
was forwarded by Girindranath Bhose, an influential native gentleman residing 
at Calcutta: 

Dear Sir: — I am told that three or four years ago you applied to the gov- 
ernment of India for aid in the establishment of a school for deaf mutes, and 
that you did not, unfortunately, receive the encouragement you deserved. My 
object in now writing is to inform you that I and a friend of mine are anxious 
to carry out your plan. But we cannot take any steps in the matter till we have 
some idea as to expenditure, etc. I should, therefore, feel much obliged if 

The Deaf of India. 267 

you would kindly draw up a scheme for a small Institution. Of course I as- 
sume that your interest in the deaf mutes of this country has not ceased. 

Apologizing for the trouble I am under the necessity of putting you to, and 
soliciting the favor of an early reply, I remain, Sir, yours faithfully, 


Complying with this gentleman's request, I sent him all the information I 
could gather. The Secretary of the Calcutta Education Department gave all 
encouragement. The London Indian Office was desired to act, and to select a 
candidate for post of teacher for the proposed school. 

Friends of the deaf and dumb have been on the qui vive for the inaugura- 
tion of a system of education for India, and are disappointed that the Indian 
officials have not done their duty. In order to set the official machinery again 
into motion, it seems that there could be no better plan than a largely-signed 
petition to the Queen. It would, indeed, be a touching scene to behold deaf 
mutes, serving under different forms of government, beseeching the most hu- 
mane and benevolent sovereign on earth to consider the case of your unhappy 
Indian brethren. 

The Chair (Mr. W. E. Harris): The paper that follows is on 
" The Term Charitable as Applied to Our Schools." It will be 
presented by its author, Mr. Hanson, and read orally by Dr. J. L. 



When the education of the deaf began in this country, its possibilities were 
largely a matter of conjecture, and the founders of our earliest schools probably 
expected that it might be necessary to care permanently for at least a portion 
of their pupils. This is indicated by the name Asylum, which still attaches to 
our honored parent school at Hartford. 

It soon became apparent, however, that all that was necessary was to give 
the deaf an education, and the word Institution came into general use. This 
word neither affirms nor denies the existence of charity or benevolence. It 
leaves the question in doubt, and therefore is little better than the word 

It is clear that in the public mind the idea of charity is quite generally as. 
sociated with our schools. People not personally familiar with them rarely 
speak of them as schools or institutions; the word asylum is generally used, 
even without any purpose of disparagement. The reasons for this prevailing 
impression are various, and some may be noted. 

The first and foremost reason I believe to be founded in a generous spirit 
of the public mind. On first seeing a deaf person, .the natural sentiment is a 
feeling of pity, and people slightly acquainted with the deaf think that they 
need help, and, therefore, that they get it. The collection of the deaf by them- 
selves in large schools lends color to this belief, as to the casual observer they 
bear a certain resemblance to insane asylums, with which they are probably 
associated in the public mind. 

Without education, the deaf indeed are dependent and to be pitied. Those 
engaged in their education, and especially those whose duty it is to procure 
funds for carrying on the work, may often find it necessary or advisable to ap- 
peal to the spirit of charity in our law makers in order to attain their ends- 
The idea of charity thus invoked in behalf of the uneducated deaf is apt to 
remain in the public mind associated with the deaf even after they have re- 
ceived their education. 

In this country it is a recognized duty of the state to provide for the edu- 
cation of its citizens. The accident of deafness or blindness does not absolve 
from this obligation, though it requires the establishment of special schools. 
These schools are a part of the public school system, and they are in no sense 
a charity. Though the pupils enjoy certain privileges, such as free room and 
board, this is not granted as a charity, but in order to increase the efficiency of 
the schools. Our schools are schools, neither more nor less, and this fact should 
be impressed on the public, on all occasions, and by every means in our power. 

Mr. Olof Hanson on The Term "Charitable" as Applied to 269 

Other reasons may be traced to our lexicographers. Webster, in his defi- 
nition of asylum, makes a direct reference to the deaf in the third definition 
which reads as follows: "Specifically, an institute for the protection or relief of 
the unfortnate, as an asylum for the poor, for the deaf and dumb, or for the in- 
sane." The Century dictionary gives a similar definition and a direct refer- 
ence to the deaf and dumb, and Worcester defines an asylum: " A charitable 
institution, as for the blind, deaf and dumb, lunatics, etc." 

The word institution is a little better off so far as the idea of charity is con- 
cerned, because charitable institutions occupy quite as prominent a place as 
any others in the various dictionaries. 

In a work entitled Decimal Classification and Relative Index for Libra- 
ries, etc., we are placed in not very desirable company. Under the head of 
Associations and Institutions the order is as follows: 362.2 Insane, .3 Idiotic, .4 
Blind, Deaf, Dumb, .5 Paupers, etc; Under the head of education of special 
classes, the deaf are mentioned, but with a cross reference to the word asylum. 
As this work is coming into general use in libraries, an effort should be made 
to have this unjust classification corrected. 

In a few European countries the schools for the deaf are supported mainly 
through private charity, and as a large proportion of our population has come 
from these countries, the idea of charity is in their minds naturally associated 
with the deaf. 

The consideration of the deaf by the conferences of charities and correc- 
tions does not tend to remove the public misunderstanding, and should be dis- 
couraged. Until the last census the deaf have been classified in the census re- 
ports with the dependent and criminal classes. Fortunately in the last census, 
through the efforts of leading men in the profession, our schools were placed 
in their proper place among educational institutions. Thanks to the same men 
we have a place here to-day, not among dependent classes, but among edu- 
cators. This is a sign of progress, and will do much to place us in our proper 
place before the public. 

Having mentioned the causes that associate the idea of charity with our 
schools, it remains to indicate the remedies. 

The errors of the dictionaries and works of reference should be corrected 
as early as possible. Editors and professional men look upon these as their 
standards and when they find themselves endorsed by leading lexicographers, 
it is sometimes difficult to convince them of their error. While the definitions 
may have been excusable in their day, their application to schools for the deaf 
as now conducted in this country is entirely out of place. " Tempora Mutan- 
tur et nos mutamur in Mis." Correct ideas may also be disseminated through 
the press by means of short essays or circulars, interviews, and through per- 
sonal contact with the public. The misleading names " institution " and " asy- 
lum," should be changed to schools. All familiar with the subject acknowl- 
edge that this is the only word that correctly describes their character and 


As to the other causes, which are of a general character, they can be met 
only in a general way. The misconceptions in regard to our schools arising 
from these causes extend also to the deaf as a class. 

270 Our Schools and Other Misconceptions Concerning the Deaf. 

One reason why the deaf are not better understood is the difficulty of com- 
municating with them. Writing is slow; signs and finger spelling are known 
to comparatively few; and lip-reading is limited in its possibilities as a means 
of communications. For these reasons many highly educated deaf persons do 
not receive the consideration which the same attainments would insure to a 
hearing person; and, on the other hand, some are given credit for attainments 
which they do not possess. Among the deaf as among the hearing, there is a 
wide range of culture; but it is difficult for the hearing public to discriminate 
in the case of the deaf. 

We must not overlook the fact that to most people the sight of a deaf per- 
son is, comparatively speaking, a rarity and the acquaintance of one still more 
rare. Probably the vast majority of people form their opinion of the deaf 
from the appearance or deportment of some whom they have happened to see. 
From this consideration it is clear that to secure the good opinion of the pub- 
lic we should give careful attention to our personal appearance and conduct, 
and our schools cannot give too much attention to inculcating in the pupils 
good manners and dignified deportment. 

It must not be supposed that misconceptions are all on the side of the 
hearing public. The ideas of the deaf concerning the hearing are often quite 
as incorrect as those of hearing concerning the deaf. We often misunderstand 
grievously our hearing friends. Being accustomed to interpret people's 
thoughts by their looks, an indifferent look will be interpreted as a slight, or a 
thoughtless act as an insult, when nothing of the kind is intended. We must 
be very careful not to take offense hastily, but place the best interpretation on 
their acts, for in nine cases out of ten it will be found to be correct. 

We should also try to associate as much as we can with the hearing in 
order that we may understand them better and they us. Much might be said, 
which the limit of this paper does not permit, in favor of the deaf attending 
church with the hearing and going with them to socials and entertainments. 
We must not expect to gain social recognition without effort, but when in com- 
pany should try to make ourselves agreeable, so that it will be a pleasure for 
our friends to ask us to come again. 

Mr. President: There are remaining two papers which are 
not on the programme, but have been sent to us from abroad. 
One is from Switzerland and the other from Italy; they will be 
filed and appear in full in the proceedings. 



[Translated by Mr. A. G. Draper.] 

Switzerland does not form an exception to other countries in regard to the 
deplorable infirmities from which a part of humanity suffers. I wish to speak 
of that class disinherited from birth, the deaf and dumb. 

The Swiss deaf mutes devote themselves in general to arts and manufac- 
tures or to agriculture; they live by their labor and, with few exceptions, they 
rely upon themselves, and hence they are neither rich nor poor. 

At present there exists no society for the deaf in Switzerland, but we meet 
habitually once a week in a cafe to converse upon various subjects, and that 
forms a kind of succession to the Geneva society which existed in 1875. It 
prospered for several years, but was finally dissolved owing to dissensions 
which frequently arose among the members, who were eight in number. At 
that time there were also two other societies in German Switzerland, that at 
Zurich and the Federal. They had the same fate as that at Geneva. It is 
truly regretable to see left in a corner the magnificent flag costing 600 francs, 
which the Federal society procured by means of a subscription. We hope that 
by and by it will not be thus left. 

After every evil there comes always some good, and so after having been 
grouped in societies the Swiss deaf frequently mingled more freely listening to 
one another — Protestants and Catholics, the Jews being little represented. 
During a certain time a religious meeting was held every Sunday, its origin 
being due to M. Duneuf, a mute painter, very well versed in the Scriptures; 
but it did not continue very long for lack of hearers. 

The deaf of German Switzerland maintain good relations with the French; 
as to the Italian portion I cannot say whether the German Swiss mingle with 
them, they being separated by the great rampart of the Alps through which 
the St. Gothard tunnel, the greatest in Europe, passes. 

Most of the Swiss deaf come from the schools at Geneva, Moudon, Berne, 
Zurich, etc. Outside these schools there are several boarding or private 
schools where the pure oral method is in use, as also in the twelve Swiss 
schools, of which four are French and eight German. It is greatly to be re- 
gretted that the method of the Abbe de l'Epee has been put aside, and we do 
not at all understand the strange opinions of the directors and teachers which 
prevents them from using the combined method, which is the best and most 
efficient method by which to perfect the education of the deaf as a whole. 

To our knowledge there is no school for the deaf in Italian Switzerland; there 
the deaf go to neighboring Italy or to Milan to learn to read and write. The in- 
stitution at Zurich merits special mention, for it is the oldest in Switzerland, 
and in all respects it is better managed than the other Swiss schools. Its di- 

272 Mr. Jacques Rieca on 

rector, M. Schibel, has been at its head for sixty years, and he has finally re- 
signed to live tranquilly in retirement. A venerable old man, aged 86, he is 
yet vigorous, for he still possesses all his faculties. Geneva has two schools 
of fifteen or twenty pupils each, in which the articulation method is applied. 
One is directed by M. Sager, successor to M. Maquat, and supported by M. de 
La Rive, a very wealthy citizen of Geneva who has a mute daughter. The 
other is confided to M. Dejoux and is supported by the City of Geneva. 

At the institution at Berne they teach the trades of shoemaking, tailoring, 
carpentering and weaving. In other schools where pupils depend upon their 
parents, they choose those occupations ordinarily the more useful and usual, as 
bookbinding, engraving, lithographing, etc., which are better paid in French 
Switzerland and in which, as in France, the workman gains according to his ca- 
pacity. There also come from them painters, photographers, diamond cutters 
and makers of watches, clocks and jewelry. Several painters have studied the art 
at Munich and at Paris: M. Bleuler, of Zeurich, a formerpupil of M. Schibel; 
M. Deneuf, of Neuchatel, a former pupil of the school at Yuerdon under the 
direction ot M. Naef ; M. Teller, of Geneva, under the direction of M. SomeL 
M. Spalinger, of Zurich, engraver upon wood, a former pupil of the Zurich 
school, labored five years at Paris, which he left after the revolution of 1848 
and established himself at Zurich, where he employs several workmen, among 
whom is M. Jules Salzyeber, a mute. He received a bronze medal at the Uni- 
versal Exposition at London in 1851, and one of silver at the Swiss Exposition 
at Berne. M. Veillard, of Geneva, an engraver of jewels, was a pensioner of 
the French Government under Napoleon I., a pupil of the institution in the 
Rue St. Jacques, under the Abbe Sicard, and also of M. Jouffroy, a very clever ' 
and distinguished engraver and a member of the Institute of France. The 
artistic works of M. Veillard are numerous; one may mention among others 
the portrait of General Dufour; and among M. Teller's the Swiss landscapes 
upon enamel. These works, exhibited at the Universal Exposition at Paris in 
1867, received honorable mention. There are at Zurieh two mute engineers, 
one of whom is foreman in a large workshop. ' 

Marriages are usual as in France, some marrying the hearing and others 
the deaf; the number of children varies in the several families from one to 
nine, all hearing and speaking; there is, however, to our knoweledge a deaf 
couple at Lucerne whose child was born deaf. 

In the mountainous regions the deaf are commonly engaged in agriculture, 
and love hunting, ascensions, sharp shooting, gymnastics, etc. Among the 
principal ascension of mountains made during the past four years by several 
deaf mutes of Geneva, without any other guide than the map and the volue 
entitled Practical Guide for the Climber Among the Mountains which Surround 
Lake Geneva, we may mention les Cornettes de Bise (2,439 metres in heigth); 
la deut d'Oche, 2,245; les Roches de Naye (the incomparable Right Vandois), 
2,045; la dent du Midi, 3,260; and le mount Buet, 3,109; admirably situated 
to contemplate not far away, the massive magnificence of Mount Blanc, 4,810. 
Other Swiss deaf persons have made extraordinary ascensions reaching he 

The Deaf Mutes of Switzerland. 2f$ 

of more than 4,000 metres. As the love of mountaineering develops more and 
more among the deaf, so among the hearing people of Geneva, who have six 
clubs, the Montagnow, L' Edelweiss, Union Montaguarde, Des Grimpeurs, Le 
Piolet, and Suisse, the last being the oldest. A proposition of foundation on 
the part of M. Griolet de Geer has been favorably received and supported by 
General Dufour, from which we believe in the possibility of the near formation 
of a mountaineering club among the deaf in Geneva. 

There exists on the whole much activity among us and it is to be hoped 
that with union we shall become more useful to society. 

Up to this time the Federal Council does not give its protection to any of 
the Swiss institutions, which, for the most part, are supported by their respec- 
tive cantons, the others being sustained by voluntary annual contributions of 
private persons. 

In closing we feel a lively desire of union with all our brothers in misfor- 
tune, and cherish wishes for friendship and amity among them, and that men 
of large heart will continue to interest themselves in our class. 

Mr. Abraham, of England, was invited to the platform and 
made a few remarks. 

The President: There are a few moments still left before 
final adjournment, and I am sure that we all would be pleased to 
have a few words from the first President of the National Associa- 
tion of the Deaf, Mr. Edmund Booth, of Anamosa, Iowa. 

Mr. Booth: My friends it is a great pleasure to be with you; 
the moment recalls many reminiscences of the past. Looking at 
our foreign friends, I readily recall that Sicard's sign was some- 
what like that we use to designate a bee; Abbe de l'Epee's sign was 
" a sword." My experience has shown the dreams of my youth 
turned into absolute facts; the dreams of your youth will likewise 
be realized. Such phenomena as aerial navigation will be com- 
mon things ioo years hence, when people will call us of to-day 
savages. Still the deaf of to-day are making good progress, and 
this Congress is certain to set the mark of progress higher than 
ever before attained. [Applause.] 

The President: M. Felix Plessis, a sculptor of Paris, and one 
of the French delegates to the Congress, has completed a heroic 
bust of De l'Epee, which in the name of the deaf of France, he 
presents to the deaf of America. The French deaf mutes desire 
it to be placed where it will do the most good. [Applause.] 

M. Plessis: Ladies and gentlemen, in the name of the deaf 
mutes of France, I present you this bust of our distinguished 
benefactor, the Abbe de l'Epee. [Applause.] 

M. Genis: In presenting the bust of De l'Epee to our Amer- 
ican brothers, it is the desire of the sculptor, M. Plessis, and 
myself that it be placed in Washington, D. C. 

M. Gaillard: As the bust is of plaster, not'marble, it should 
be placed in Chicago, as a memortal of the Congress. 

M. Plessis: I am willing that the Congress should decide 
where it is to be placed. 

M. Chazal: Send it to Washington where it was originally 
intended to place it; another copy can be made for Chicago. 

General Remarks. 275 

Mr. Watzulik: I desire to express the pleasure and gratifica- 
tion with which I have witnessed the position of the deaf in 
America. On July 4th, I saw with wonder and delight the cele- 
bration of a free people, and everywhere the evidences of your 
happiness and prosperity is to be seen. In all the cities I have 
visited I have been entertained by your deaf-mute clubs and 
societies, and must confess that as a general rule, your deaf peo- 
ple show more progress and intellectual ability than is common in 
other countries. 

M. Titze: I also must acknowledge the greatness of your 
nation, the excellence of your schools for the education of the 
deaf, and the success attending the adult deaf. I shall have good 
news to take back to the deaf of Sweden. 

Mr. Veditz: I desire to announce that by vote of the 
Executive Committee of the National Association, the next 
meeting of the Association will be held in Philadelphia, Pa., in 

M. Gaillard: There is one thing in which the Congress has 
cause to be well satisfied, and that is the number of foreign dele- 
gates. Considering the great distance and the condition of the 
deaf in Europe, eleven foreign delegates are a great number. 
How many foreign hearing teachers have attended the Congress 
of Instructors of the Deaf? The comparison suggests an interest- 
ing lesson. 

Mr. Fox: The deaf delegates and visitors in Chicago, have 
been shown many courtesies by the Pas-a-Pas Club during the 
past few days I take pleasure in offering the following: 

Resolved, That the delegates and the deaf generally, in attendance at the 
World's Congress of the Deaf, do hereby pass a vote of thanks to the officers 
and members of the Pas-a-Pas Club, for the many courtesies shown them dur- 
ing their stay in Chicago. 

Carried unanimously. 

Mr. Hanson: I offer the following: 
Resolved, That the thanks of the Congress are due to and are hereby 
extended to the President and Honorary Chairmen, and to the interpreters for 
their successful performance of their arduous duties. 

The President: It seems to me that the Secretaries should 
be included in this resolution, and it be so amended. 

The resolution as amended was carried unanimously, 

276 General Remarks. 

M. Plessis: Permit me to say that the Congress has been a 
wonderful gathering. I shall never forget it, but recall it with 

Mr. B. R. Allabough, of Pennsylvania: I herewith move a 
vote of thanks to the Local Committee of Arrangements. 


Mr. W. E. White, of New Hampshire: I move a vote of 
thanks to the World's Auxiliary for the use of the Hall. 

Mr. Hodgson: I amend the motion of Mr. White, that the 
President and Secretary should write out the expression of thanks, 
and take the same to the Auxilliary Committee. 

Motion as amended was carried unanimously. 

The President: I am unable to give definite information as to 
when the report of the Congress will be printed and ready for 
distribution, but free copies will be sent to leading libraries. 

Mr. Fox: What, then, am I to do with the minutes and 
papers of the Congress? 

The President: Consult Secretary Young for directions in 
regard to them. 

Rev. Dr. Gallaudet: I hardly know under what head I am in 
as a member, and am given the privilege of speaking. Perhaps 
as I have French blood I may come in as a Frenchman, or since 
my mother and also my wife are deaf mutes, I come in on that 
account. But you all know that my work is connected with the 

Now a few words on the language you all, American, English, 
French, German and Swede, have been using in common at this 
Congress. Signs are to the deaf through the eye what sound is 
to the ear. Lip-reading is not the same thing as hearing the 
spoken word. While we give all due credit to the value of lip- 
reading, let it be plainly understood that it is not hearing, nor 
always a successful substitute for hearing. 

This may be the last time all of us shall meet together. May 
God bless you all. 

Mr. Veditz: There being present deaf persons from many 

states and countries who have given their views from practical 

experience, it seems this is the proper time to offer the following: 

Whereas, There has been frequent expression of opinion at the World's 

Congress of the Deaf, assembled at Chicago, July 18-22, 1893, by representative 

General Remarks. 277 

American and European deaf mutes, in regard to the comparative value of the 
various methods of instructing the deaf; and 

Whereas, These speakers, representing every method of instruction 
observed in American and European schools, are practically unanimous in 
their condemnation of the exclusive use of any one method, and of the pure 
oral method in particular; therefore be it 

Resolved, That it is the sentiment of this World's Congress of the Deaf 
that the combined system, giving equal recognition to the manual and oral 
methods, is the only system of instruction that meets ali conditions and pur- 
poses and best answers the golden maxim, " The greatest good to the greatest 
number;" and be it further 

Resolved, That in accordance with this sentiment, the adoption of the 
combined system be earnestly recommended to all schools for the deaf where 
it is not yet observed. 

The President: We shall now vote on these resolutions. 
The resolutions have been carried unanimously without one 
dissenting vote. 

We have completed the work of what I consider a remark- 
ably successful Congress. At every session the assembly has 
been large and attentive to the numerous interesting papers pre- 
sented, and we certainly have been repaid for our regularity. 
Time will prove the value of the work of this Congress. As we 
are about to dissolve, I wish you one and all a safe return to your 
homes with pleasant memories of this remarkable gathering. 
The moment has come when I declare the Congress of the Deaf 
adjourned sine die. 

[This list includes only those who registered; a great many failed to do so.] 

Victor Bloom, Vienna. 


James A. Balis, Belleville, Ontario. Mrs. Jas. A. Balis, Belleville, Ontarii 

Ambrose W. Mason, Belleville, " 


Joseph Chazal, Paris. Rene V. Desperriers, Paris. 

Henri Gaillard, Paris. Henri Genis, Nanterre (Seine). 

Emile Mercier, Eperney. Felix Plessis, Paris. 


Albin Maria Watzulik, Altenburg, S.A. 


William Eccles Harris, Belfast. Francis Maginn, Belfast. 


Edward A. Klofterskold, Stockholm. Gerhard Titze, Karlskrona. 


Alfred T. Wood, Talledega. 


George F. Worden, Little Rock. Mrs. George Worden, Little Rock. 


Max Kestner, Denver. Stephen McGinnity, Denver. 

D. H. Wolpert, Denver. George W. Veditz, Colorado Spring 


Herman Erbe, Waterbury. Edward H. Heine, Waterbury. 

H. S. Lewis, Waterbury. Robert D. Livingston, Bridgeport. 

John Muth, Bridgeport. R. Xewton Parson, Hazardville. 


Amos G. Draper, Washington. Marshal O. Roberts, Washington. 

Mrs. Marshal O. Roberts, Washington. 


Robert E. Bray, Chicago. Paul Herdman, Taylorville. 

John Bree, Chicago. G. Herr, Englewood. 

Mrs. C. L. Buchan, Englewood. William Hicks, Jacksonville. 

Annie Burn, Englewood. Edward P. Holmes, Chicago. 

Edwin H. Bowes, Austin. Sidney H. Howard, Chicago. 

G. A. Christensen, Semions. Mrs. E. D. Hunter, Chicago. 

John Close, Centerville. Benjamin F. Jackson, Rockford, 

Chester C. Codman, Chicago, Matthew King, Joliet. 

Delegates and Members of the Congress. 


Mrs. C. C. Codruan, Chicago. 
Collins C. Colby, Englewood. 
Mrs. C. C. Colby, Englewood. 
Nellie Conkling, Chicago. 
Grace E. Coombs, Chicago. 
John A. Cotton, Chicago. 
Carrie A. Cotton, Chicago. 
Henry Dornburch, La Salle. 
George T. Dougherty, Chicago. 
Mrs. G. T. Dougherty, Chicago. 
Lavania J. Eden, Jacksonville. 
Georgia Elliott, Ellicott. 
Philip A. Emery, Chicago. 
Mrs. P. A. Emery, Chicago. 
Robert L. Erd, Waterloo. 
B. F. Frank, Chicago. 
George A. Fraser, Fernwood. 
Richard L. H. Long, Chicago. 
H. P. Lupien, Watseka. 
Thomas F. Lynch, Rockford. 
F. J. Friday, Kensington. 
John L. Gage, Chicago. 
James E. Gallaher, Chicago. 
Mrs. J. E. Gallaher, Chicago. 
Hugh H. Gates, Decatur. 
Dudley W. George, Jacksonville. 
Mrs. D. W. George, Jacksonville. 
F. P. Gibson, Chicago. 
Mrs. Attie Gotthemier, Chicago. 
Mary E. Griswold, Chicago. 
George Hagerman, Elgin. 
H. M. Hanna, Springfield. 
Harry R. Hart, Chicago. 
Rev. P. J. Hasnestab, Jacksonville. 
Herbert Hathaway, Elgin. 
Mrs. H. Hathaway, Elgin. 

H. C. Anderson, Indianapolis. 
Amelia Baxter, Jeffersonville. 
Albert Berg, Indianapolis. 
Mrs. A. Berg, Indianapolis. 
Louis Berghorn, Fort Wayne. 
Joseph B. Bixley, Fort Wayne. 
Henry Beirhaus, Indianapolis. 
Cora E. Coe, Indianapolis. 
Harry Dunham, Jeffersonville. 

Katie Kindkead, Chicago. 
Mark C. Knighthart, Kankakee. 
Leward J. Lainger, Chicago. 
Jacques Loew, Chicago. 
Mrs. J. Loew, Chicago. 
Jane Mc Farland, Elgin. 
Frank A. Martin, Grand Crossing. 
Mrs. F. A. Martin, Grand Crossing. 
Susie A. McKee, Kankakee. 
David S. Neil, Macon. 
Kittie Neil, Macon. 
John Neilson, Rockford. 
Bessie O'Connor, Chicago. 
John Parkinson, Chicago. 
Mary E. Peek, Jacksonville. 
M. P. Perkins, Englewood. 
Oscar H. Regensberg, Chicago. 
Thomas Richie, Chicago. 
Erastus A. Rhodes, Kankakee. 
Grace Rhodes, Kankakee. 
Thomas J. Rogers, Jacksonville. 
Henry Rutherford, Oak Point. 
Robert Scott, Chicago. 
Mrs. R. Scott, Chicago. 

C. D. Seaton, Quincy. 
Renia Snyder, Chicago Lawn. 
Mrs. E. T. Sullivan, Chicago. 
L. R. Taylor, El Paso. 
William E. Tilton, Jacksonville. 
Ernest O. Towne, Pekin. 
Sadie West, Pullman. 
Mrs. E. Weller, Hermosa. 
Emil A. Weller, Hermosa. 
S. Frances Wood, Jacksonville. 
J. R. Woodron, McLean. 


August Jutt, Indianapolis. 
Charles Kerney, Indianapolis. 
Mrs. C. Kerney, Indianapolis. 
Paul Lange, jr., Evansville. 
Alta M. Lowman, Leitsburg. 
Bettie Mayer, Evansville. 

D. V. Mclntyre, Crawfordsville. 
Nathaniel F. Morrow, Indianapolis. 
Mrs. N. F. Morrow, Indianapolis. 

280 Delegates and Members of the Congress. 

W. D. Edwards, Indianapolis. Elinor Perrett, Jeffersonville. 

William Faulkhauser, Elkhart. John \V. Priestly, New Albany. 

Mrs. W. Faulkhauser, Elkhart. A. H. Robbins, jr., Rochester. 

Maggie E. Fills, Indianapolis. Mrs. C. Siegfried, Indianapolis. 

Frank E. Hesse, Indianapolis. Charles E. Stienwender, Indianapolis. 

Mrs. F. E. Hesse, Indianapolis. Harry Swift, Indianapolis. 
Samuel A. Heisbronner, Fort Wayne- \V. C. Swink, Ladoga. 

Louis Hildebrand, Indianapolis. Sidney J. Vail, Indianapolis. 

Ida I. Jack, Logansport. Mrs. S. J. \ r ail, Indianapolis. 
Charles Jackson, Indianapolis. 


John W. Barrett, Council Bluffs. Edwin Pyle, Fort Madison. 

Edmund Booth, Anamosa. Waldo H. Rothert, Council Bluffs. 

Minnie Fry, Ottumwa. J. E. Standasher, Dubuque. 

Frank C. Holloway, Council Bluffs. Elliot S. Warring, Grinnell. 

Augusta Kruse, Waterloo. Helen White, Burlington. 

Matthew Mc Cook, Dubuque. Burd W. Mc Vay, Cascade. 
Maria M. A. Peterson, Clarkville. 


Mrs. J. W. Cartwright, Olathe. Eva Ore, Olathe. 

E. C. Harrath, Olathe. David F. Rogers, Olathe. 


Annie Kremer, Louisville. George M. Mc Clure, Danville. 

M. T. Long, Danville. Elizabeth T. McNeely, Newport. 


H. Loraine Tracy, Baton Rouge. 


Rev. Samuel Rowe, New Gloucester. 


Annie B. Barry, Baltimore. Albert C. Buxton, Crisfield. 

Alto M. Lowman, Leitersburg. 


George Abrams, Boston. Mrs. George A. Holmes, Brighton. 

Mrs. Kate Bacheson, Roslendale. W. H. Krause, Boston. 

Harry E. Babbitt, Boston. J. B. Lucy, Haverill. 

Henry A. Chapman, Salem. E. Maulchey, Salem. 

Belle C. Flagg, Boston. Henry C. White, Brighton. 
Edwin W. Frisbee, Everett. 


Henry A. Anderson, Grand Rapids. J. J. Buchanan, Flint. 

B. W. Champlain, Kalamazoo. Amelia Clark, Vicksburg. 

Nettie Crosby, New Buffalo. Ernest Dorman, Detroit. 

Sadie A. Failing, Ithaca. William Grimes, Battle Creek. 

Mattie Howe, Clarkstown. Willis Hubbard, Flint. 

G. H. Martin, Port Huron. Elijah L. Robinson, Detroit. 

Delegates and Members of the Congress. 


Theresa Sehoenenberger, Ann Arbor. Cora A. Smith, Corenci. 
Clara P. Smith, Detroit. 


F. E. Klagge, St. Paul. 
James L. Smith, Faribault. 


Rev. James L, Cloud, St. Louis. 
Augustus B. Dieckman, " 
Mrs. L. P. Huff, Kansas City. 
Mrs E. D. Kengen, St. Louis. 
Stephen Shuey, Fulton. 


William Kline, Omaha. 


Olof Hanson, Minneapolis. 
Mrs. J. Mills, La Verne. 
Mrs. J. L. Smith, Faribault. 

James S. Cheney, St. Louis. 
Lulu O. Cloud, 
Georgia Elliott, Fulton. 
Marcus H. Kerr, St. Louis. 
Annie M. Roper, " 
Annie M. Farrell, 

Mrs. Eva O. Comp, Omaha. 
Russel Smith, " 

William E. White, Nashua. 


Samuel W. McClelland, Mountain View. Mrs. S. W. McClelland, Mountain 



Lars M. Larson, Santa Fe. Mrs. L. M. Larson, Santa Fe. 


Thomas F. Fox, New York City. 
Clara H. Garton, Oriskany Falls. 
Mrs. H. J. Haight, New York City. 
Moses Heyman, New York City. 
Edwin A. Hodgson, New York City 
Thomas H. Jewell, Rome. 
George D. Kinsey, Brooklyn. 
Lyman Kohn, New York City. 
Cornelia Nelson, Poughkeepsie. 
Helen Regan, New York City. 
Mrs. W. E. Rose, 
H. Edward Smith, Albion. 


Mrs Annie E. Brown, Syracuse. 

Rachel Freysburg, Poughkeepsie. 

Henry J. Haight, New York City. 

Rosa H. Halpin, Rochester. 

Mrs. M. Heyman, New York City. 

Mrs. E. A. Hodgson, 

William G. Jones, " 

Albert Knight, Rome. 

Charles J. Le Clercq, New York City. 

John E. O'Brien, 

William E. Rose, 

Theodore Rose, 

Emanuel Souweine, Brooklyn. 


A. K. Spear, Devils Lake. 


John Barrick, Cincinnati. 
Edward R. Carroll, Cleveland. 
Edward P. Cleary, Cincinnati. 
Nellie A. Dundon, Columbus. 
Maggie L. Fowler, Cleveland. 
Mary E. Grow, Pomeroy. 


Louisa K. Buchebeebe, Cincinnati. 
Clarence W. Charles, Columbus. 
Mary L. Dundon, Pleasant Ridge. 
Elmer B. Elsey, Columbus. 
Josie R. Goldman, Middletown. 
Nettie T. Jones, Columbus. 


Delegates and Members oftlw 


John S. Lieb, Columbus. 
Rev. Austin W. Mann, Cleveland. 
Robert P. McGregor, Columbus. 
Christian Meyer, Cleveland. 
Nora B. Patterson, Columbus. 
Minnie E. Wyman, Cleveland. 

Joseph W. Lieb, 

Thomas McGinnnis, " 

Mrs. R. P. McGregor, Columbus. 

Mrs. Emma Meyer, Cleveland. 

Albert H. Schory, Columbus. 

William H. Zorn, Columbus. 


Brewster R. Allabough, Edgewood Park. Rev. James L. Koehler, Philadelphia 
Frank A. Leitner, Edgewood Park. Luella H. Little, Philadelphia. 

Richard Ormrod, Upland. Alexander H. Pach, Easton. 

Mrs. Mary J. Syle, Germantown. George W. Teegarden, Edgewood 

Robert M. Ziegler, Philadelphia. Park. 


Thomas H. Coleman,. Cedar Springs. Mrs. T. H. Coleman, Cedar Springs. 


Edna B. Locke, Covington. 

William A. Branum, Knoxville. 
Lester A. Palmer, Nashville. 

W. M. Thombury, Austin. 

John T. Keefe, Bellows Falls. 

John W. Michaels, Goshen. 

Emma Bartlett, Warrington. 
Bessie V. Wayman, Wheeling. 


Alex O. Wilson, Corsicana. 


Rev. Job Turner, Staunton. 


Edmund L. Chapin, Romney. 

John P. Dahl, LaCrosse. 

Mrs. C. Angle, South Superior. 

Lottie B. Englehardt, Milwaukee. 

Thomas Hagerty, Milwaukee. 

Warren Robinson, Delavan. 

Mrs. Mary E. Worden, Lone Rock 


Charles Angle, South Superior. 
Philip S. Englehardt, Milwaukee. 
Christian Larson, Rio. 
Harry Reed, Menosha. 
George F. Worden, Lone Rock. 





Baiional Association of tlje 1M , 



JUNE 23, 24. 25, 26, 1896. 




Officers of tbe association. 

President, Rev. J. M. Koehlee, Pennsylvania. 

First Vice-President, - George W. Veditz, Colorado. 
Second Vice-President, Rev. P. J. Hasenstab, Illinois. 
Third Vice-President, - . Moses Heyman, New York. 
Fourth Vice-President, Miss Julia Foley, Pennsylvania. 
Secretary, - - E. A. Hodgson, New York. 

Treasurer, - Theo. D'Estrella, California. 

Executive Committee. 

Rev. Jas. H. Cloud, Missouri, Chairman, 
K. M. Ziegler, Pennsylvania, 
Thomas F. Fox, New York, 
Sidney J. Vail, Indiana, 

G. T. Dougherty, Illinois, 
Rev. A. W. Mann, Ohio, 
Miss Annie Barry, Maryland, 

A. Gr. Draper, District of Columbia, 
E. L. Chapin, West Virginia, 
W. H. Rothert, Iowa, 

Miss A. M. Tiegel, Minnesota, 
George Porter, New Jersey. 

Proceedings of the fifth Convention. 

jfirst Das, Gues&as, -June 23rD. 

The Fifth Triennial Convention of the National Associa- 
tion of the Deaf was called to order in the Auditorium of 
Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, on the morning of June 23, 
1896, at ten o'clock, hy President Thomas F. Fox. The 
Secretary, Mr. Harry C. White of Massachusetts, was unable 
to he present on account of sickness. Mr. Henry Gross of 
Missouri was accordingly selected to act as secretary pro lem. 

Rev. J. M. Koehler, pastor of All Souls* Church for the 
Deaf, invoked the divine blessing on the meeting. 

Dr. James McAllister, president of Drexel Institute, 
made an address of welcome to the Convention. He stated 
that the Board of Directors of the Institute had never ex- 
tended a more cordial welcome than the one he was authorized 
to make to the Association. His remarks were interpreted 
by Prof. J. P. Walker of the Mt. Airy Institution. 

On behalf of the Association, President Fox responded 
to the address in a few well-chosen words. 

Rev. J. M. Koehler, secretary of the local Committee of 
Arrangements, read a letter from Mayor Warwick, in which 
he regretted that a sudden call outside of the city prevented 
his addressing the Association. 

The subjoined Official Call of the President was then 
read by the Secretary. 

Under date of January 20th last, the Chairman of the Executive 
Committee of the Association announced June 23-27, 1806, as the 


dates selected by the Committee for the Fifth meeting of the Associa- 
tion; notice was also given of the appointment of a Special Committee 
to prepare a business program for the meeting. 

Since this announcement was made public, a desire has been 
expressed by members of the Association that the meeting be limited 
to a shorter period than had previously been agreed upon. A motion 
to the effect that the Convention adjourn sine die upon the conclusion 
of the business session Friday, June 2(>, was presented for the con- 
sideration of the Executive Committee, and has received the favorable 
action of that body. The Business Comniittee has completed a 
program and is prepared to report. 

I, therefore, as President of the Association, announce that the 
Fifth Convention of the National Association of the Deaf wili meet 
at the Auditorium of the Drexel Institute, in the city of Philadelphia, 
at half-past nine o'clock on the morning of Tuesday, June 23, 1S96, 
arid continue its sessions, in accordance witli the business program, 
till tinal adjournment on Friday, June 26th. 

Thomas Fn.vxcis Fox, President. 

Presiderjt Fox read I.i.-s address, which was yiven orally 
by Mr. J. P. Walker. 

PRESIDENT'S address. 
Ladies axd Gentlemen : — Our meeting here to-day is in fulfilment 
of the object of the National Association of the Deaf, "For the 
mutual assistance and encouragement in bettering their standing in 
society at large, ami for the social pleasure attendant upon a period- 
ical reunion of a widely scattered class of people." Our case is very 
aptly expressed in the words of Emerson; 

"Man was made of social Earth, 
Child and brother from his birth." 

To accomplish an object such as the Association seeks, requires a 
high degree of unity. Yet iu the application of the principle it can- 
not lie reasonably expected that complete unity in opinion will exist' 
among us. We all esteem the right of private judgment too sacred to 
be lightly relinquished, and so there will be discussions and differ- 
ences of views in our conventions. This, which some would magnify 
into alack qf a unity of purpose, is rather to our glory. Accepting as 
a fundamental principle, that we are free to discuss all questions here 
presented for our consideration, so long as we hold freedom of thought 
and expression as an essential truth, we may continue to differ in our 
views, since it is impossible to chain down all thinking minds to one 
set mode, either in opinion or in practice. 

And yet, this freedom of thought is consistent with that true 
unity which is only of real value. Go through all our associations 
and you will discover vastly more essential unity of purpose than in 
many other bodies which hoist of this virtue, but would restrict free 


expression of views. It is substantial unity that is of real value. It 
is, in fact, the only unity that is worth anything. 

One of the great problems which directly interests us to-day, is 
the best plan to pursue in seeking the real advancement of the deaf. 
This a great and serious work. To devise and execute means leading 
to this end, adapted in plan and instrumentalities to the wants alike 
of the public, and to misguided enthusiasts with a quasi acquaintance 
with the deaf, needs wisdom and discrimination. It is an enterprise 
whose completion stretches far into futurity. It will hardly be 
accomplished in a single generation. We who are now embarked in 
the undertaking can scarcely dare to hope that we shall see its con- 
summation. Before the standard of absolute victory waves, we shall 
probably have passed away. The laurels which we may hope to wear, 
are not those that shall be conferred as the result of the final 
triumph. We must be content with having shown the way. 

Still even in our time we have seen some decided progress made. 
The day is happily passed when the limit of hope for a deaf man was 
to be a mechanic or a laborer, and that of the woman, a household 
drudge. The deaf have assumed their rights to be heard on all 
subjects affecting their status, and it would be a very bold American 
teacher who would ask, as has been asked in several European states, 
What right have the deaf to opinions on the methods adopted in 
their education and training? While this is so, there remains much to 
be accomplished even in our country, before they reach the point 
they have a right as citizens to assume. 

In seeking to reach this end we are apt, at times, to come into 
conflict with the views and opinions of others who claim an equal 
interest in the advancement of the deaf, but who would adopt widely 
different methods of action in order to "restore the deaf to Society." 
At times the methods they employ in our behalf are so questionable 
and so hurtful to our interests, that our feelings are naturally other 
than grateful. Indeed, we are, with cause, more than weary of itera- 
tion and reiteration of psendo-discussions in our behalf, and may be 
excused for crying out to be saved from the efforts of such friends. 

I would not be understood as claiming that the deaf alone are 
qualified to pass upon the deaf, to discuss their capabilities and 
restrictions, and to determine what is best tor them; but I do mean, 
and I do say, that the adult educated deaf are, all things considered, 
better qualified to pass upon disputed questions affecting their 
welfare, than nine-teiitbs of the men of pretensions and titles who 
would be the self-constituted arbiters of all questions regarding them. 
Though many of these pretenders and their pretensions are alike 
utterly spurious, wealth, social positioi.s and titles, secure for them 
the ear of the public, to the exclusion of others more impartial and 
more competent to give honest judgment. And this is a point upon 
which we must fix our attention and combat it till it is overcome 

At our gathering in Chicago, in 1S93, we participated in the 


most important and most truly universal Congress the deaf of the 
world have ever held. While we may not claim it as having been 
distinctly an affair controlled by this Association, we still glory in the 
fact that its promoters and managers were our brother members of 
the National Association. Moreover, to the Association belongs the 
credit of making possible the publication of its proceedings, a work 
which, more than any other, affords reliable information upon the 
deaf, gathered together from their leading representatives in the^rin- 
cipal nations of the the world. 

Since the meeting in 1893 there have come prominently forward 
several subjects of general interest to the deaf, which will be presented 
to us by competent authorities, specially selected for the purpose by 
the Business Committee. There are other affairs interesting to us as 
members of the Association which I personally wish to refer to at 
some length, as calling for immediate action. Among these are 
amendments to the Constitution of the Association looking to needed 
provisions in relation to the time which the now officers of the Asso- 
ciation shall assume their duties, and the order of business to be 
followed at our triennial meetings. 

Upon general principles it might be preferable to let the incoming 
officers and the National Executive committee have no offical duties to 
perform until after the adjournment of each Convention, as the old 
officers are naturally more familiar with, the affairs of the Association, 
that have gone under their management, than the incoming officers. 
For a similar reason, the outgoing officers are more competent to 
handle the affairs of the Association until the sine die adjournment of 
a convention. Yet provision should be made by which the new 
Executive Committee could meet, decide upon the place for holding 
the next Convention, and announce the same Defore the adjourn- 
ment of the meeting. In this way the danger of the Committee hav- 
ing any undue influence exerted upon it in favor of any particular 
city, would be minimized. Provision should .also be made for the ap- 
pointment of a Business Committee, with a clear definition of its 
authority and duty as distinct from the local committee of arrange- 
ments. A clause should also be inserted in the Constitution making it 
obligatory for the President to issue an official call for each conven- 
tion. I wish, furthermore, to direct your attention to the difficulty 
attending the gathering of a quorum of the Executive Committee at 
our meetings, and to suggest that it might be wise to place in the 
hands of the Board of Officers the auditing of billn against the Associ- 
ation, or, at least, to "make some provisions for proxies for those 
members of the Executive Committee who, for various reasons, can- 
not attend co'iven lions. 

In order to effect these changes it will be necessary to make some- 
what radical modifications of the Constitution, as numerous sections 
in it were apparently constructed upon the supposition that the first 
business of, the Association was to go into "preliminary organization," 


i. e., the receiving of reports and addresses from outgoing officers arid 
the committees, and the election of new officers. While these 
matters are important they are not the sole business of a convention 
of an association of this character. 

These are some of the changes suggested by my experience in the 
past three years, and to them I would add the value of a liberal ap- 
propriation for the publication of the proceedings of all conventions. 
The funds of the Association cannot be better employed than in 
aiding the widest possible circulation of the work of the Association 
in convention assembled. These proceedings afford valuable informa- 
tion as to the deaf, their status,- rights and demands, and in distrib- 
uting thorn far and wide, we carry out to the letter the spirit of our 
Constitution, towards "bettering their standing in society at large," 
by educating the public to a comprehension of their status. How 
necessary is such a circulation of information can be realized with a 
little thought. A recent unfortunate occurrence in a school for the 
deaf has only made more prominent what wo have long been aware 
of, — the many preposterous statements made concerning the deaf, an 
evil so generally prevalent not only among the general public but even 
among the highly educated. We have had the deaf portrayed as 
sullen and revengeful— the exact characteristics of murderers — in the 
columns of the metropolitan press. This absurd information 
originates with the space writers for the public press. In the 
constant strain after the sensational, they give currency to much that 
has but a shadow of truth in it. 

How are these great public educators which exhibit such 
ignorance, to obtain needed instruction? What body has more 
interest in supplying this instruction than .the National Association 
of the Deaf? I may say, in passing, that there remain over four 
hundred copies of the Proceedings of the World's Congress of the 
Deaf, and the setting aside of a small sum for postage will permit the 
supplying of our leading libraries and newspapers with this valuable 
work. It has been said that opportunities, like eggs, must be hatched 
when they are fresh; these proceedings contain our eggs. Shall we 
hatch them? It remains for you to answer. We must remember 
that the rule for success is to work for it and win it; to deserve it is 
well enough, but wo cannot always expect our just deserts, more 
especially when it may be to the interest of others to deprive us of 

Within a few months there has passed away a man who mani- 
fested in an eminent degree, the most disinterested love for the deaf, 
and their welfare. I need hardly state that I refer to the late Wil- 
liam Gurney Jenkins, of the American School for the Deaf at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. 

A man of superior talents and scholarship, his writings proved 
him a close student of i-xtensive reading, and with a love for his 
work alike ardent, consistent and practical. It did not. die away in 


sickly sentiment. It did not evaporate in idle speculations. It was 
not smothered in selfishness, so common in this day, nor was it marred 
by want of charity but came from a sincere heart, and excited him to 
do all in his power for the cause of the true interests of the deaf. His 
character in the profession always stood high. No one ever doubted 
his sincerity, whatever else they may have doubted. With views 
liberal but not loose, his charity extended to all the deaf and to those 
honestly engaged in their education and elevation. He was not a 
slave to any shibboleth. He called no man Master; he bowed to no 
supremacy, he claimed liberty of conscience and opinion, and hrs 
expression of honest opinion has accomplished much in the line of 
setting thought iu the right direction in the education of the deaf. 

For the ^memory of such a man we cannot but feel but deep and 
abiding veneration, and I feel sure that you will join cordially in the 
effort now being made to erect a lasting memorial to his persistent 
and unselfish efforts in our cause. 

In bringing these remarks to a conclusion, I desire to refer to a 
subject which was presented at the third convention at Washington, 
but which, like several other subjects, did not receive the attention 
called for by the Business Committee of that body. 

At that meeting, as well as at the last meeting in Chicago, the 
particular business of the Association was overshadowed by other 
affairs, and consequently several important matters did not receive 
that deliberation which the welfare of the Association demands. 

Iu a paper read at that time, I argued that there be formed some 
bond of union among the State Associations of the deaf in the United 
States. The objects of all are similar in a greater or less degree. 
As they all strive for the best interests of the deaf, would they not 
profit by making this National Association a body wherein delegates 
from every State Association would meet with the foremost deaf of all 
sections; and, in the language of the day, pool their issues on a 
common platform. Some such reorganization is absolutely necessary 
for the association as at present organized has no tenable standing. 
By the conditions of membership, the deaf of whatever city in which 
the convention may happen to assemble have, by their mere numer- 
ical strength, a preponderating, influence on all the questions 
considered, and though but recently become members, can out-vote 
those of long standing and tried devotion to the interests of the Asso- 
ciation. They can control all decisions, and consequently hold the 
Association, for the time being, completely in their power. 

What is demanded is an apportionment of' members among the 
different States, so that each section shall be entitled to a representa- 
tion in proportion to its importance. What might be better still, 
would be to allow a certain number of votes to each State Association, 
which could, when necessary, be cast by proxy. In this way the 
stability of the Association, as a whole, would be maintained, and its 
influence be more far-reaching than it is at present. Its declarations 


would have more weight, and would be presented by competent repre- 
sentatives, and not left to the chance membership picked up at each 
meeting. It would be thoroughly National and united, and the 
prospect for long and useful service would be immeasurably increased. 

On motion of Rev. J. H. Cloud of Missouri, a recess of 
twenty minutes was taken to enable the Committee on Enrol- 
ment to enroll the members. After the Convention had again 
come together, the Committee made a partial report, showing 
that 56 gentlemen and 26 ladies had been enrolled. 

The president appointed the following committees : 

Committee on Nominations — Henry Gross, Missouri; S. 
J. Vail, Indiana; A. L. Pach, New Jersey. 

Committee on Resolutions — E A. Hodgson, New York; 
P. J. Hasenstab, Illinois; J. II . Cloud, Missouri. 

The election of officers was next in order, but R. M. 
Ziegler of Pennsylvania, moved that the election be postponed 
to the next day. Tim motion was seconded by E. Wilson of 
Pennsylvania, and carried. 

Reports of committees being in order, President Fox 
stated that he had received the report of the Executive Com- 
mittee from its Chairman, George W. Veditz, who had asked 
him to submit it to such members of the Committee as might 
be present. A recess was taken to allow the Committee to 
consider the report. 

In the interim, Mr. Ziegler, chairman of the local com- 
mittee of arrangements, explained the matter of transportation 
to Mt. Airy and to Atlantic City. Rev. J. M. Koehler ex- 
tended a cordial invitation to the members of the National 
Association to participate in the meetings of the Pennsylvania 
Society for the Advancement of the Deaf, which would be 
held in the afternoons ami evening'! at the Industrial School, 
Pine and Broad Streets. This building was formerly occupied 
by the School for the Deaf. Mr. A. McGahan, in behalf of 
the f.lutuiil. Aid Society of the Deaf, invited all to take in a 
steamboat excursion 12- r > miles down the Delaware. 

The Executive Committee having approved the report of 
its chairman. President Fox read the report, Vice-President 
Dougherty occupying the chair. 



Denver, Colorado, June 18, 1896. 
Gentlemen of the Executive Committee: — I regret very ranch my 
inability to be with you at this meeting of your body. Until a 
few weeks ago I expected with the greatest confidence to attend 
the Convention, but a business venture in which I since engaged 
makes it imperative that I remain in Colorado through the summer. 
Though you are acquainted with the work done by the com- 
mittee, it may not be improper to submit some sort of a report of the 
business accomplished. 

The first item that demanded your attention was the appoint- 
ment of a committee to attend to the publication of the proceedings 
of the World's Congress of the Deaf, at Chicago in 1893, which was 
practically a convention of the National Association. The appoint- 
ment of this committee was duly authorized together with the appro- 
priation of $100 for necessary expenses, and Messrs. Fox, chairman, 
McGregor and Hanson appointed. 

The proceedings were published in duo time and I believe it is no 
exaggeration to state that it is the most valuable publication ever 
undertaken by the deaf, and can not fail to attain in the course of 
time, to the greatest historical value in the annals of the deaf of the 

Our thanks and congratulations are due to the committee, 
especially its chairman. The result of their work was no less suc- 
cessful and efficient than their task was laborious, exacting and time- 

In this connection I should add that in the spring of 1895, Mr. 
Fox, the chairman of the committee, requested me to authorize the 
requisition of $50 to cover expenses still unpaid, with the under- 
standing that all or at least the greater part be refunded as delinquent 
subscriptions came in. As the request was altogether reasonable and 
certain to meet with your endorsement, I authorized Treasurer Balis 
to pay the amount required. 

Two other motions on which you took action at the same period, 
i. e., November, 1893, were to appoint the New York Deaf Mutes' 
Journal the official organ of the National Association, which motion 
prevailed, and to appropriate $100 for the diffusion of a knowledge of 
the manual alphabet among the hearing, which motion failed. 

In the fah of 1395, in my capacity as chairman of your committee, 
I appointed Messrs. R. M. Zeigler, Chairman; J. M. Koehler. James S. 
Reider, Thomas Breen and O. J. Whildin. a committee to arrange for 
the Fifth Convention. At the same time you fixed upon June 23 to 
27 as the dates for the Convention and authorized me to appoint a 
special committee of three members to arrange a business program. 
Messrs. Fox, chairman; Dougherty and George were appointed to serve 
on this committee. In this connection I would suggest that — as the 


Constitution and By-Laws make no provision for a business committee, 
and the experience of the Chicago Congress, as well as of the last two 
Teachers' Conventions, demonstrates that such a committee is indis- 
pensable to efficient and organized work— some one would make 
a motion at the proper time to incorporate an article into the 
By-Laws, making the appointment of such a committee on business 

There remains but one item to claim your attention. The Fifth 
Convention was originally appointed to meet June 23 to 27 inclusive. 
On the request of the business committee I authorized the adjourn- 
ment of the Convention on Friday the 26th instead of Saturday the 
27th, as the reasons submitted were so reasonable that 1 felt certain 
they would meet with your approval. 

These reasons in brief were: 

(1) Five days were considered too many for the sessions of the 

(2) The programme prepared could be easily completed in four 

(3) Adjournment on the 26th would enable members who so 
desired to reach home before the following Sunday, and 
thus remove the necessity of travelling on the Sabbath. 

Finally congratulating you on your harmonious action in the past, 
and trusting that the course I took in cases when the exigency of the 
occasion made it impossible to confer with you beforehand, I remain 

Yours fraternally, 

G. W. Veditz, 
Chairman and Member of the Executive Committee for Colorado. 

Presjdent Fox nlso presented the report of the Committee 
on Publication of the proceedings of the preceding convention: 


New York City, June 15, 1896. 


Ladies and Gentlemen:— Immediately following the adjournment 
of the World's Congress of the Deaf, which included the Fourth 
Triennial Convention of the Association, inquiries were instituted by 
Mr. Dougherty, the representative of the Directors and Commissioners 
of the Columbian Exposition, and by the Secretaries of the Congress 
of the Deaf, with regard to the prompt publication of the Proceedings 
of the meetings held under the auspices of the Auxiliary. The result 
of our investigations was far from satisfactory and indicated a long 
delay, if not final failure. 

The minutes and papers were accordingly held by Mr. Fox who 
had served as one of the Secretaries of the Congress, and who had 
been elected President of the Association. 


Subsequently the undersigned were appointed by the Executive 
Committee of the Association a Committee on Publication,, and 
herewith report. 

Upon the organization of the Committee, arrangements were 
made to have the papers of the French and German delegates trans- 
lated into English, and as a measure of precaution against accident, 
Mr. Fox had duplicate copies of the minutes and papers type-written. 
After making earnest inquiries and public solicitations of bids, out 
of several received, the lowest was that of the Regan Printing House 
of Chicago. Under date of August G, 1894, this company agreed to 
print 1000 copies, in the same general style as the printed proceedings 
of the Teachers' Congress, for the 3um of $467.55, of which $150 was 
to be paid on signing the contract, and the balance in thirty or sixty 
days after the Proceedings had been issued. As these were the very 
best terms the Committee could obtain, and as the arrangement 
would enable the Committee to have Mr. McGregor as proof reader 
and Mr. Gallaher to exercise a general oversight of the work, the 
terms were accepted and a contract made. Early in September, 1894, 
the copy was forwarded to the printer with the first payment, $150, 
which had been voted by the National Association. The printed 
Proceedings were issued in October, 1894. 

It was the hope of the Committee that it would have no difficulty 
in disposing of a sufficient number of copies at 75 cents per copy to 
meet the balance of the $400 needed. In this hope, however, although 
the Committee left no effort untried, and have not spared themselves 
labor in soliciting subscriptions, it was disappointed, and up to 
March, 1895, had been able to pay the printer only $377.27, which 
included the $150 voted by the National Association. There was then 
a balance of $82.73 remaining, which was later reduced to $65.00. In 
May, 1895, the printer requested the Committee to remit the- final 
payment, and seeing no other way out of the difficulty, the Committee 
laid the matter before the Executive Committee of the Association 
and asked for assistance to meet the balance due for the Proceedings. 
The Executive Committee promptly responded, and voted a further 
allowance to close the business. 

The failure of the Committee to meet the balance due is traceable 
to several circumstances, and while not wishing to offer excuses for 
their failure, it is due the Committee as well as the Association that 
a public explanation be made. Some of those who gave their names 
for copies failed to redeem their pledges; other agents not only 
returned the copies they had ordered hut left the Committee to meet 
the expressage. At least two agents have proved unfaithful to their 
trust and sent us no payments, and some others made hut part 
returns of moneys collected. 

The following is a statement of the disposal of the printed 
Proceedings : 


Number of printed copies 1000 

Number of copies distributed to agents 357 

Number of copies distributed to the Committee 174 

Number of copies missing 4 

Number of copies ou band 465 


Those on baud are in a small room at the Pas-a-Pas Club at 
Chicago, without any responsibility as to safe keeping, and we sug- 
gest that arrangements be made for their final disposal on the line 
proposed by the President in his address. 

Of the amount paid for printing the Proceedings, with subsequent 
additions handed over to the Association's Treasurer — 

The National Association advanced J215 00 

Mr. Thomas F. Fox collected 153 81 

Mr. R. P. McGregor collected 52 35 

Mr. Olof Hanson collected 35 68 

Mr. J. E. Gallahcr collected 13 50 

Making a total of $480 34 

The Institutions that subscribed were : — 

American Asylum, Job Williams, through Mr. Crane. 1 

New York Institution, E. II. Currier, through Mr. Fox 25 

Pennsylvania Institution, A. L. E. Crouter, through Mr. Ziegler 10 

Kentucky Institution, J. E. Ray, through Mr. Fox 2 

Ohio Institution, Supt. Clarke, through Mr. McGregor 2 

Virginia Institution, W. S. Doyle, through Mr. Fox 2 

Illinois Institution, through Mr. George 

Georgia Institution, W. O. Connor, through Mr. Fox 1 

Missouri School, J. N. Tate, through Mr. Fox 6 

Wisconsin School, J. W. Swiler, through Mr. Fox 2 

Michigan School, F. D. Clarke, through Mr. Fox 6 

Mississippi Institution, J. R. Dobyns, through Mr. Fox 10 

Iowa School, II. W. Rothert, through Mr. Fox 2 

Columbia Institution, Dr. E. M. Gallaudet, through Mr. Draper 10 

Alabama Institution, J . H. Johnston, through Mr. Fox 2 

LeCouteulx St. Mary's Institution, Sister Mary, through Mr. Fox.. 3 

Minnesota School, Dr. J. L. Noyes, through Mr. Hanson 3 

Colorado Institution, through Mr. Vcditz 

Clarke Institution, C. A. Yale, through Mr. Fox 1 

Maryland School, C. \V. Ely, through Mr. Fox 6 

Nebraska Institution, J. O. Gillespie, through Mr. Smith 5 

Western New York Institution, Z. F. Westervelt, through Mr. Fox. . 3 

New Jersey School, Weston Jenkins, through Mr. Fox 6 

Belleville, Ontario, R. Mathison, through Mr: Balis 10 

Volta Bureau. Washington, D. C, through Mr. Fox 10 

Midland, England, Dr. Roe, through Mr. Fox I 

Belfast, Ireland, through Mr. Fox 2 

The Committee desire to express their special acknowledgment 
to Mr. James £. Gallaher, for his valuable services to the Committee 
as their immediate representative at Chicago in their arrangements 
with the printer, and as agent in distributing the Proceedings. He 
performed his arduous work in a manner deserving of the thanks of 
the Association. The Committee also desire to express their appre- 


ciation of the great assistance rendered by Miss Tiegel, and Messrs. 
Draper, George, Veditz, and Smith, in the work of translating the 
Italian, French, and German papers. 

Bid space permit it, we would also name the numerous agents 
who assisted the Committee in soliciting subscriptions and in distri- 
buting the work. They, however, have our thanks, especially Messrs. 
Ziegler and Draper, who disposed respectively of thirty-nine and 
twenty-six copies. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Tiiomas Francis Fox, 
E. P. McGeegok, 
Olof Haxsox, 

Committee on Publication. 

A motion was made by J. M. Koehler to accept the 
report and continue the Committee with power to distribute 
the remaining copies among public libraries. R. M. Ziegler 
having seconded it, G. T. Dougherty amended the motion so 
as to include the public libraries of Europe, and J. H. Cloud 
added those of the other portions of the globe where English 
is spoken. In this shape the motion prevailed. 

At this junction, J. S. Reider moved that the vote by 
■which the election of officers had been postponed to the next 
day, be reconsidered. This motion was seconded by R M. 
Ziegler. After a lengthy discussion, the motion was carried. 

A recess was taken to allow the Committee on Nomina- 
tions to make itn selections. Miss Julia Foley made some 
needed announcements regarding the reception to be given 
that evening at the Mt. Airy School. A letter of regret was 
received from Lars M. Larson, announcing his inability to 
attend on account of the closing exercises ol his school. 

The Committee on Nominations having completed its 
labors, presented the following ticket : 

President, J. M. Koehler, Pennsylvania; First Vice-Pres- 
ident, G. W. Veditz, Colorado; Second Vice-President, P. J. 
Hasen6tab, Illinois; Third Vice-President, Moses Hcyinan. 
New York; Fourth Vice-President, Miss Julia Foley. Pennsyl- 
vania; Secretary, E. A. Hodgson, New York; Treasurer, Thco. 
D'Estrella, California. 

J. H. Cloud moved the adoption of the report, and it 
was carried. 

On motion of J. M. Koehler, the Association adjourned. 


SeconO H)sv?, "Wae&ncs&ag, June 24tb. 

The session was opened with prayer by Rev. J. H. Cloud. 

The incoming President, Mr. Koehler, asked for more 
tiriic to make up the Executive Committee, and his request 
was granted on motion of G. W. Jones of New York. 

Prof. A. G. Draper, of Gallaudet College, read his paper 
on the future of the deaf. It was given orally by Mr. Percival 
Hall, of Gallaudet College. 


The deaf people of America can review the history of their class 
in their own country with a great measure of pride and comfort. 
That little germ planted by the generous Gallaudet grew, and sent 
over all the land those fruitful seeds which for more than four-score 
years have sprung up into generations of intelligent,- happy, and 
useful men and women . 

With that past we need not deal to-day. Let us rather turn our 
eyes to the future and endeavor to see what it holds for the deaf. 
To do so .we need not invoke the spirit of prophecy. The future is 
the child of the present. The conditions and tendencies of to-day 
disclose the character of the future both for good and evil ;, and it is 
only by a study of those conditions and tendencies that we can hope 
to increase the good and lessen the evil. 

In many directions present conditions are full of promise to the 
deaf of the future. There exists a very wide and active interest in 
their treatment. One result will be to improve them in 


Due attention will be paid to giving them bodily power and 
endurance. Already, beginning with Gallaudet College, several 
schools have regularly appointed gymnasiums in charge of skilled 
instructors, so that every pupil can receive both a general develop- 
ment and any special training which his case may need. Thus many 
a moment formerly spent in idleness or aimless exercise will be used 
in storing up that vigor and stamina without which the best mental 
and moral education is of little avail. 


Industrial training has an increasing share of attention from 


educators of the deaf. It should have a greater still in the future. 
In not a few aspects it is the most important of the aims of our 
schools. To send out pupils with well-storrd minds is a fine thing, 
but, as the world is, to send them out skilled in handicraft is abetter. 
Nay, more, though they leave the schools with souls never so refined, 
it will be fatal to forget how thin is the partition that separates 
poverty from sin, and lack or incapacity for employment from the 
shame of dependence. We read with a shudder that in Denmark 46 
per cent, of the adult deaf are pensioners upon their friends. With 
corresponding joy we hear such news as that in the Illinois institu- 
tion thirty boys have begun to learn the baker's trade, and others in 
the New- York institution the horticulturist's— both excellent voca- 
tions for the deaf; or that a man of parts has been placed in charge 
of industrial affairs, as recently in the Mt. Airy school. 

This matter of earning a living is unfortunately at present beset 
with new difficulties. It is harder to get work now than it was thirty 
years ago. Immigration, the minute division of labor, the incursions 
of machinery as in the shoe and printing business, and the tyranny 
of trade unions are all obstacles in the way of graduate pupils seeking 
a livelihood. There are cheering indications that educators are alive 
to these new conditions. Industrial matters command a larger share 
of attention in school papers and in meetings of the profession. At 
the Flint convention half a day was given to them. Future meetings 
should give them more. It is a question if these matters should not 
have an almost equal share with mental culture in the minds of 
educators of the deaf. Perhaps the large institutions in or near cities 
might wisely enlist some hearing man of good character to co-operate 
with them in the transference of industrial graduates from their own 
to the workshops of the community, and in exercising a friendly 
interest in their labor and relations for a time thereafter. Such a 
work would consort naturally with that of a pastor among the deaf. 
It would need a man of tact and generosity, for it would sometimes 
be a delicate, disheartening, and even thankless mission. Neverthe- 
less, such a man, making the effort not to encourage a spirit of 
dependence upon himself, might do great good at a vital point in the 
lives of graduates. 


is another direction in which the present is full of promise to not a 
few among the deaf of the future. Great discoveries are making in 
aural surgery and in the training of the semi-deaf. During the past 
winter I knew of three cases of children becoming very deaf, two 
from measles and one from a cold, and they might have remained so 
but for new methods of treatment. In the future we may fairly 
expect to see the hearing of some pupils quite restored, and that of 
more so quickened and trained as to become available either for 
understanding distinct speech" or as a help in lip-reading. 



is another favorable indication for the future. When a pupil watches 
spelled English, it is English that is impressed upon his mind ; when 
he spells English himself, he thinks in English. In either case he is 
made to realize the importance of English and impelled to use it. 
The gain to him, both in language and habits of thought, is very 
great; and therefore it is a matter of joy that the schools of the 
future seem likely to employ dactylology more and more. 


is still another promise of good in the future. This is true for many 
reasons. The chief of those reasons is utilitarian. That deaf person 
who can speak intelligibly and understand even a fraction of the 
speech addressed to him, has, other things being equal, a great 
advantage both in society and in business over that deaf person who 
possesses neither of those powers. The next most important reason 
for the value of oral work lies in its educational force. In it, as in 
dactylology and in writing, both the efforts of the teacher to reach 
the intelligence of the pupil and the pupil's efforts to give forth his 
intelligence, are made iu the English language — he continually wit- 
nesses and continually practices that accomplishment which, second 
only to a noble character, it is the highest ambition of everv good 
teacher of the deaf to confer upon his pupils — namely, the English 
language. Other reasons for the value of oral work might be given, 
but these two are controlling. They leave no doubt that in the 
schools of the future some of the born-deaf will be taught to articu- 
late intelligibly; all who bring to the schools a degree of natural 
speech will have that speech developed and improved; not a few 
coming to the schools with speech already established will be so 
trained as to retain it through life in substantial perfection; and all, 
in each of these classes, will acquire a varying degree of skill in 
catching the meaning of speech by sight. This, like all those which 
have been sketched above, is a feature in the deaf of the future which 
the deaf of the present contemplate with all rejoicing. 

Here, with all these bright promises for the future before us, it 
would be pleasant to stop. But if we see harmful tendencies in the 
present, they also demand our attention. To open our eyes to the 
good indications and close them to the evil would be fatuous. Among 
these evil tendencies is 


The impulse is to employ young women on, small salaries and 
often for short periods. Already in some pure oral schools there are 
no male teachers whatever; in others there is a male superintendent 
with all, or nearly all, the teachers under him women. Now, women 


make admirable teachers of children and of the younger classes. As 
such I would be swift to render their patience, fidelity; and insight 
the highest meed of honor and praise. On the other hand, women 
are not fitted by nature to guide and control young people nearing 
maturity, and send them out into the battle of life armed with the 
stern, true, just, and lofty attributes that make the worth of manly 
character. " Instruction," says Bishop Butler, "is the least part of 
education." By far, the greatest part is personality*. If We could 
place in one hand' all that our teachers have taught us from books, 
and in the other all that our lives and characters have received by 
contact with the Noyeses, Mclntiree, Peets, and Porters among bur 
teachers, how greatly the latter influence would outweigh the former"! 
And if the deaf of the future are to loee from their school life the 
tiplift and inspiration of daily intercourse with pure, strong, highly- 
educated men, they will lose at the same time the most precious and 
the most powerful of all the influences that go to make a true 


is a second factor in the situation which bodes ill for the deaf of the 
future. Let us set the pure oral theory before us for a moment. It 
assumes to educate all the deaf mainly by speech and lip-reading, 
and to, fit them for the society of the hearing thereby. Surely, that 
is a lofty, an ideal aim. Call up, now, the diversity-of methods 
theory. It assumes to educate and fit for society, each individual 
among the deaf by that means which seems best adapted to his 
particular case : by speech if possible, by other means if not. Surely, 
that is reasonable and practicable. Pure oralism says to every deaf 
boy, "You are to be a member of society; come to me and I will fit 
you for society by the one and only perfect way." The diversity-of- 
methods plan says to him, "You are to be a man ; come to. me and I 
will try. to fit you for manhood by what seems the best way for yov, 
even if that be not my favorite way." That plan is more rigid, 
idealistic, sociological; thin more flexible, practicable, humane. 
Each has its excellencies and each its shortcomings. How shall 
reasonable men choose between them ? Shall the humane reject the 
scientific? Our heads say, no. Shall the scientific reject the humane? 
Our heads and our hearts say, no. Judgment and feeling together 
affirm that we should strive to keep what is good and banish what 
is evil in both. 

But ultra oralists seem to have little of this breadth of view. 
They see their plan at the big end of the telescope, and. if they see 
the rival plan at all, it is through the little end. That is not the 
worst. They are so anxious to make out a case before the public 
that they resort to desperate expedients, as when they seek to profit 
by the effusions of half-informed, pen national reporters, and when 
they make statements like that which one of them made to Congress, 
declaring that children born deaf could by oralism learn the English 


language and understand the speech of others "for all practical pur- 
poses as well as children who hear." Such statements shrivel with 
shame when brought into the august presence of truth. Such resorts 
belong to the realm of "jingoism." Against such treatment the deaf 
ought forever to protest, because it will simply make them the victims, 
"the stalking-horses of pet theories." We need not leave the ranks 
of oralists in order to expose the absurdity of such claims. Walther, 
the chief of alist of Germany, with the results of a century of oral 
work before him in that, the most scientific country on earth, pierces 
such claims with a two-edged sword when he says of those who make 
them that, "since it is hardly possible that they deceive themselves, 
their object must be to deceive others." How noble by contrast is 
his frank admission of the simple truth when he says, "We must 
openly and candidly confess that we cannot bestow upon the deaf 
mute a power of speech that approaches the speech of hearing 
persons ; nor a means of understanding the speech of others that is 
anything more than a meagre substitute for hearing." 


is another effort of extremists which if kept up will injure the deaf of 
the future. It is called an attempt advisedly, because as long as 
human nature survives, it can never be more. It has not succeeded 
in Germany after a century of harsh, not to say brutal, measures ; 
nor in America, where the pupils of all the oral schools use signs 
when not under surveillance. But, while violence cannot prevent the 
use of signs, it can and does create two great evils. The children 
under duress in one school invent and use a code of signs ; those in 
another school another. Thus the language of signs, which has been 
a noble instrument in the hands of the Gilletts and Crouters of the 
past — the most effective means by which they have stamped what- 
ever is best in them upon generations of young people in bodies — may 
be breken up into discordant dialects and finally cast aside, a blunted 
or broken tool. The opinion of those who do not know the sign 
language and its capacities is of little value in this matter. Those 
who do know it, including many of the ablest oralists, recognize its 
worth and power; thus Walther speaks of its "inestimable advantage 
as a means of intellectual and moral development," and declares that 
"every teacher of the deaf should be thoroughly acquainted with it." 
The worst effect of the policy of force, however, is that it corrupts 
the moral character of children. The deaf have the natural, irresist- 
ible longing of all youth for the sweets of free expression with one 
another. If forbidden it by force, they secure it by stealth. They 
grow up in habitual deceit, practised upon even the best of teachers. 
Men of honor cannot be bred in that way. Whatever can be done to 
lessen the use of signs by advice, by example, and by persuasion is 
right; but when extremists attempt to do it by force, they hew at the 
very roots of virtue. 


In some other respects also 


While no wise person will advocate sectarian features in our schools, 
it would be monstrous not to make pupils know and feel the over- 
shadowing ideas of God, of duty, and the life of the gentle Jesus. 
But what do we see ? Charles Eliot Norton says that "in the great 
majority of the free public schools of the United States little is done 
to refine and elevate the moral intelligence of the pupils." This is 
true of many present efforts among the deaf. In some schools no 
religious instruction is attempted, but an effort is made to teach 
morals. The managers of such schools might well weigh the words of 
Washington : "Let us with caution indulge the supposition that 
morality can be maintained without religion " In pure-oral schools 
this highest of all education must be put off until pupils acquire an 
adequate command of speech and lip-reading, and thus the most 
impressible period of life may be lost. Such schools, also, by pro- 
scribing the sign language, make lecturing and preaching impossible. 
True, the present head of the Mt. Airy school claimed, at the Flint 
convention, that after three years of exclusively oral instruction a 
body of fifty deaf pupils could be profitably addressed by speech from 
the platform. Imagine that body before us. The speaker opens bis 
mouth wide, shows the workings of the vocal organs, speaks slowly, 
chooses the words that pupils have often seen on his lips, and thus, 
no doubt, some among the fifty understand more or less of what he 
Hays. But is tbat lecturing? Not at all. It is a school-room lesson 
in lip-reading. It embraces not one feature of lecturing, preaching 
or oratory, save the empty appearance. There is nothing in it to 
warm the heart, rouse the mental energies, or stir the imagination, 
because the humor, wit, pathos, fire, and freedom that are the soul of 
oratory (and are perfectly retained in the sign language) must all be 
sacrificed to the one object of making the pupils understand spoken 
words. The pupils are like the bent bicyclers who pass through the 
fairest scenes with visage prone over the tire, seeing every peeble in 
the road, but little or naught of the clouds, seas, forests, and meads 
on Nature's glorious face. 

The efforts of the chief promoter of theories about the deaf at 
present to break up special schools by starting day schools are an- 
other blow at moral education. 

It ought to be said, in passing, that this gentleman is not himself 
a practical educator of the deaf. Those who are, including many 
who agree with him in some of his theories, are emphatically op- 
posed to him in this. Thus Dr. J. C. Gordon, after an almost micro- 
scopic examination of the question, comes to the conclusion that 
"special institutions remain a necessity for the great mass of deaf 
children, and offer superior results with the greatest economy of men, 
money, and time, and this regardless of methods of instruction." 


Not only do the day schools called into being by this promoter not 
accomplish as good intellectual results as the special schools, but, 
moreover, they teach little or nothing of trades, morals, or religion. 
Hence, with no religious instruction in some schools ; with children 
forced into habits of deceit in others ; and with religious instruction 
put off during the most impressible years and lecturing practically 
abolished in still others, the outlook for the moral growth of the deaf 
is not encouraging. Religious efforts among the adult deaf are a good 
thing ; but, if those efforts must be among characters already per- 
verted or neglected in childhood and youth, they are like efforts to 
stand the pyramid on its apex. 



To this audience it is not necessary to speak of the past work of 
Gallaudet College. I see many of its graduates before me. Others 
are scattered through the length and breadth of the land. They are 
men and women of high character, and many of them are doing noble 
service in the world, service that they never could have undertaken 
but for their college training. Now, the College doors are wide open. 
She offers even greater advantages than she has conferred in the past. 
She guarantees to preserve and improve the speech and lip-reading of 
all who come to her blessed with those powers, and even to establish 
a separate class for such if the attendance shall warrant. And she 
shows that she has received numbers of such in the past and carried 
their education to an advanced point without impairing their speech 
and lip-reading abilities. To all this oral extremists turn a deaf ear. 
Apparently one thing only would content them : — to turn the college 
into a pure oral establishment. That would bar from its portals able 
young men and women who cannot speak, and others who speak very 
ill or read the lips only at a great outlay of time and trouble. To 
such a policy the College can never consent. Its doors must be kept 
open wide to all the qualified deaf, in whatsoever manner their previ- 
ous training may have been carried on. 

Oral extremists do not all undervalue the higher education. Some 
of them say they will provide for it, either by setting up a college for 
their own graduates, or by placing them in colleges for the hearing. 
The first plan cannot be defended except on partisan grounds, since 
all the deaf fitted to pursue the higher education can be amply pro- 
vided for in the single college already existing. The second plan may 
be wise in the case of a few. These "few, to be successful, must possess 
money, great mental ability, a confident energy of character, and 
considerable indifference to slights, real or apparent, and to the fact 
that they hinder their associates more or less. Such a description 
cannot apply to the deaf in general. For them a special college must 
exist if thev are to have the opportunity of a higher education, and 


oral extremists confess this fact when they talk of starting a rival 
institution to Gallaudet College. 

The conclusions of this paper may be thus summed up : — 

1. The outlook for physical improvement among the deaf is 

2. The outlook for industrial training is hopeful ; but the deaf 
and their friends cannot too strongly emphasize its importance. 

3. The treatment of defective hearing, the increasing use of the 
manual alphabet, and the culture of speech and lip-reading are all 
most encouraging features of the future. 

4. The displacement of highly educated men. of character as 
teachers will be an irreparable loss to the deaf. 

5. The outlook for moral, religious, and higher education, that 
is to say, for the building up of high character and capacity, is not 
favorable ; and 

6. This is due to the narrow, unfair, and overbearing spirit in 
which some extremists, inside and outside the work of educating the 
deaf, seek to push their theories. 

If only such a spirit can be exorcised from those in authority, 
then the deaf people of the future will enjoy a lot even better and 
brighter than that which their brethren in the past have known. 


A deaf-mute some time ago "did" Coney Island — that is, he took 
in all the sights, and at almost all the places he visited, which by the 
way were variety halls where upon the stage artiste were performing, 
he bought a drink. He was almost, if not quite full, when he entered 
the celebrated place of Sutherland on the "Bowery." The attraction 
at this place was a young man singing popular songs. Our deaf-mute 
friend thought it quite easy, and said so too. The manager thought 
otherwise, whereupon, our deaf-mute friend stepped upon the plat- 
form, pushed the singer aside, motioned the orchestra to proceed, and 
began or tried to sing. His peculiar-like voice soon drew crowds, and 
it was not long before the Hall was filled. The deaf-mute kept up his 
peculiar eingina for nearly three hours. The next day the manager 
gave' him $7.50 for his trouble, this was at the rate of $3.50 an hour, 
and, strange as it may seem, our friend did not know what he was 
being paid for until told of his night's adventure. 

As Mr. G. W. Veditz waB unable to be present, bis paper 
on the occurrences in Germany was given in signs by Presi- 
dent Fox and read orally by Mr. J. P. Walker. 

. In taking a bird's-eye view of recent events among the German 
deaf, we may suppose the retrospect to cover the period of three years 
since the ever-memorable World's Congress at Chicago. 


In Germany, as in every country where a liberal system of edu- 
cating the deaf prevails, there has been the usual cycle of festivities, 
gatherings, and similar red-letter day events, that with us, as in com- 
mon with other mortals, robs life of some of its working-day monot- 
ony ; but as the most prominent landmarks that stand out above the 
dull level of the ordinary, we must regard the lecturing tour of Albin 
M. Watzulik through Germany and Austria in the fall arid winter of 
1893 ; the Congress or Convention at Wiesbaden in the summer of 
1894 ; the unveiling of the Heinicke Memorial at Eppendorf near 
Hamburg in July of last year ; and the third German Congress at 
Nuremberg in May of this year, of which reports have not yet come in. 

The spirit of dissatisfaction and revolt against existing German 
methods, which was first voiced by Mr. Heidsiek in hiB publications 
and later found expression in the memorable petition to William II, 
signed by eight hundred of the most prominent deaf of the Empire, 
is stillat work in all ranks and classes, and the accomplishment of 
the reforms in educational me.thods prayed for in the petition is still 
the great object toward which the leaders are striving. The Chicago 
Congress still further increased this spirit of unrest. Mr. Watzulik 
was the only representative the Fatherland could send, but he was a 
host in himself. The keen intelligence with which he observed the 
difference not only between national conditions, but also between the 
status material and intellectual of the American deaf and that of the 
Germans, found expression on his return to his native country' in a 
series of spirited articles in the Taubstummen Courier of Vienna, the ' 
only publication of any note possessed by the German deaf, and also 
in a lecturing tour which included the leading cities of Germany and 

Though Mr. Watznlik's stay among us was brief, he was given 
every opportunity to acquaint himself with the conditions existing 
among the American deaf. The conclusion that forced itself upon 
him was that as a class we were far superior to his compatriots across 
the ocean, and that, though a large measure of this superiority must 
be ascribed to more favorable social and economic conditions, still by 
far the greatest factor was the more rational system of education in 
force in the majority of American schools. 

Nor should it be assumed that Mr. Watzulik 'is an oralophbbist, 
if I may coin such a word. A "semi-mute" accustomed to use his 
speech on all occasions in his intercourse with the hearing, he has 
always been a pronounced advocate of oral instruction for those who 
could profit by such instruction. At the same time he has no less 
consistently advocated the use of the manual method, or to be more 
exact the combined system, with that large proportion of deaf children 
with whom the oral method is inapplicable, nor would he place any 
proscription upon the sign language, regarding it as the natural 
language of the deaf and indispensable to the clear transmission of 
ideas, and moreover certain sooner or later to come into the possession 
of the children in spite of all efforts towards its suppression. This, 


if we sift the matter, is the standpoint of the intelligent deaf the 
world over. 

This had been Mr. Watzulik's position prior to his American visit, 
and his observations here strengthened his convictions. Those whose 
contributions had sent him across the Atlantic to our shores were 
amply repaid by his articles in the Courier, and his series of lectures 
which, given from the standpoint of a representative deaf-mute, were 
second in influence and effectiveness only to those of Mr. Heidsiek. 
The picture he drew of the intellectual freedom of our deaf made 
the thraldom in which his audience felt they were held, appear all the 
darker by contrast and increase the desire for the abolition of the 
harsh method of education to which they ascribed all the evils with 
which they were burdened. 

It was therefore to be expected that at the Congress of Wiesbaden, 
held in the following summer, the question of educational methods 
should out-rank all others. The evils and shortcomings of the oral 
method were only too obvious, and they felt it their duty to leave no 
means untried to save younger and coming generations of the German 
deaf from the inflictions of which they had themselves been the vic- 
tims. They recognized, however, that under existing conditions, with 
one-man power paramount in the Empire, no immediate consumma- 
tion of their wishes could be hoped for, but that nevertheless agitation 
in season and out of season toward the desired end should be incessant. 

Realizing also the strength lent by numbers, a resolution was 
introduced and enthusiastically approved, to bring about a great 
federation of the German deaf. A committee was appointed charged 
with the important task of bringing about this confederation. Unfort- 
unately there was a conflict of opinions as to what should be the 
composition of the confederation. Some held that it should be a 
league of individuals, while.others argued that it should be a federa- 
tion of German associations and clubs into one great central organi- 
zation whose aim should be the elevation of the deaf as a class. 
Moreover, personal jealousies were allowed to interfere, and in this 
connection it may be said that the German deaf-mute papers 
frequently give space to personal attacks so bitter and rancorous that 
from the standpoint of the American editorial fraternity their only 
repository should be the waste basket. 

The project therefore split upon these differences of opinion and 
personal jealousies, and up to date nothing has been accomplished. 
It remains to be seen what action the'Nuremberg Congress has taken 
in the matter. It may readily be surmissed that the movement met 
with no encouragement from the friends of the oral method, for the 
fact seems to be that the German teachers and the great mass of the 
intelligent German deaf are divided into two hostile camps. The 
feeling on the latter side has at times been bitter in the extreme. 

Notwithstanding its failure in Germany, the idea of a great 
national federation of associations is a great one. It has been caught 
up and extensively discussed in France, though its success there is 


threatened by the same agencies that wrecked the scheme in Germany. 
If we examine the matter carefully and compare conditions existing 
in America with those abroad, such a movement will be found much 
more practicable here than in either France or Germany. If our own 
National Association could be modified into a league or federation of 
our numerous state associations, it would become more truly a 
national organization than it is now or has ever been, and its power 
and prestige would be correspondingly increased. Tt is a subject well 
worth our thoughtful consideration, and I deeply regret my inability 
to be present at the Convention, if for no other object than to make, 
an earnest plea in its behalf. Would not the appointment of a com- 
mittee to examine into the question, elaborate a plan, and submit a 
report at our next Convention, be a proper measure? 

The third great event among our German brethren to claim our 
attention is the unveiling of the monument to Samuel Heinicke at 
Eppendorf, near Hamburg, last July. To appreciate the sentiment 
that animated the deaf of the Fatherland in connection with this 
memorial, we have but to recall the enthusiasm which the deaf of 
America ten years ago brought to the task of securing a monument to 
the memory of Father Gallaudet, and the brilliant gathering at the 
unveiling ceremonies at Washington in June, 1859. 

The dedication of this monument was the great event of the year 
among the German deaf. Every one, whether rich or poor, had con- 
tributed to the memorial fund, and it was the ambition of all to be 
present at the unveiling. In fact, the monument itself was one of 
the great mile-stones in the long journey of more than a century of 
German deaf-mute instruction. It was less a monument to Heinicke 
than to the results possible under even his Procrustean method. 
The money raised was a token that the German deaf were no longer 
dependent consumers as prior to his advent, but self-supporting 
producers and intelligent subjects of the Empire. The sculptor of 
the memorial was a deaf-mute, and no h'.gher tribute to the possibil- 
ities of Heinicke's method could have been selected. It was natural 
therefore that the great assemblage of five hundred deaf, gathered 
in this one spot from every quarter of the Fatherland, should feel the 
full inspiration of the occasion. 

But that they were able to keep in touch with the ceremonies 
and the significance of the day was due to an agency which Heinicke 
had combatted with a rancor that only those can appreciate who 
understand the mutual animosity that existed between everything 
French and German no less in the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century than it does at the present day with memories of Sedan still 
fresh, and Alsace-Lorraine as the bone of contention between the two 
nationalities. Spokeu language should have been the vehicle of 
thought on this occasion intended to honor the memory of the great 
apostle of the pure oral method, but, on the contrary, if it was con- 
spicuous, it was so only by its absence. The sign language was 
openly, we might almost say, defiantly, used, nor did the principal 


speaker of the day lose eight of this incongruity. In fact, the most 
striking passage in his address bore on this subject, and is so signifi- 
cant that it deserves quotation in full : 

"But a question involuntarily intrudes itself. Heinicke's entire 
efforts were given to securing spoken language to the deaf. Have we 
the right to celebrate his memory ? Are we really the representatives 
of his deaf-mute brotherhood, when here, on this great occasion, we 
addtess these assembled deaf by means of that sign language whose 
bitter antagonist and sworn foe, Heinicke had been all his life? 
Truly, this is not the place to weigh the language of signs against 
the oral language, to compare their value and usefulness, and thus 
come to an exposition of two diverse methods. There is no German 
deaf-mute teacher but thinks it his duty and life-work to teach the 
deaf spoken language. Even in foreign lands the usefulness and 
value of the German method have won unstinted praise. But it is a 
very different question, whether speech, which after all presents to 
the eye of the deaf only a language of gestures, is sufficient for his 
necessities and purposes, whether it will accomplish his full mental 
development, or whether within certain bounds and under certain 
circumstances he must not resort to the language of gestures, which,- 
whatever may be said to the contrary, will remain his mother-tongue, 
and therefore the one language that will naturally and directly speak 
to his soul." 

The unveiling of the Heinicke monument was certainly a great 
event and fraught with a personal interest to the entire deaf-mute 
world. But under the circumstances it was also an arraignment of 
the oral method and laid bare its weakness in what it claimed as its 
strongest point. 

My mail this morning brings me the Tnabstummen Courier and I 
am therefore in a position to add a word in regard to the Nuremberg 
Congress of May IM-26. 

The attendance from outside Nuremberg was small, only sixty- 
three delegates being enrolled. A. M. Watzulik was elected President 
and was the soul of the meeting. In regard to the Federation, the 
following measure was adopted : "The various associations are to 
elect delegates. These delegates are to work in concert and to effect 
an understanding by means of the press and correspondence. A 
final report is to be submitted at the next Congress." A resolution 
was presented to petition the German Reichstag to authorize the 
introduction of the Combined System, but when the failure of similar 
petitions was recalled, the resolution was withdrawn. A number of 
papers dealing with the question of methods were read, and much 
light thrown upon the inadequacies of the oral method. Stuttgart 
was fixed upon' as the place of the next Congress in 1890. 

To sum up, the situation in Germany is one of storm and stress. 
There, as in every other country where it is enforced, the oral method 
is recognized as the root of all the evils which afflict the deaf. Our 
German brethren are fighting for the introduction of the American 


System, in which alone they hope for salvation, and though they have 
the teachers, almost to a man, the authorities, and national senti- 
ment arrayed against them, they do not despair of ultimate success. 
Their motto is nil desperandum. 

Mr. G. W. Jones of New York presented the paper on 
the recent occurrences among the deaf of France, prepared by 
Dudley W. George of Illinois, who was prevented from 
attending. Prof. Booth read the paper orally. 


The purpose of this paper iB to review briefly the occurrences 
among the deaf of France during the three years following the 
World's Congress of the Deaf held in Chicago in 1893. 

At this Congress it will be remembered that the 'deaf of France 
were represented by six delegates; namely, Henri Genis, Henri Gail- 
lard, Joseph Chazal, Rene Desperriers, and Felix Plessis. These 
delegates and those present from other countries had an opportunity 
to see for themselves how high the graduates of American institutions 
stood in point of intelligence and success in life. It may be interest- 
ing to know what report these delegates carried back from the land 
flowing with milk and honey for the silent fraternity. Mr. Henri 
Gaillard who was then editor of the Gazette des Sourds Muets, a semi- 
monthly newspaper which has since ceased to exist in consequence of 
the death of its founder and proprietor, Henri Remy, prepared and 
published a report of everything of importance that was seen at the 
Congress and in connection with it and other parts of the country. 
This report is admirable in every point of view. It gives proof of 
remarkable keenness of observation on the part of the author. The 
trench papers read at the Congress are given in full while those read 
by delegates from other countries are briefly resumed. The report is 
bristling with comments and criticisms upon everything that trans- 
pired. All through the report runs a sentiment of unbounded amaze- 
ment at the high social, business and intellectual position occupied 
by the American deaf and the conviction that it is due to the benefi- 
cial operation of the combined system of education which suits the 
method to the pupil. 

Mr. Gaillard makes the following criticism upon the signs used 
by the American deaf-mutes : 

"The signs of the American deaf mutes do not differ much from 
those of the French deaf-mutes, for they were introduced from France 
by Gallaudet and the French deaf-mute Laurent Clerc. There are 
hardly any new signs of much importance and these are suggested 
more by the formation of the English words than by the ideas them- 
selves and these ideas are for the most part abstract which would be 
difficult to express by means of natural gestures or by figures of 
speech as other people do only it seems that the signs of the American 


deaf-mutes are more numerous than ours, they having a sign for 
nearly every word. Besides this their gesticulation is too hurried, 
being sometimes so much so as to become obscure to those not accus- 
tomed to follow them. It is when the deaf-mute has the reputation 
of being a sign-language orator that his signs become clear to all 
before him. On the other hand, the signs of the French deaf-mute 
are few in number and broad in formation and they express at one 
stroke the whole idea with all its implied meanings and corollaries, 
all of which leads us to believe that the French signs although 
similar in more than one respect to the American signs, are superior 
to them in point of rapidity and clearness of expression in public, dis- 

It would not be surprising to find Americans who hold quite 
opposite views in regard to the comparative merits of the French and 
American Bigns from those expressed by Mr. Gaillard. Some of the 
papers read at the World's Congress were master pieces of their .kind 
as written, but it can hardly be said that much justice was done them 
by the sign delivery of the French delegates. Our French brethren 
must be possessed of X ray attachments to their thinking apparatus to 
enable them to sec everything through a series of nods and winks. 
But perhaps there are others who were left behind whose signs have 
an all-penetrating power. Mr. Gaillard mentions one Mr. Varenne 
and a few others, whose power of pantomimic representation casts 
into the shade anything that any American deaf-mute can put up. 

During the past year the French deaf-mutes have neen very 
prolific in schemes for the advancement of the deaf; some of the 
schemes being quite laudable but so far they have not been success- 
ful in bringing them to an issue. Among them was a project to form 
an agricultural colony managed by deaf-mutes with a view to giving 
employment to the deaf who find themselves barred out by prejudice 
from employment alongside of hearing persons. Another was to form 
a federation of all the numerous societies in France with a central 
Board of Officers with a view to presenting an united front to all the 
influences which bar the way of the deaf in their advance to higher 
conditions. This project was ably discussed, but at present the 
French deaf-mutes are still holding the matter under advisement. 
In Paris there are two rival societies, the Association Amirale and 
the Societe d'Appui Fraternal, both of long standing, which get np 
separate banquets every year in honor of the Abbe de i'£pee. 
Strenuous efforts have been made to induce the two societies to unite 
in the organization of one common banquet, but each society tor 
reasons given insists that the other shall step aside in favor of itself. 
A third society, was organized with the avowed object of effecting a 
union of the two societies in the matter of the annual banquet. They 
are still striving to reach the result. 

Numerous reunions are held in the principal cities of France 
every year some time in November to celebrate the birth of the Abbe 
de l'Epee. At these reunions a grand banquet with flow of sign 


language oratory is the principal feature. The deaf of France never 
tire of sounding the praises of their irnmoTtal benefactor. They also 
never tire of depreciating the cruel stroke of fate which deprived them 
of the glorious system of education which their "intellectual father" 
bequeathed them and which has done so much good for them and for 
us here in America. 

The Societe d'Appui Fraternal was in great jubilation this year 
over its success in accumulating a capital of over 20 ,('00 francs. This 
is a society of mutual aid designed to furnish aid to members whom 
sickness or accident prevent from earning a living. It has branches 
in various parts of the country. There are other societies which have - 
about the same object in view and they accumulated respectable sums 
of money within a short space of time. 

One school has been opened in Paris at which the use of signs is 
permitted in all cases in which it is deemed advisable. Two deaf 
mutes, Henri Gaillard and Joseph Cochefer, are members of the 
Board of Supervisors of this school. 

The French deaf-mutes have a museum at Paris under the care of 
Mr. Theophilus Deni6. In this museum are collected many pictures, 
portraits and objects relating to deaf-mutes and their education. 
There are in it many works of art produced by deaf-mutes and con- 
stant additions are being made to the collection. The French deaf- 
mute painters, sketchers and sculptors have been winning many 
laurels in competition with hearing persons. 

Before the disappearance of the Gazette des Sourds Mitets the deaf- 
mutes of Paris organized a stock company and set up a printing office 
and issued another French deaf-mute paper named the Journal des 
Sourds Muels with Henri Gaillard as editor-in-chief and manager of 
the office. This office employs none but deaf-mutes. Besides issuing 
the paper, the office does general job work and so far it has been quite 

One of the things which astonished the French deaf-mutes when 
they came here was the large number of deaf-mutes in public offices. 
They made much ado a few weeks ago over the fact that two deaf- 
mutes have at last succeeded in obtaining employment in the City 
Hall of Paris. 

The deaf-mutes of Paris under the lead of Henri Gaillard have 
striven to enlist the sympathy of noted newspaper writers in behalf 
of the deaf as a class, and in this way much good may be done in an 
effort to remove the popular prejudice that a deaf mute is not fit for 
any employment. 

There have been complaints that deaf-mutes in France have been 
defrauded of property, which was theirs by rightful inheritance, by 
designing relatives who take advantage of their ignorance of law. 
There is one instance in which a more intelligent deaf-mute made a 
long and successful legal fight to restore a considerable sum of money 
to a fellow deaf-mute who bad been cheated out of it by the trickery 



of relatives. This was an example of heroism that is well worthy of 
imitation among the deaf of this country, for instances have not 
been wanting in which deaf-mutes have lost money through ignorance 
of their rights. One lady was deprived of as much as ten thousand 
dollars and then dumped into the poor house. 

There is now a committee in Paris soliciting pecuniary aid to 
enable them to take active measures in making the manual alphabet 
more generally familiar to the hearing public. It would be well to 
encourage them morally and financially in this undertaking. Should 
they meet with success in this, we would have an added stimulus to 
our own efforts in the same direction in our country. 

The French deaf-mutes have held one or two national conven- 
tions. Great enthusiasm marked their proceedings. They were 
unanimous in the opinion that the combined method should be 
restored in France to give them an opportunity to compete with 
American deaf-mutes in intelligence and social standing. 

They are doing all they can now to brush up for the World's Fair 
in Paris and give royal entertainment to a regiment of American 
deaf-mutes in 1900. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. T. A. Froehlich 
ot New York, in which he expressed his regret at being 
unable to attend. 

The outgoing Treasurer, J C. Balis, presented his report 
as follows : 




July 20, Received from B. R Al- 

labongh, retiring Trens. 8 59 92 
Membership fees, Fourth 

Convention 229 00 

June 15, Interest at 3.5 percent.. 9 46 
T. F. Fox, from sale of 

Proceedings. 12 21 

$310 62 

July 20, raid B. R. Allabough, 

Mem. card receipts t 1 SO 

" Paid R. P. McGregor.pos- 

tage and stationery 2H 

July 24, Paid F. P. Gibson, 5 en- 
rolment books at 9e 45 

Paid G. S. Cole, 600 bad- 
ges, pins and fringes... 60 00 

May 20, 

June 5, 

June 15, 

Paid T. F. Fox, for pub- 
lication of Proceedings . 150 00 

Paid T. F. Fox. to com- 
plete payment for pub- 
lication of Proceedings. 65 00 

Paid M. O. fees and pos- 
tage to date "5 

By balance on hand 30 "8 

8810 62 

On June 26th, he presented an additional report, which 
is given here for convenience : 




June 20, A. G. Draper, fee $ 1 00 

H. R. Allabough, fee. . . . 1 00 

W. W. Beadcll, fee 100 

J.C. Balis, fee 1 00 

" Mrs. S. C. Balis, fee 50 

" A. L. Pach, membership 

fees collected 57 50 ' 

E. L. Chapiu, fee 100 ! 

F. P. Gibson, lee 100 : 

R. N. Parsons, fee 100 ; 

To balance from approv- ! 

ed report 30 78 I 

June 25, Paid T. F. Fox, account 
expenses, as President, 

etc $34 88 

" By balance on hand 60 90 

$95 78 $95 78 

Mr. Jones of New York moved that an auditing com- 
mittee of three be appointed to audit the report. Motion was 
seconded by Mr. Wisner of Penna. Messrs. Jones of New 
York, Cloud of Missouri, and Koehler of Penna. were selected 
to audit the Treasurer's books. 

President Koehler announced the Executive Committee, 
as composed of the following members: 

J. H. Cloud, Missouri, Chairman; R. M. Zeigler, Pennsyl- 
vania; T. F. Fox, New York; S.* J. Vail, Indiana; G. T. 
Dougherty, Illinois; A, W. Mann, Ohio; George' Porter, New 
Jersey; Miss Annie Barry, Maryland; A. G. Draper, District 
of Columbia; E. L. Chapin, West Virginia; W. H. Rothert, 
Iowa; Miss A. M. Tiegel, Minnesota. 

Mr. Hasenstab of Illinois made a motion to create the 
Board of Officers ex-officio members of the Executive Com 
mitlee. This was seconded by Mr. Jones of New York. 

Mr. Dougherty raised the point of order that the Consti- 
tution would have to be amended to permit this. 

Mr. Koehler of Pennsylvania offered a substitute which 
was to amend the Constitution 60 as to make the Board of 
Officers ex-officio members of the Executive Committee. Mr. 
Hasenstab accepted the substitute. 

Mr. Cloud wished to know what would be the rank of 
the officers in the Committee. 

Vice-President Dougherty took the chair, while President 
Fox recounted some of the difficulties experienced by the 
officers when anything is projected by the Committee. 

There was considerable discussion and finally Mr. Berg 


of Indiana moved that discussion cease and that » vote b« 
taken on the substitute. Mr. Vail seconded this, and thf 
motion to cease discussion and proceed to a vote was carried, 
but the substitute was not voted on. 

Mr. Ziegler, chaircnan of the Local Committee, presented 
a partial report from his committee, it being impossible to 
give a full report on account of minor details which could not 
be accounted until the last daj\ 

A paper on the "Manual Training for the Deaf," pre- 
pared by Warren Robinson, was given in signs by Theo. 
D'Estrella of California, and read by Mr. A. E. L. Crouter, 
of the Mt. Airy School. 


This is no time to burden you with a review of the condition of 
the industrial departments of our schools, nor do I propose to present 
any elaborate scheme the adoption of which would do away with all 
the perplexing questions thereof; but I shall endeavor to show how 
much from study, experience, and observation, I have been convinced 
of the great value of manual training as a means by which the pupils 
in our schools may be better prepared not only to make a living but 
to hold their own in life. 

For centuries the head was made the main point of attack in 
education. This tended in various ways to bring about a bad state of 
affairs. It not only handicapped labor but brought it in contempt. 
Wise men began to see that there was something wrong. They found 
that only the upper part of the ma.n was being educated, particularly 
hie head. So they set about to devise bow the lower part, the hand, 
could be given a better chance, or, to state the matter more fully, how 
education could be made to embrace the whole man— his head, hand 
and heart. So they hit on manual training— a very excellent device 
as time has shown— which is rapidly becoming a part of the courses 
of the public schools, not as a department, but as a part of the regular 
courses. This covers the two main objects of a liberal education 
given by the schools and colleges, which I conceive should be to 
properly store, invigorate and train the mind to use all its powers 
and resources to the best advantage, and to discover its natural 
aptitudes. The teaching of specialties properly belongs to the pro- 
fessional and technical schools. 

Manual training consists, as you know, of the care of tools and a 
great variety of exercises in wood, iron, and machine (and construc- 
tion) work for boys; and needlework, cooking, and other domestic 
duties for girls, to go along with the usual or an altered literary 
course. The first part of manual training being in the kindergarten 


and is carried all through the school courses, ending with the high 
school. Who can doubt the great usefulness of such a training of the 
bead and the hand together, as the pupil advances from one course 
to another through all the years of his or her school life? 

In the manual work of the boys, the hammer, saw and square, 
may be called the three R's; in the sewing of the girls, the needle, 
scissors and measuring tape; and in their cooking, boiling, stewing 
and baking, all of which correspond in importance to the three R's 
of the literary course. A mastery of what these nineRs involve is of as 
much consequence to our boys and girls, so far as their welfare in life 
is concerned, as the mastery of the three R's in the literary course* 
At the same time they are gaining skill in the use of their hands and 
tools, in a hundred ways they are also acquiring both knowledge 
and language, being required to learn the nature of the materials 
they handle, to measure, draw, draft, weigh, and compare, and so 
their minds are developed, strengthened, and broadened, and last, 
but not least, things are made to appear in their proper light and 
relations,' thus bringing the theoretical and the practical side of 
existence into more perfect harmony, a misapprehension of which has 
been the shipwreck of all too many. 

As to the time required for such courses as above mentioned, I 
should Say, if they are properly carried out, it will take five or six 
years, possibly longer, to complete them. As to the conditions, iu.the 
first place, they must be thorough; second, outside work should no 
more interfere with their progress than it is allowed to with the 
literary work ; and third, no financial return should be expected from 
the work done. 

In view of the foregoing facts, I therefore place the highest value 
on manual training as a means of getting our boys and girls ready for 
their industrial careers, for the following reasons : It is rational, 
because it begins at the start just as is done in the literary course ; it 
has the great advantage of breadth and variety; it gives the average 
boy and girl a more thorough training, and as the great bulk of the 
world's work is done by the average man and woman, the world will 
be better for it; it enables pupils to better adapt themselves to 
changing circumstances when they leave school; it reveals that for 
which they are best fitted, and to know that is half the success in any 
calling ; it greatly increases individual usefulness ; it will give (to my 
mind) a better training than our pupils are now receiving under the 
present system ; it allows great diversity in the training of the hand, 
which is far better than to narrow down its skill to any single line of 
work during the greater part of a boy or girl's school life ; it is econ- 
omical, since teachers are being trained to teach both the manual and 
literary course; and lastly, manual training graduates, without any 
special preparation, take their place alongside old hands in the trades 
and generally get excellent wages. 

I will now close with a few words on the teaching of trades. For 


fifty years this question of trade teaching has perplexed the heads of 
our schools. It has never yet been settled with satisfaction, and in 
all probability never will. 

I think the great trouble has been in attempting to teach too 
many trades instead of their mechanical principles, which is the very 
thing that manual training aims to accomplish. Industrial and trade 
schools aside, there does not seem to be much of a tendency these 
days to trade teaching in the schools. It is just the other wav— i. e., 
more thorough all-round training, which will enable the young man 
and woman of the future to meet the emergencies of life in whatever 
form they may come. If I am not seriously mistaken, the legality of 
trade teaching in the schools has even.been questioned . 

The great variety and excellence of the work done in wood and 
iron, including machine work, by the manual training schools of 
Chicago, was a great surprise to me. The superintendent of one of 
the leading schools as much as said to me, "It is all there," when I 
asked him what he thought of teaching a trade ; and surely it looked 
like it. 

A former foreman of the shoe-shop in one of our schools, recently 
told me that out of seventy-three boys ,who had worked under him, 
only about five made a living out of shoemaking. 

This is but a single instance, which goes to show how few follow 
up in life the trade they worked at while in school. Many doubt if a 
trade can be successfully taught away from its environments ; and, in 
proof of this, I know that the shops are often blamed by pupils after 
they leave school, for not doing what it was hardly possible for them 
to do. 

In regard to shoemaking, I would suggest the addition of a course 
in leather work to the manual work of the boys, and the introduction 
of the factory system, so that, after leaving school, all who desire 
may be prepared to do repairing, or start on elementary work in the 
leather line, or enter the shoe factories. 

As printing will always be carried on in our schools, it will find 
plenty of adherents among both boys and girls, as their capabilities 
are developed in the earlier stages of the manual work. 

In these closing remarks, I do not wish to be understood as dis- 
couraging trade teaching further than the nature of the case will 
justify, but advocating what I sincerely believe to be something 
better for the larger part of the school life of our boys and girls ; for 
I hold that, where one has acquired a good knowledge of mate- 
rials and dexterity in the handling of both material and tools, there 
is little more to master in a trade than accuracy, rapidity, and the 
tricks that belong t\> it. 

Mr. E. A. Hodgson, of New York, presented his paper on 
"The Bread and Butter Problem," which was read orally l»y 
Mr. J. P. Walker. 



In almost every State throughout the land, institutions have heen 
erected and are operated for the purpose of solving the problem of 
universal prosperity. Their sphere is to educate and train the deaf 
for the exigencies of life. Circumstances and conditions are so 
varied, that no iron-clad method or procedure will suit every emer- 
gency. Consequently, while all follow a well-established system in 
a general way, still the modifications dictated by environment, pre- 
vent any two from being precisely alike. 

It may be taken as an axiom that the mind, morals, courage, and 
physical being having been properly cultivated and firmly established, 
a certain degree of success in life is assured. But, although success 
would eventually come from the possession of these characteristics, 
the individual would simply be at the starting point, so far as useful- 
ness in the world is concerned. They arc but the foundation which 
industry and energy must work upon. To make the work of educa- 
tion more peYfect, the progress greater, and the attainment of 
successful results more speedy, it has been found advisable to include 
an industrial training, whereby, through a system of instruction in 
trades specially selected and adapted, the deaf, on entering the world, 
are fitted to at once take their place as wage earners side by side with 
their hearing brethren. This system of education was first begun in 
schools for the deaf, but during recent years the practical side of 
education has been widely adopted in schools and institutes for the 
hearing. At the next term of Gallaudet College, a technical depart- 
ment will be inaugurated, and the star graduates of our institutions, 
who have hitherto taken the college course for the benefit that accrues 
from a higher education, will in future have a wider field of opportu- 
nity by reason of the training in different specialties which this new 
departure at the college will afford. As the years go by, the demand 
for deaf college graduates as teachers of the deaf gradually diminishes, 
so it becomes necessary to look for other avenues of usefulness. 
Some of the college graduates have followed the trade they learned at 
the Institution before entering the college, and although it is a fact 
that the college education has made them better workmen, still it is 
not in keeping with the aspirations which prompted them to take the 
college course. 

Itis not the star graduate, however, that requires most attention. 
He is always able to of himself. It is the mass of the deaf; 
whose highest effort while at school has resulted in mere mediocrity. 
They, especially, are dependent upon the trades which they have fol- 
lowed in the industrial department. To make them successful at 
these trades, it is imperative that they should not only perform the 
"mechanical operations with dexterity, but also have a complete men- 
tal comprehension of them. Mere routine will not suffice. Explana- 
tion and instruction are of vital importance, so that they may be 
lifted above the level of half-educated workmen. The causes that 


conspire to defeat this end are many ; but first, and greatest of all, is 
the idea prevalent among the pupils that the industrial departments 
are not strictly educational in character, hut are designed that the 
institution may profit by the results of their labor. They are taught 
language in the school rooms, but in most instances they do not get 
exercise in colloquial language in the shops. If such instruction were 
insisted upon, and the trade instructor plainly told that the equivalent 
of material and labor was of less moment than the progress of his 
charges, there would be les6 physical exertion and more mental 
calculation in the trade school, which would result in better progress 
in the class room and superior workmen on the day of graduation. 
Thus the "bread and butter problem" would be satisfactorily solved, 
for the desideratum would be reached — a trained intelligence and a 
fund of useful knowledge, coupled with habits of thought, habits of 
industry, ability of expression, precision and dexterity in execution. 
It is easily apparent that the future well-being of the great 
majority of the deaf depends in a large measure upon the teachings 
of the trade school. The selection of trades is, therefore, of great 
importance. Their adaptibility to the demands of different sections 
of the country should be taken into consideration. In the far West, 
for instance, there will be fewer opportunities for a printer than for a 
farmer. So also in regard to other trades, the proportion of opportu- 
nities for remunerative employment will be found to vary. The 
Annals gives over a score of trades taught at the different institutions 
for the deaf. Among those that enter into the school training of 
most of the institutions, we find printing, cabinet-making, carpentery, 
shoe-making, tailoring, and farming. x 

Taking them in the order named, printing has been proved of 
great value, because it not only opens an avenue to a comfortable 
livelihood, brft possesses the merit of cultivating the mind and making 
the improvement in school studies more rapid and easy. In a paper 
read at the last convention of the Empire State Association, I set 
forth the educational value of the printing office at some length, and 
will not weary you by a repetition. Machinery is doing a great deal 
in the mechanical part of the "art preservative" but it is only adapted 
to "plain" or "straight" composition, which, as every first-class 
printer knows, is only a fraction of the work required of a printer, 
and is, moreover, the class of work which high-grade compositors are 
seldom called upon to do. The howl about type-setting machines 
comes from those who left school before their term was finished, and , 
went forth into the world with but a dim knowledge of any kind of 
type-setting. There is, and always will be, a demand for first-class 
printers. I do not know one graduate of the printing department of 
the New York Institution who has failed to get remunerative employ- 

Carpentery and cabinet-mi'.king are indissolubly linked together, 
and the wisdom of educating hoys in this branch of work can not be 
gainsaid. There is nothing that gives a young man greater confidence 


in bis ability to earn an independent living than a knowledge of tbe 
uses of tools and dexterity in using them. The training of the mind 
to measure and calculate, and the precision of the eye that is devel- 
oped, combine to make that trade a groundwork for any number of 
occupations, and open a vast variety of fields for useful and profitable 
employment. The addition of upholstery to this branch would im- 
prove its value. 

Shoemaking is becoming of less value to the deaf in the cities of 
the East. It hardly pays to teach a boy how to make a shoe by the 
old methods. Factory methods are imperative, otherwise, with few- 
exceptions, the graduates of this trade must learn it all over again. 
One thing can be said in defence of shoemaking, and that is, that it 
requires a very small amount of capital to start in business for 
oneself, and a cobbler shop well conducted can earn enough to keep 
the proprietor and his family in comparative comfort. 

Tailoring does not seem to me adapted to the needs of the deaf 
who live in big cities. The thousands following this trade, who work 
from dawn to midnight for a bare pittance, sufficiently attests the 
correctness of my view. The "sweat shops" of New York are a 
perpetual reminder of the cheap labor competition which a deaf man 
must encounter. The more intelligent pupils do not take to this 
trade, and its usefulness is confined to the less bright, who would 
otherwise bring up in the rear in any of the other trades. 

The great' obstacle in selecting trades to be taught at institutions, 
is that the difficulty of keeping them in operation is almost insuper- 
able, or the cost is so great as to preclude their introduction. A 
money profit from the trade schools should never be looked for, 
neither should continuous waste of money and material be considered 
justifiable. Among the trades which I consider practical and which 
would open up innumerable avenues for the exercise of hand and 
ingenuity of construction, is that of bookbinding. Making the covers, 
covering books, and working in leather and cloth, practice the hand 
to perform with deftness the operations in other trades, such as 
pocketbook making and the manufacture of plush and leather 
novelties. As to its practicability in schools for the deaf, there is 
always a good deal of work in re-covering and strengthening text- 
books, literary books, and binding magazines, periodicals and files of 
newspapers, and fastening in compact form letters and other records 
that must necessarily be- preserved for future reference. When this 
work is not sufficient to keep the pupils busy, the ruling and making 
of blank books could be utilized to fill up the time. Such work 
exercises the highest skill of the binder, and the product can be 
readily disposed of at prices consistent with the cost of the material. 
Embossing, stamping and gilding, are branches of this trade that 
bring good pay to the expert. A good book-binder can always make 
a living. 

And now we come to the honest farmer. There is no occupation so 
replete with the peace and comforts of life as that of tilling the soil 


and reaping the harvest. Spine people see in farming only the labor 
and the sweat of the brow. But to manage a farm requires a greater 
or less degree of instruction in the science of cultivation. This is 
especially so in what are called truck farms. The rotation pf crops, 
the remedies for garden pests, the methods of fertilization and plant- 
ing, all require an extended training. Then there is the raising of 
poultry, the care of live stock, both of which are necessary to obtain 
the full returns for the value of land. Away from the worry and 
turmoil of city life, a prosperous farmer experiences that content- 
ment which only the green fields and growing crops and evenings of 
restful enjoyment can produce. The farmer is the sinew ofthe nation. 
We could not get along without him. May he increase and multiply 
and always prosper, and the country will be safe. 

"Ill fares the laud, to hastening ills a prey, 
Where wealth accumulates and men decay : 
Princes and lords may flourish and may fade, 
A breath can make them, as a breath has made — 
But a bold peasantry, their country's pride, 
When once destroyed can never be supplied." 

The Auditing Committee, composed of Messrs; Jones, 
Cloud, and Koehler, reported that they had found the Treas- 
urer's report correct. Report accordingly was accepted. 

Mr. Cloud, chairman of the Executive Committee, called 
a meeting of the Committee for the afternoon. 

Mr. Hasenstah moved that a committee be appointed to 
prepare a plan of organization and federation as outlined in 
President Fox'r address, and that it report on Friday. 
Messrs. Cloud, Hodgson and Koehler were appointed to act 
in that capacity. 

After the announcement of the Excursion for the next 
day, the meeting adjourned at 1: 10 p. ni. 


Zbirt Das, ffrfOas, June 26tb. 

The proceedings of the day were opened with prayer by 
Rev. Philip J. Haeenstab. 

Mr. Jones, N. Y.. moved to dispense with the reading 
of the minutes of the two preceding days. Mr. Balis, 
Canada, seconded the motion and it passed without discus- 

Rev. Thomas Gallaudet read orally and Rev. J. M. 
Koehler signed the latter's paper on 



I can claim little originality for the contents of this paper, which 
have been culled largely from the proceedings of the recent Congresses 
of 'the Deaf and Dumb in Great Britain. It was my privilege to 
attend the Congress held at Glasgow in 1891, and the one in Dublin 
last summer, and to meet the representative deaf-mutes from all parts 
of the United Kingdom, with many of their foremost educators and 
others interested in their welfare. 

The attendance at these meetings was not so large as we are 
accustomed to see at our Conventions, but what was lacking in this 
respect was more than made up by the enthusiasm and earnestness 
(if those present ; and I may say that for zeal in good works and true 
helpfulness these meetings have not been surpassed by any yet held 
in our own country. 

The past two years have been marked as an epoch in the history 
of deaf-mute education in England. The new Cross School at Black- 
burn and the. new buildings of the Midland Institution at Derby were 
opened within this period. 

The foundation (in 1392) of the Cross School, due largely to the 
instrumentality of Mr. J. G. Shaw, editor of the Blackburn Times and 
present Headmaster of the School, marked the centenary of the 
establishment of public schools for the deaf in the United Kingdom ; 
but while the establishment of English schools antedates that of 
America by many years, our schools are so far in advance Of those of 
Great Britain that comparison seems invidious. But our success is 
due largely to state aid which until recently was lacking in England. 
The liberality of our governments, local, state, and national, towards 
our schools for the deaf has become proverbial; in Great Britain, on 
the other hand, private charity has supplemented local School Boards 
in providing for the needs of deaf-mutes. 


In 1894, however, an Act of Parliament came into force which has 
completely revolutionized and nationalized the work of deaf-mute 
education. This act provided, 1. for compulsory attendance; 2. for 
financial support; 3. for Government inspection. The law allows 
local school boards to pay two-thirds of the cost of tuition and main- 
tenance of deaf-mute children at the nearest Institution. The 
remaining one-third is raised by the Board of Management. One 
excellent and beneficial result of this law, coupled with the one com- 
pelling attendance, has had the effect of filling to their utmost capac- 
ity the old established institutions in the Kingdom, besides finding 
scholars for new voluntary schools at Preston, Birmingham, Aston, 
Cardiff, Hull, Plymouth, and other populous centers. The majority of 
these schools are day schools provided by the local school boards and 
maintained by the rate payers. So great was the influx of new pupils 
under this act of Parliament that many of the Institutions were 
obliged to turn away almost as many as they could accommodate, and 
several of them provided for boarders outside of the walls of the 
institutions. In London, where for years the local school boards had 
made every possible provision fo.r the education of the deaf and 
dumb, there was an increase of over 100 in the number of pupils. In 
addition, new institutions, erected at public expense, are under way 
or about completed in London, Leeds, and North Staffordshire. 
There is not one school in all Great, Britain now that has room to 
spare. This result has been brought about largely through the efforts 
of the deaf themselves. They not only petitioned the Government, 
but aided in every way the work of the Royal Commission appointed 
to investigate their needs ; and when the recommendations of the 
Commission were put into effect by Act of Parliament, the Heaf made 
every effort to see that its provisions were fully carried out. For this 
they are entitled to a larger meed of praise than has yet been accorded 
to them. But they are not content. They desire that their system 
of education be completed by the establishment of a National College 
like our own at Washington, and their efforts in that direction bid 
fair to be crowned with success within a comparatively short time. 

While the oral method of instructing the deaf prevails most 
largely in English schools, the educated deaf-mutes of England are 
almost to a man in favor of signs in and out of school— especially for 
the purpose of social intercourse, mental improvement and religious 
enjoyment. The testimony submitted at the Congress in Dublin, as 
at those held before, was unanimous in favor of the use of signs. As 
one speaker expressed it at Dnblin ! "If the sentiment of educated 
semi-mutes and deaf-mutes were taken, the majority in favor of signs 
would be overwhelming." No matter what the system or method of 
instruction, "signs were certain to be used after school life ended ;" 
and this accords so fully with our own opinions in the matter that 
further comment would seem superfluous. 

Our English cousins are unfortunate, however, in not having, 
like us, a uniform system of signs. Tn no two schools is the manual 


vernacular alike, except in the universal use of the double-hand 
alphabet. This in due, in part, to the selfishness of the original 
English teachers who refused to impart to others what they them- ' 
selves had originated or acquired ; and, in part, to the prevalence of 
the oral method of instruction. Teachers unable to communicate 
orally with their pupils originated arbitrary signs which in time 
became fixed in their vernacular ; and, there being no common ground, 
it happens that the structures differ as much as do those of civiliza- • 
tion and barbarism. As Professor Draper said in his admirable 
address on Wednesday, "the pupils of all oral schools use signs when 
not under surveillance. * * The children under duress in 
one school invent and use a code of signs ; those in another school, 
another." Thus the language of signs is "broken up into discordant 
dialects" or becomes "a broken or blunted tool.'' 

Educational matters aside, our English brethren are not other- 
wise negligent of their duties to themselves and each other. With 
them, as with us, the problems connected with physical, mental, 
moral, and religious development are weighty matters of conference 
and discussion, and they have accomplished much along these lines. 
Everywhere are found missions and societies having the welfare of 
the adult deaf and dumb at hea